Research Article
Volume 7 Issue 4 - 2021
Structure and Species Composition Analysis of Shaban Forest Zarghun Mountains, Quetta-Pakistan
Dad Muhammad* and Ateeq Ullah Kakar
Department of Botany, University of Baluchistan, Quetta, Pakistan
*Corresponding Author: Dad Muhammad, Department of Botany, University of Baluchistan, Quetta, Pakistan.
Received: July 23, 2021; Published: September 29, 2021




Abstract

Structure and species composition of Shaban Juniper forest, was analysed. The study was conducted during June and July 2019, twenty-five stands were sampled. The aim of this research indicates the associated flora, density ha-1, basal area m2 ha-1, size class structure, sex distribution and physicals condition and soil analysis. On the basis of average relative frequency values herbs (57%), shrubs (31%) and grasses (12%) were accounted across all the sampling stands. The mean density of Juniper trees (> 6 cm DBH) was (152 ± 63) ha-1 with a range from (26 - 269) trees ha-1 and with a mean of (58 ± 16) basal area m2 ha-1. Density and basal area of Juniper trees were poorly correlated (r = 0.148) at significant level (p < 0.05). Density of seedling (< 6 cm DBH) also varied among the stands and range from (21-231) individuals ha-1 with a mean of (96 ± 65) individuals ha-1. The combined data display a balanced size class structure. Sex ratio indicated male (51%) predominance, followed by female (32%) while bisexual was (17%) in a population. In the present condition Juniperus excelsa showed an adequate recruitment and does not confront any immediate danger, however if grazing stops in the future. Soil variables were free from salinity, calcareous in nature and basic in reactions.

 

Keywords: Density and Basal Area; Ground Flora; Size Class Frequency; Sex Distribution; Physical Condition and Soil Analysis

References

  1. Sheikh MI. “Afforestation in Juniper forests of Ziarat, Balochistan”. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition (1985): 46.
  2. Iqbal J., et al. “Vegetation Description of some Pine Forests of Shangl District of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Pakistan”. Journal of Biological Chemistry1 (2014): 83-88.
  3. Beg AR. “Preliminary study of vegetation of Quetta”. Proc. First. West Pakistan Range Management Conference, Pakistan Forest Institute, Peshawar (1966): 6-17.
  4. Changezi FH. “Soil-vegetation Relationship in wastelands around Quetta”. M.Sc. Thesis, Baluchistan University, Quetta (1982).
  5. Khilji TM. “Phyto-ecological studies in Quetta valley”. M.Sc. Thesis, Baloshistan, University, Quetta (1982).
  6. Kayani SA., et al. “Phytosociological studies in wasteland of Quetta -Pishin districts, Balochistan, Pakistan”. Pakistan Journal of Botany 16 (1984): 255-265.
  7. Khan AH and SM Hussain. “Ecological assessment of the closure in Quetta Division Forest, Hazarganji”. Pakistan Journal of Botany 13 (1963): 167-193.
  8. Nisar M. “Phyto- ecological studies in Hazarganji National Park, Quetta”. M.Sc. Thesis, Baluchistan University. Quetta (1982).
  9. Tareen RB. “Phytosociology of the plain of Quetta District”. Pakistan Journal of Botany 19 (1984): 139-156.
  10. Ahmed S. “Phytosociological study of woodland communities of Hazarganji National Park, Quetta”. M.Sc. Thesis, Balochistan, University, Quetta (1984).
  11. Majeed A. “Phytosociological study of newly enclosed area of Hazarganji National Park, Quetta”. M.Sc. thesis, Balochistan, Univ. Quetta (1984).
  12. Champion GH., et al. “Forest types of Pakistan. Pakistan forest institute, Peshawar (1965): 238.
  13. Wahab M., et al. “Phytosociology and dynamics of some pine forests Of Afghanistan”. Pakistan Journal of Botany3 (2008): 1071-1079.
  14. Qadir SA and S Ahmed. “Phytosociology of woodland communities of Hazarganji National Park, Quetta”. Pakistan Journal of Botany1 (1989): 128-139.
  15. Ahmed M., et al. “Vegetation structure and dynamics of Pinus gerardiana forest in Balochistan”. Pakistan Journal of Vegetation Sciences 2 (1991): 119-124.
  16. Kakar AU., et al. “Structure and regeneration patterns of Pinus gererdiana (Wall. es Lamb) forest Zhob district, Balochistan, Pakistan”. International Journal of Biosciences (IJB)3 (2020): 103-114.
  17. Holdrige RLR. “Determination of wild plants formation from simple climate data”. Science 105 (1974): 130-457.
  18. Ahmed M., et al. “Population structure and Dynamics of Juniprus excelsa forest in Baluchistan, Pakistan”. The Journal of Vegetation Science 1 (1990): 271-276.
  19. Shah BH., et al. “Vegetation and soil relationship in some district of west Pakistan”. Pakistan Journal of Botany 14 (1964): 15-35.
  20. Ahmed M and SS Shaukat. “A text book of vegetation ecology”. Abrar Sons, New Urdu Baza, Karachi (2012): 396.
  21. Mueller-Dombois D and Ellenberg H. “Aims and methods of vegetation ecology”. John Wiley and Sons, New York (1974): 547.
  22. Stewart RR. “An annotated catalogue of the vascular plants of Pakistan”. In: Nasir, E. and Ai, S. (editons) flora of Pakistan. Karachi university publ., Karachi (1972).
  23. Bouyoucos GJ. “A relationship of hydrometer method for mechanical analysis of soil”. Journal of Agricultural 43 (1951): 434- 438.
  24. Hussain F. “Field and laboratory manual of ecology”. UGC, Islamabad (1989): 18-112.
  25. Jackson ML. “Soil analysis”. Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey (1962).
  26. Ahmed M and SA Qadir. “Phytosociological studies along the way of Gilgit to Gopis, Yasin and Shunder”. Pakistan Journal of Botany 26 (1976): 93-104.
  27. Rafiq and A Rubina. “A preliminary check list of plants of Hazar Gungi Chilton National Park management plan project”. WWW-Pakistan (1997).
  28. Sarangzai AM., et al. “The ecology and Dynamics of Juniferus excelsa forest in Balochistan, Pakistan”. Pakistan Journal of Botany5 (2012): 1617-1625.
  29. Shaheen H., et al. “Structural diversity, vegetation dynamics and anthropogenic impact on lesser Himalayan subtropical forest of Bagh district, Kashmir”. Pakistan Journal of Botany4 (2011): 1861-1866.
  30. Beg AR. “Survey of disease of conifers and selected hardwoods. Pakistan forest Institute, Peshawar. PL 480. Project a 17FSS 15”. Annual Technical Reports (1973): 7.
  31. Ahmed M., et al. “Vegetation structure of Olea ferruginea Royle forest of lower Dir district of Pakistan”. Pakistan Journal of Botany6 (2009): 2683-2695.
  32. Ward LK. “The conservation of Juniper longevity and oldage”. Journal of Applied Ecology 19 (1982): 917-928.
  33. Falinski JB. “Vegetation dynamics and sex structure of the population of pioneer dioecious woody plants”. Vegetation 43 (1980): 23-38.
Citation: Dad Muhammad and Ateeq Ullah Kakar. “Structure and Species Composition Analysis of Shaban Forest Zarghun Mountains, Quetta-Pakistan”. EC Agriculture 7.4 (2021): 16-27.

