This objective of this editorial article is to revisit the conventional concepts on feeding systems practiced in modern ruminant agriculture production. Total mixed ration (TMR) is a type of preparation that aims to ensure that a nutritionally balanced diet containing forage and concentrate is such uniformly mixed that any bout taken by the ruminant represents the diet calculated on paper. However, this definition is not met in more than many practical scenarios on-farm mainly due to carelessly adopted forage particle size, inappropriately chosen forage choice, inadequate dietary moisture, suboptimal feed items mixing, and considerable particle selection in the bunk.
Eight AFLP selective primer combinations were used to detect smut resistant markers in different sugarcane resistant and susceptible sugarcane mutants generated from sugarcane variety GT 54-9 using Gamma radiation. AFLP amplification using the eight primer pairs resulted in a total 390 scorable bands with an average of 48.75 bands per primer combination. The selective primer combination E-ACC/Tru-CTG was the only one able to distinguish between the resistant and susceptible mutants by the amplification of two bands ≈ 110-120 bp bands in resistant sugarcane mutants.
The naturally circumneutral soils of Edirne Province, Turkey, are acidify with increasing use of ammonium sulfate fertilizers. Soil pH governs both the availability of nutrients and the solubility of Al which becomes toxic to plants when exceeding 1 ppm. The average pH of the soils under wheat/ sunflower rotation was 5.11 while average Al, Ca and Mg concentrations were 3.34, 1094.01 and 174.28 ppm, respectively. For over half of the fields, average alumi-num contents of the soils exceeded 1 ppm, the toxicity threshold for plants. Al concentrations were negatively cor-related with pH (r2 =-0.402, p<0.0003). Ca, and Mg concentrations were positively correlated with pH values (r2 =0.320, p<0.0008; r2 =0.213, p<0.008, respectively). Ca and Mg, were correlated to Al as a power law with an expo-nent of 0.25 (r2 =0.293, p<0.001; r2 =0.557, p<0.0001, respectively).