Review Article
Volume 4 Issue 1 - 2021
The Causes, Consequences, and Cures of Recurrent External Fungal Infections
Nicholas A Kerna1,2*, John V Flores3,4, Hilary M Holets3,4, Mark H Chen5, Lawrence U Akabike6, Shain Waugh7, Emmanuela Solomon8 and Uzoamaka Nwokorie9
1SMC–Medical Research, Thailand
2First InterHealth Group, Thailand
3Beverly Hills Wellness Surgical Institute, USA
4Orange Partners Surgicenter, USA
5For Your Health, LLC, USA
6Larrico Enterprises, LLC, USA
7Fettle Path, USA
8Obafemi Awolowo University, Nigeria
9University of Washington, USA
*Corresponding Author: Nicholas A Kerna, (mailing address) POB47 Phatphong, Suriwongse Road, Bangkok, Thailand 10500.
Received: November 30, 2020; Published: December 31, 2020


Superficial fungal infections affect greater than 20% of the global population. Only a few hundred (of the millions of fungi species) are capable of causing human infections. Moreover, superficial infections respond well to various over-the-counter products. However, resistance to specific anti-fungal medicines is developing. The skin surface is an ideal growth environment for dermatophytes, commonly found around public swimming pools, locker rooms, and showers. Transmission occurs through direct person-to-person contact or indirect contact through the handling of contaminated objects. Immunocompromised patients and those with active illnesses and diseases are at a greater risk for fungal and recurrent fungal infections. An individual’s genetic design may predispose them to specific fungal infections. Also, specific factors, such as cosmetics, body soaps, and other hygiene products, can alter the skin microbiome, predisposing the host to pathologic fungal infestation. This article reviews the etiology of external fungal infections and recurrent infections, considers susceptibility factors, and describes and evaluates currently available treatment options.

Keywords: Azole; Dermatophyte Infection; Immune Response; Mannan; Microbiome; Omics; Polyenes; Resistance; Targeted Sequencing


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Citation: Kerna NA, Flores JV, Holets HM, Chen MH, Akabike LU, Odugbemi O, Waugh S, Solomon E, Nwokorie U. “The Causes, Consequences, and Cures of Recurrent External Fungal Infections”.EC Clinical and Medical Case Reports 4.1 (2021): 49-59.

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