PubMed Indexed Article


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
LC-UV-MS and MS/MS Characterize Glutathione Reactivity with Different Isomers (2,2' and 2,4' vs. 4,4') of Methylene Diphenyl-Diisocyanate.

PMID: 31143884 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6536005


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Alzheimer's Pathogenesis, Metal-Mediated Redox Stress, and Potential Nanotheranostics.

PMID: 31565701 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6764777


EC Neurology
Differences in Rate of Cognitive Decline and Caregiver Burden between Alzheimer's Disease and Vascular Dementia: a Retrospective Study.

PMID: 27747317 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5065347


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Will Blockchain Technology Transform Healthcare and Biomedical Sciences?

PMID: 31460519 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6711478


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Is it a Prime Time for AI-powered Virtual Drug Screening?

PMID: 30215059 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133253


EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Analysis of Evidence for the Combination of Pro-dopamine Regulator (KB220PAM) and Naltrexone to Prevent Opioid Use Disorder Relapse.

PMID: 30417173 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6226033


EC Anaesthesia
Arrest Under Anesthesia - What was the Culprit? A Case Report.

PMID: 30264037 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6155992


EC Orthopaedics
Distraction Implantation. A New Technique in Total Joint Arthroplasty and Direct Skeletal Attachment.

PMID: 30198026 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6124505


EC Pulmonology and Respiratory Medicine
Prevalence and factors associated with self-reported chronic obstructive pulmonary disease among adults aged 40-79: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2012.

PMID: 30294723 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6169793


EC Dental Science
Important Dental Fiber-Reinforced Composite Molding Compound Breakthroughs

PMID: 29285526 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5743211


EC Microbiology
Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites Among HIV Infected and HIV Uninfected Patients Treated at the 1o De Maio Health Centre in Maputo, Mozambique

PMID: 29911204 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5999047


EC Microbiology
Macrophages and the Viral Dissemination Super Highway

PMID: 26949751 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4774560


EC Microbiology
The Microbiome, Antibiotics, and Health of the Pediatric Population.

