Conceptual Paper
Volume 1 Issue 1 - 2014
Global Business Development through Well Trained Manpower - Using Vocational Education as Powerful Tool
Jaspal Singh Chadha
Manager Administration & Liaison, Welingkar Institute of Management Research & Development, India
*Corresponding Author: Jaspal Singh Chadha, Manager Administration & Liaison, Delhi Office, Welingkar Institute of Management Research & Development, 1.Ring Road, Second Floor, Above IndusInd Bank, New Delhi – 110024, India.
Received: December 11, 2014; Published: December 22, 2014
Citation: Jaspal Singh Chadha. “Global Business Development through Well Trained Manpower - Using Vocational Education as Powerful Tool”. EC Business Management 1.1 (2014): 1-13.
"Global Business Development" to be considered as one hub i.e. "United World" having different regions, religions, business and development of all Economies of these countries joining this noble cause of "Business Development". The total effort need to be focused on "Global Skills Development" of the "younger generation" for this "United Business Development". The effective ways to be considered are changing the "pattern of Educational System" through which the emphasis need to be given on "reducing the gape between the manpower developed and manpower" suitable for the Business activities. The best solution to this problem is adoption of "Vocational Education System as necessary tool at the 8+ Level" which will make available the required manpower in a very short span of time.
This would help the younger generation to start working for the economy on one hand without getting the higher qualification and getting frustrated of not having job suitable to their qualification. On other hand this system would help them to acquire and update their qualifications as and when needed.
Keywords: Global Business Development; United one World; Global Skills Development; Younger generation; United Business Development; Pattern of Educational System; Reducing the gap between the manpower developed and manpower suitable for Business Environment; Adoption of Vocational Education System as necessary tool
i.   India has a population of over 1155 Million and a workforce of around 510 million, to be able to provide employment to such a large number of people, the numbers of which is more than the entire population of countries like USA, is more than a daunting task and is going to get even more challenging with the population growing by more than 2% every year.
ii.    With the current levels of unemployment being around 46 millions it is likely to grow to anywhere between 50-60 million in the next 8-10 years. To put his in perspective, these numbers are more than the entire population of countries like France, Italy and The United Kingdom.
iii.    In terms of demographics almost 35% of Indians are younger than 15 years of age, whilst 18% fall within the age group of 15-24. The median age of India is 24 years, which makes it one of the youngest populations in the world. This in itself throws up huge challenges in terms of demands on the education and employment systems.
iv.    Over 200 million students enroll for school in Class I each year, but only 20 million of these are able to finish Class XII, which is only 10 % of the entire intake or in other words 90 % of the school students drop out at different stages. This signifies that a large number of people who drop-out of school do not have the necessary education and skills to be productively employed in the industry. This is over and above the 100 mn children who have no access to schooling.
v.    Sixty percent of India's workforce is self-employed, many of who remain very poor. Nearly 30 per cent are casual workers (i.e. they work only when they are able to get jobs and remain unpaid for the rest of the days). Only about 10 per cent are regular employees, of which two-fifths are employed by the public sector. More than 90 per cent of the labour force is employed in the "unorganized sector", i.e. sectors which don't offer with the social safety and other profit of employment in the "organized sector."
vi.    India has one of the lowest levels of per capita income and productivity. The per capita income is 30,000 dollars in Japan, 879 dollars in Sri Lanka while it is only 433 dollars in India. Currently India’s per capita income is 7.5 per cent of the per capita income in developed countries. As per experts this needs to be increased to 80 per cent in half-a-century.
The overall labour productivity in India is $ 5.45 per person per hour while the figure for Mexico is $ 20.51. Apart from this 25% of the population is below the poverty line and across the entire population one third of the people cannot read or write.
Country China India
Population 1298 mn 1073 mn
Per Capita USD 890 USD 460
Below Poverty Line 5-10% 25-29%
Manufacturing as part of GDP (2002) 35% 15%
Productivity per person USD 6.88 USD 5.45
vii.    Around 55% of our population is supported by the agricultural sector, with the GDP contribution of this sector progressively declining; we see rural-urban migration causing significant problems. This is essentially due the fact that there are no relevant workplace skill sets in this segment and these numbers are likely to add to the urban poverty that is already a cause for concern.
• Employment skewed - agriculture 55%, services 28%, industry 17%
• At present rate of Urbanization, 46% of total population i.e. 634 mn people in urban regions of India by 2030-   (UN, 1998)
• Countries like Sri Lanka, Philippines & Bangladesh seizing international opportunities for employment
• Areas such as Agriculture, Construction, Travel & Tourism, Retail, Healthcare completely un-benchmarked   causing un-competitiveness
viii.    In the rural areas, agricultural workers form the bulk of the unorganized sector. In urban India, contract and sub-contracts as well as migratory agricultural labourers make up most of the unorganized labour force. Over 70 per cent of the labour force in all sector combined (organized and unorganized) is either illiterate or educated below the primary level
