Approaching the Extrinsic Etiopathogenesis of Behcet’s Disease: Can Microbes Prompt This Ailment?

Behçet’s disease (BD) is a multisystem idiopathic vasculitis that demonstrates multi-systematic manifestations of which mucosal, ocular, gastrointestinal and vascular manifestations come atop. Since autoimmunity cannot fully explain BD, it is recently considered midway between auto inflammation and autoimmunity. Ironically, the serological test of anti-nuclear antibody (ANA) is usually negative. Autoantibodies, furthermore, do not play a significant role in aggravating the condition, nor do B cells [1].

To date, intrinsic etiology of BD are mostly leveled at a defective HLA-B51 allele with or without tumor necrosis factor and MHC class I chain related alleles [2] whereas extrinsic factors include local geographical influence [3], pertaining to the Silk Road: an ancient trading route between the Mediterranean and East Asia, and contagious microbial involvement. Again, all these controversial allegations are rebuttable by the unquestionable hitting of BD in genetically-free cases, outside the geoepidemiological territory. Recently, open-label clinical trials in Japan and Turkey have shown infliximab to be effective in ocular Behçet’s disease [4]. Other treatment modalities combine steroids with colchicine, interferon (IFN)-α, cyclosporine, or azathioprine [5] or recruit Dapsone [6,7]. Azathioprine [8], interferon (IFN)-α [9] and three anti-TNF-α compounds, infliximab, adalimumab, and etanercept, have shown favorable results on preliminary tests [10,11]. Recently, Davatchi., et al. [12] concluded that rituximab is efficient in severe ocular manifestations of BD. Scanning theses therapeutic agents, there appears no mainstay treatment line. This reflects the inconclusive understanding of BD etiopathogenesis.ecbvr-img1

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Biocontrol and Other Beneficial Activities of Bacillus subtilis Strains Isolated From Cow Dung, Soil Compost and Soil Rhizosphere Microflora

Biocontrol is process by which naturally occurring microorganisms inhibits or suppress the growth of many pathogens which affects plant growth. Disease suppression by biocontrol agents is the sustained manifestation of interactions among the plant, the pathogen, the biocontrol agent, the microbial community on and around the plant, and the physical environment [1,2]. Biological control of fungal diseases of plants is eco-friendly and is a potential component of integrated disease management [3]. There has been a steady increase in commercially prepared and marketed bacterial bio products based on rhizobacteria such as Bacillus, Pseudomonas, Streptomyces, Rhizobium,ecbvr-img5and Agrobacterium species.

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