PMID: 27390782 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4933318


EC Microbiology
Reactive Oxygen Species in HIV Infection

PMID: 28580453 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5450819


EC Microbiology
A Review of the CD4 T Cell Contribution to Lung Infection, Inflammation and Repair with a Focus on Wheeze and Asthma in the Pediatric Population

PMID: 26280024 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4533840


EC Neurology
Identifying Key Symptoms Differentiating Myalgic Encephalomyelitis and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome from Multiple Sclerosis

PMID: 28066845 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5214344


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Paradigm Shift is the Normal State of Pharmacology

PMID: 28936490 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5604476


EC Neurology
Examining those Meeting IOM Criteria Versus IOM Plus Fibromyalgia

PMID: 28713879 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5510658


EC Neurology
Unilateral Frontosphenoid Craniosynostosis: Case Report and a Review of the Literature

PMID: 28133641 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5267489


EC Ophthalmology
OCT-Angiography for Non-Invasive Monitoring of Neuronal and Vascular Structure in Mouse Retina: Implication for Characterization of Retinal Neurovascular Coupling

PMID: 29333536 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5766278


EC Neurology
Longer Duration of Downslope Treadmill Walking Induces Depression of H-Reflexes Measured during Standing and Walking.

PMID: 31032493 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6483108


EC Microbiology
Onchocerciasis in Mozambique: An Unknown Condition for Health Professionals.

PMID: 30957099 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6448571


EC Nutrition
Food Insecurity among Households with and without Podoconiosis in East and West Gojjam, Ethiopia.

PMID: 30101228 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6086333


EC Ophthalmology
REVIEW. +2 to +3 D. Reading Glasses to Prevent Myopia.

PMID: 31080964 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6508883


EC Gynaecology
Biomechanical Mapping of the Female Pelvic Floor: Uterine Prolapse Versus Normal Conditions.

PMID: 31093608 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6513001


EC Dental Science
Fiber-Reinforced Composites: A Breakthrough in Practical Clinical Applications with Advanced Wear Resistance for Dental Materials.

PMID: 31552397 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6758937


EC Microbiology
Neurocysticercosis in Child Bearing Women: An Overlooked Condition in Mozambique and a Potentially Missed Diagnosis in Women Presenting with Eclampsia.

PMID: 31681909 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824723


EC Microbiology
Molecular Detection of Leptospira spp. in Rodents Trapped in the Mozambique Island City, Nampula Province, Mozambique.

PMID: 31681910 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824726


EC Neurology
Endoplasmic Reticulum-Mitochondrial Cross-Talk in Neurodegenerative and Eye Diseases.

PMID: 31528859 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6746603


EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Can Chronic Consumption of Caffeine by Increasing D2/D3 Receptors Offer Benefit to Carriers of the DRD2 A1 Allele in Cocaine Abuse?

PMID: 31276119 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6604646


EC Anaesthesia
Real Time Locating Systems and sustainability of Perioperative Efficiency of Anesthesiologists.

PMID: 31406965 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6690616


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
A Pilot STEM Curriculum Designed to Teach High School Students Concepts in Biochemical Engineering and Pharmacology.

PMID: 31517314 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6741290


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Toxic Mechanisms Underlying Motor Activity Changes Induced by a Mixture of Lead, Arsenic and Manganese.

PMID: 31633124 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6800226


EC Neurology
Research Volunteers' Attitudes Toward Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and Myalgic Encephalomyelitis.

PMID: 29662969 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5898812


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy for Alzheimer's Disease.

PMID: 30215058 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133268


News and Events


December Issue Release

We always feel pleasure to share our updates with you all. Here, notifying you that we have successfully released the November issue of respective journals and the latest articles can be viewed on the current issue pages.

Submission Deadline for Upcoming Issue

ECronicon delightfully welcomes all the authors around the globe for effective collaboration with an article submission for the upcoming issue of respective journals. Submissions are accepted on/before December 23, 2022.

Certificate of Publication

ECronicon honors with a "Publication Certificate" to the corresponding author by including the names of co-authors as a token of appreciation for publishing the work with our respective journals.

Best Article of the Issue

Editors of respective journals will always be very much interested in electing one Best Article after each issue release. The authors of the selected article will be honored with a "Best Article of the Issue" certificate.

Certifying for Review

ECronicon certifies the Editors for their first review done towards the assigned article of the respective journals.

Latest Articles

The latest articles will be updated immediately on the articles in press page of the respective journals.