Skills void & implications
i.    We churn out 2.7 million graduates from colleges every year, yet we are unable to bring marketable workplace skills to the table.
ii.    This result in excessive demand for white-collar jobs that are unavailable in the numbers required. This skewed demand–supply situation also means that individuals are forced to accept jobs that are below their aspirations and are being paid less than commensurate remuneration, thus contributing to the already growing miasma of discontent and dissatisfaction.
iii.    Jobs are not growing at the same rate as the potential workforce and thereby breeding unemployment, which in turn is breeding discontent.
• Rise in educated unemployment leading to disaffected & disillusioned youth
• Education raising aspirations but not providing skills for commensurate level of jobs and remuneration causing   discontent
• The level of frustration a potential cause for Socio-economic backlash – insurgency & terrorism
• Global un-competitiveness of Industry/workforce/economy
• Excessive strain on urban public services causing urban un-sustainability
• Spatially imbalanced growth; sections of society disaffected & not partaking in economic growth
iv.    Should the current situation let to fester it could potentially lead to issues such as disaffected youth, increase in the rate of crime and anti-social activities to the extent of terrorism.
v.    Before these issues snowball into numbers that become unmanageable and circumvent all other efforts to put India on the path of progress and contribute towards disintegration of the social fabric of India via a social and economic backlash, this issue needs to be expeditiously and effectively addressed.
vi.    A prevalence of low skill levels among women is causing rise in unemployment rate for women.
vii.    The outmoded ITI network which was the flag bearer of technical and vocational education in India has failed to deliver. A growing realization of this has come about today, with a need for revamping the structure, syllabi, attitude and methodology of such training endeavours becoming imperative.
i.    Currently a few challenging obstacles that block our path to progress and productivity are undermining India’s potential. One of the key issues within this is lack of quality vocational skills; due to which we find Indians not being able to find employment. At the same time educated labour that is devoid of quality work place skills is causing a drag on productivity and quality of the Indian Industry and Economy, which except in certain pockets is amongst the lowest in the world.
ii.    The Industry also suffers, as they are unable to find the required skilled manpower and have to expend huge resources to train & retrain employees before they can be put into productive capacities. This is attributable to the mismatch between what is taught and what the Industry requires. Currently, 17 ministries/departments run vocational educational training programmes to 28 lakh people.
iii.    Another major hurdle is the psychology or mind-set of Indian parent and students who are focused on pursuing degree qualifications and higher education without paying any attention to obtaining work place skills. What the average Indian fails to see is the linkage between Skills, Learning, Jobs and Productivity. One of the things that seem to be at the root of this matter is the archaic societal attitude fostered by our culture of looking down upon skilled workers, blue collared workers and craftsmen. The Indian society has not been able to escape and move out of this crippling paradigm.
iv.    Whilst one tries to dissect the problem to understand the roots of it one would see that a major contributory factor to this problem is the Indian psychology of having the degree fetish without acquiring any work place skills that lead to jobs and productivity. In the quest for white-collar jobs one is seen being pressurized by family and peers to acquire more and more educational qualifications, in turn leading to the neglect towards vocational skills.
v.    At the same time the notion of becoming a service driven economy and growth and development of the services being seen as the panacea of all ills is making us ignore the fact that more than 55% of our population is employed in the Agriculture sector. To imagine that this workforce without education and soft skills can become productive in the services economy seems to be an over ambitious notion.
vi.    It would seem to be logical and world over has been proved that the most apt opportunity for absorption of the surplus and displaced workers from the agri sector rests in the manufacturing sector. In any case for a country the size of India it would perhaps require optimum development of all sectors, Agriculture, Manufacturing and Services to be able to generate employment for the population and achieve the targets of growth. Therefore it is essential to not underestimate the importance of these sectors and their requirements.
i.   With the current low levels of productivity, employment and income, we need to exploit any and all opportunities to progress in these areas. Upgrading work place skills just provides such an opportunity to address these areas of concern.
ii.   Also with most of the developing economies having a sizeable ageing population that is leaving a void as they move out of the workforce, we see a huge opportunity for the Indian Citizens being potential front-runners in filling the gap. According to a recent newspaper report these numbers in the coming few years are as large as 8 mn in Japan, 17 mn in USA and almost 4% of the entire European population base. Should India not look at exploiting this, we could see this opportunity pass on to countries like China, Sri Lanka, etc.
iii.    Countries like Sri Lanka with a mere population of 20 Million have been extremely proactive at addressing this issue and through public-private partnerships have already taken lead by vigorously promoting vocational skills in their country. They have instituted and continue to support a framework of vocational training which allows their workforce to acquire globally benchmarked skills, thereby providing them with access to global job markets and the required mobility. Doing this they have been able to find a solution to the not only the unemployment situation in the country but have been able to deploy their youth effectively in gainful pursuits across the globe thus guarding against their resorting to terrorism and civil war.
To make World the ‘Skills Capita’ and to create a skilled and productive workforce that matches international standards of quality and productivity demands through integration of Vocation Education and Training (VET) with the main stream of Education System.
To institute a sustainable framework that would assist the younger generation of India, Industry across sectors in developing skills to international standards. To create a network for delivery of skill based training across the country that enables us to develop a multi collar workforce (Rust, Blue, Grey and White*) and enabling workers to move up the value chain. *CII Definitions
White-collar workforce
This includes salaried professionals such as doctors, pilots, IT Professionals, Lawyers or employees in administrative or clerical positions. Although more preferred in the Indian milieu, there is no shortage in this category in the country.
Grey collar workforce
The knowledge worker for the ever growing demand of a knowledge economy which includes not only Information and Communication Technology skills, but also such soft skills as problem solving, analytical, and effective communication skills are one example.
Blue Collar Workforce
A blue-collar worker is a member of the working class who performs manual labor and earns an hourly wage. Blue collar work may involve factory work, building and construction trades, law enforcement, mechanical work, maintenance or technical installations. These workers are required for shop floor work in manufacturing and the service sector.
Rust collar workforce
Skilled workers at the grass root level, currently in the unorganized and unbenchmarked sectors like, construction, agriculture and related trades. This segment is mainly comprised of school dropouts with no employable skills. The majority of Indian population is covered under this category
• Provide skills that connect directly to work and effectively address the Skills gap and unemployment resulting   thereof
• Help industry deliver internationally competitive performance by having access to locally available,   internationally benchmarked, skilled manpower trained in line with their requirements
• To impart skills through training, across sectors, based on a sustainable framework with consistency
• To involve the private sector in skills development through partnership in this project
The scope ranges across Industries and occupations including those in the field of Agriculture, BPO/ITeS, Construction, Care, Communication Skills, Engineering Skills, English and Spoken English, Electronics Repair and Servicing, Health & Community, Horticulture, Hospitality, Travel & Tourism, Mechanical Fitting, Motor Vehicle Engineering, Retail, Sales & Marketing, Security & Facilities Management, Telecommunications, etc.
Needs Analysis
There are areas that are relatively un-benchmarked and have tremendous potential to absorb greater manpower in productive areas and contribute significantly to the various economies of the World. Some of these sectors are sunrise sectors that are quickly moving towards assuming a sizeable, important role and responsibility in the global economy.
Industries that are moving rapidly forward and are up-scaling but at the same time are devoid of skill and quality benchmarks are those such as Construction, Retailing, Horticulture, Food Processing, Healthcare, Security, etc.
The challenge is to maintain competitiveness internationally by improving labour productivity in a cost-effective manner while minimising unemployment. With this objective in mind, we recommend primarily on increasing the proportion of highly skilled workers in the labour force by: up-skilling, re-skilling, improving the quality of the vocational systems, and engineering graduates, efforts to improve the take-up of further vocational education for disadvantaged groups, and establishing a more planned rural-urban migration.
Currently there are very little framework or bodies in place across the countries of the world that has taken on itself the onus to undertake efforts to further the cause of skill up gradation. This framework would link schools, vocational and university education qualifications into one national system.
i.    Localised approach. This looks at assessing local needs and using local framework to address the needs. This is to identify local needs for skills that also allow for local employment stemming the need for migration to urban centres.
ii.    Maximum Impact skills and sectors selected. The skill identification is done keeping in mind as to the skills that allow for the largest number of people to get meaning employment.
iii.    Skills for Women – (Hair Dressing, Beauty Therapy, Teaching, Driving, etc.).
iv.    Centrally administered ‘Train The Trainers’ to ensure quality of delivery and consistency.
v.    Placement assistance connecting candidates to jobs. This would be done by accessing the reach of various association bodies across its member companies and at the same time building a database of skilled manpower for potential employers to access.
vi.    Building pathway for international progression. The framework also recommends that certification should bring to the table the international recognition of various global they adhere to performance quality that they stand for.
vii.   Recognition of prior learning. If one has the skills or knowledge required for entry to, or credit towards, a qualification, but no degrees or qualification as proof, one can undertake a personal assessment. If successful, the person would be granted credit towards the qualification.
Features of the framework
i.   Across sectors and across the country. The Initiative addresses skills in all sectors and areas.
ii.    Short duration, focused and modular programs allow for quick and effective delivery of skills training. This allows a person to become productive relatively quickly at younger age i.e. XII Pass. The modular approach also means that he can add on to his portfolio of skills for vertical and horizontal progression. At the same time the content is focused to allow for dissemination of only relevant skill. The duration is decided taking into account the objectives and content of the constituent programs. Amongst other things it would be based on Employer-Employee needs, availability of Infrastructure and Equipment, Characteristics of the Training Content, etc.
iii.    To address these varying requirements of Industry and as mentioned above, the training programs would be of varied durations ranging from short courses (to more protracted ones (upto a year) depending on the skill and the requirements.
iv.    Practical hands on focus with minimum theoretical input. The theoretical input is only insofar as is required for effective practice of the skill. This effectively circumvents the disadvantage of illiteracy in many cases and provides open access to individuals with limited or no schooling with some bridge courses in English language etc.
v.    The practical hands on skills also allow for delivery in the local language, thereby allowing for provision of local trainers, congenial and effective delivery. This also means that as candidates become proficient they can become trainers to further cascade training to other candidates allowing for scalability.
vi.    The delivery of the program is flexible it could be full day, half day or week end programs. This would again be decided on availability of candidate’s spare time, availability of training infrastructure and spare capacities, etc.
vii.    Training could be delivered through a network of centres that could include Technical and Non-Technical Schools and Colleges industry centres, Training Organizations, Services. In addition, for practical training, laboratories of industries could be used as Training Sites for skill enhancement, where required.
Assessment & Evaluation
The assessments are independent of training and should be done by occupational specialists trained as assessors not from the training establishment. The assessments and evaluations should be done in keeping with the international standards and actual workplace requirements. All practical assessments should be carried out under the direct supervision of experts in the field of competency-based assessments.
The candidates should also have the provision to appear for an assessment independently without undertaking the training inputs under the Centres mutually agreed upon by the system and the user industry. They should appear for the competency based assessment and tests and upon qualification be awarded the certificate. At the same time the candidates who do not make the grade should be encouraged to enrol for the programs that deliver training in the respective competencies.
The candidate should be given the opportunity to reappear for the assessment even when he fails. The candidate thus, can appear for the up to a maximum of two times in a period of one year to succeed at the assessment. If the candidate fails the second attempt he would need to register again for the program.
All candidates that pass should be awarded by the nodal Certifying Registered Agencies The certificate shall ratify the performance of the candidate and the competency acquired. This certification would be a benchmark in itself and would imply that the holder of such certification is a competent practitioner in the respective skill at the level stated. It would also ratify the highest standards of skill that the incumbent has acquired at the respective level.
Quality Assurance
The quality assurance system would be an on-going process and should include a quality check at each stage of the delivery model. This begins from development of syllabi, identification of standards, counselling for candidates prior to registration, a screening test where required, interim tests, independent assessments, verification for consistency, quality audits, tamperproof certification and an-ongoing feedback loop from candidates and employers.
The framework aims at defining & setting skills, quality and productivity benchmarks that would put Indian industry and its members in the vanguard of skilled workforce economies. This endeavour provides a win-win platform to all the stakeholders involved in it.
i.   Allows candidates to acquire skills for employment and growth
ii.    Varying levels of performance due to internationally benchmarked skills
iii.    Movement from unorganised to organised sector
iv.    International mobility allows seizing global employment opportunities
i.    Filling the deficiency in the Industry skill set and qualified skilled manpower
ii.    Allows sourcing certified skilled manpower in line with actual workplace requirements
iii.    Increased Industrial performance in terms of quality & productivity
iv.    Enhanced Global Competitiveness
v.    Allows for benchmarking and facilitates structuring unorganized sectors
vi.    Assists in employee retention and morale building
The World
i.    The countries participating would in turn move towards being the skills capital of the world, which not only
       meets internal employment needs but also can provide trained manpower to the world
ii.    Reduction in unemployment at a significant & meaningful scale
iii.    Diffusion of Discontent and potential cause for socio-economic unrest
iv.    Planned rural-urban migration
v.    Balanced growth across sectors
vi.   Socio-economic integration of backward and remote areas
Recommendation for Vocational Qualification Framework.
Suggested Multi Entry & Exit Roadmap.
Proposed Framework.
Example of Occupational Standard /Competency Standard /Performance Standard for IT stream
Level 1/2 (xx hours)
Routine and predictable activities
Design, create and modify a range of business documents
Generate mass-mailing documents
Level 3/4 (xx hours)
Knowledge and skills to perform varied activities in a defined range with accountability for the quality of task outcomes
Set up and use indexes, cross-references, captions, tables of contents, bibliography
Set up and use footnotes and endnotes
Create, manage, revise, and distribute long documents and forms with appropriate protection
Use fields and calculations in documents
Set up templates
Level 5/6 (xx hours)
Selecting, adapting and transferring knowledge and skills to new environments. Capable of providing technical advice and some leadership in resolving problems
Create, edit and apply themes to documents
Create, modify and use templates
Present spreadsheet data in various graphical formats
Illustrate workflow using Smart Art graphics, Format and group graphic objects
Trace cells, Troubleshoot invalid data and formulas
Level 7/8  (xx hours)
Planning and initiation of alternative approaches to skills and take personal responsibility in performing complex operations or organizing others
Extract and use data from other applications that may be in differing file formats
Publish a worksheet to the Web
Import data from the Web
Create a web query
Structure workbooks with XML, Develop XML maps & Import and export XML data
Protect files, Set revision tracking, Merge workbooks, Administer digital signatures, Restrict document access
Level 9/10 (xx hours)
Analysis, diagnosis, design, planning, execution and evaluation across a broad range of technical and/or management functions
Levels for Document Management using Word Processing.
Level 1/2 (xx hours)
Routine and predictable activities
Construct a spreadsheet
Use formulas as required
Create, modify and format spreadsheets using the full range of the software formatting features including conditional formatting for example Hide /unhide/freeze rows and columns
Printing options to output a chart, worksheet, workbook, according to specifications
Using multiple worksheets and linking cells
Level 3/4 (xx hours)
Knowledge and skills to perform varied activities in a defined range with accountability for the quality of task outcomes
Use a variety of built-in functions (statistical, mathematical, text, logical, financial, date and time)
Manage and analyse data through using table capabilities.
Construct a model to undertake What If Analysis using Goal Seek/Solver/Scenario Manager
Create and use macros to automate processes
Set up templates with appropriate protection
Level 5/6 (xx hours)
Selecting, adapting and transferring knowledge and skills to new environments. Capable of providing technical advice and some leadership in resolving problems
Analyse Data Using PivotTables and Pivot Charts
Define and apply data filters
Use the sub-totalling feature
Present spreadsheet data in various graphical formats
Illustrate workflow using Smart Art graphics, Format and group graphic objects
Trace cells, Troubleshoot invalid data and formulas
Level 7/8  (xx hours)
Planning and initiation of alternative approaches to skills and take personal responsibility in performing complex operations or organizing others
Extract and use data from other applications that may be in differing file formats
Publish a worksheet to the Web
Import data from the Web
Create a web query
Structure workbooks with XML, Develop XML maps & Import and export XML data
Protect files, Set revision tracking, Merge workbooks, Administer digital signatures, Restrict document access
Level 9/10 (xx hours)
Analysis, diagnosis, design, planning, execution and evaluation across a broad range of technical and/or management functions
Levels for Data Analysis using Spreadsheets.
Ey Sectors Where Vocational Skills Are Required
i.   Agriculture
       • Tropical Agriculture
       • Agro-processing
       • Horticulture
       • Animal Husbandry
       • Floriculture
ii.   General Engineering Skills
       • Welding
       • Turning
       • Milling
iii.   Garment and Hosiery
iv.   Travel & Tourism
v.   Hospitality
       • Food preparation and culinary arts
       • Food and beverage service
       • Reception and operations
       • Housekeeping
vi.   Telecommunications
vii.   Computer Skills
viii.   BPO
       • Communications and soft skills
       • Customer Service
ix.  Construction
       • Brick Laying
       • Painting & Decorations
       • Timber vocations
       • Plumbing
       • House wiring & electrical installations
x.  Air Conditioning and Refrigeration
xi.  Hair Dressing
xii.  Beauty Therapy
xiii.  Health, Community and Social care
xiv.  Motor Vehicle Engineering
xv.  Sales & Marketing
xvi.  Office Management & Secretarial practice
xvii.  Logistics and Distribution
xviii.  Printing & DTP
Level Skills Required Skill Gaps
Executives (Voice
Functional Skills Functional Skills
Ability to handle enquiries Inadequate process compliance
Computer/key board skills Lack of attention to details
Attention to details Lack of understanding of basic quality initiatives
Basic process knowledge and ability to provided technical support Lack of understanding of information security and privacy issues
Ability to meet turnaround time requirements Lack of aptitude for multi-skilling
Soft Skills Soft Skills
Adequate communication skills Inadequate communication skills
Active listening skills Lack of aptitude for multi-skilling
Ability to understand accents  
Ability to empathise with customers  
Aptitude to undertake repetitive work  
Skills required and skill gaps in the BPO sector (as per NSDC report).
The article is focused on the Skilled Manpower need of the various countries of the World. As Skilled Manpower is the Back-Bone of any Economy because they contribute through the industry development of the countries be it manufacturing or service sector.
Planning Commission Government of India's website and the Document of IX Planning Commission Document.
Copyright: © 2014 Jaspal Singh Chadha. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

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EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
A Pilot STEM Curriculum Designed to Teach High School Students Concepts in Biochemical Engineering and Pharmacology.

PMID: 31517314 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6741290

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Toxic Mechanisms Underlying Motor Activity Changes Induced by a Mixture of Lead, Arsenic and Manganese.

PMID: 31633124 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6800226

EC Neurology
Research Volunteers' Attitudes Toward Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and Myalgic Encephalomyelitis.

PMID: 29662969 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5898812

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy for Alzheimer's Disease.

PMID: 30215058 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133268

News and Events

November Issue Release

We always feel pleasure to share our updates with you all. Here, notifying you that we have successfully released the November issue of respective journals and the latest articles can be viewed on the current issue pages.

Submission Deadline for Upcoming Issue

ECronicon delightfully welcomes all the authors around the globe for effective collaboration with an article submission for the upcoming issue of respective journals. Submissions are accepted on/before December 09, 2022.

Certificate of Publication

ECronicon honors with a "Publication Certificate" to the corresponding author by including the names of co-authors as a token of appreciation for publishing the work with our respective journals.

Best Article of the Issue

Editors of respective journals will always be very much interested in electing one Best Article after each issue release. The authors of the selected article will be honored with a "Best Article of the Issue" certificate.

Certifying for Review

ECronicon certifies the Editors for their first review done towards the assigned article of the respective journals.

Latest Articles

The latest articles will be updated immediately on the articles in press page of the respective journals.