Short Communication
Volume 4 Issue 6 - 2021
Enhancing Embryo Survivality by CRISPR/Cas9 Mediated Editing of PTGFS Gene
S Mondal1*, IJ Reddy1, S Nandi1, PSP Gupta1, DN Das2 and D Malakar3
1ICAR-National Institute of Animal Nutrition and Physiology, Adugodi, Bangalore, Karnataka, India
2ICAR-National Dairy Research Institute (SRS), Bangalore, Karnataka, India
3ICAR-National Dairy Research Institute, Karnal, Haryana, India
*Corresponding Author: S Mondal, ICAR-National Institute of Animal Nutrition and Physiology, Adugodi, Bangalore, Karnataka, India.
Received: April 16, 2020; Published: May 28, 2021

Early embryonic mortality is one of the major factors of reproductive failure that causes considerable challenge to the livestock industry [1-11]. Indian livestock economics is seriously affected by embryonic wastages and hence its control is the greatest concern to the scientists and policy makers. It has been observed that more than 40% of the total embryonic mortality occurs between days 8 and 17 of pregnancy in bovine [12]. Embryonic losses are reported to be 20-30% in sheep and more than 70 - 80% of the total embryonic mortality occurs between days 8 and 16 of pregnancy [13]. The survivality of embryo during early embryonic life in mammals is mostly dependent on the concerted events where the uterus and terminally differentiated embryos exchange signals culminating in maternal recognition of pregnancy (MRP) [14]. The major reason for embryonic mortality is failure of cellular and molecular dialogues at embryo-uterine interface [15]. Understanding and unraveling the secrets of implantation, embryo development and reciprocal signaling networks between the embryo and uterus will lead to alleviation of the problems of infertility. The recent advances in molecular biology and biotechnology particularly functional genomics (DNAarrays) allowed identifying embryonic and maternal genes potentially involved in embryo survival. Validation of the functional involvement of genes identified requires extensive in vitro studies before in vivo therapy can be applied.


  1. Mondal S and Prakash BS. “Comparison of luteal function between cows and buffaloes during estrous cycle”. Indian Journal of Dairy Sciences3 (2002): 142-144.
  2. Mondal S., et al. “Progesterone and nucleic acid contents of buffalo corpus luteum in relation to stages of estrous cycle”. Indian Journal of Animal Sciences6 (2004): 710-712.
  3. Mondal S., et al. “Isolation and characterization of luteal cells in buffalo (Bubalus bubalis)”. Indian Journal of Physiology Pharmacology1 (2013): 1-6.
  4. Mondal S., et al. “Isolation, culture and characterization of endometrial epithelial cells in buffalo (Bubalus bubalis)”. Buffalo Bulletin2 (2009): 101-106.
  5. Mondal S., et al. “Isolation, culture and characterization of endometrial stromal cells in buffalo (Bubalus bubalis)”. Indian Journal of Animal Sciences12 (2010): 24-26.
  6. Nandi S., et al. “Effect of prostaglandin producing modulators on in vitro growth characteristics in buffalo endometrial epithelial cells”. Theriogenology 77 (2012): 1014-1020.
  7. Mondal S., et al. “Molecular characterization of FSH receptor (FSHR) gene in Indian river buffalo”. General and Comparative Endocrinology 158 (2008): 147-153.  
  8. Palta P., et al. “Peripheral inhibin levels in relation to climatic variations and stage of estrous cycle in buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis)”. Theriogenology5 (1997): 989-995.
  9. Mondal S., et al. “Endocrine aspects of estrous cycle in buffalo: an overview”. Asian Australasian Journal of Animal Science 1 (2007): 124-131.
  10. Ghosh J and Mondal S. “Nucleic acids and protein content in relation to growth and regression of buffalo corpora lutea”. Animal Reproduction Science 93 (2006): 316-327.
  11. Suresh K P., et al. “Factors affecting laboratory production of buffalo embryos: A meta-analysis”. Theriogenology 72 (2009): 978-985.
  12. Humblot P. “Use of pregnancy specific proteins and progesterone assays to monitor pregnancy and determine the timing, frequencies and sources of embryonic mortality in ruminants”. Theriogenology 56 (2001): 1417-1433.
  13. Michels H., et al. “Genetic variation of prenatal survival in relation to ovulation rate in sheep: a review”. Small Ruminant Research 29 (1998): 129-142.
  14. Mondal S., et al. “Genes Regulating Maternal Recognition of Pregnancy in Domestic Animals: an Update”. Brazilian Archives of Biology and Technology6 (2015): 854-863.
  15. Suresh A., et al. “Suppression of COX-2 mRNA abundance in in vitro cultured goat (Capra hircus) endometrial cells by RNA interference and effect on PGF2α and PGE2 concentrations”. Animal Reproduction Science 209 (2019): 1061-1066.
  16. Langenbach R., et al. “Prostaglandin synthase 1 gene disruption in mice reduces arachidonic acid-induced inflammation and indomethacin-induced gastric ulceration”. Cell 83 (1995): 483-492.
  17. Morham SG., et al. “Prostaglandin synthase 2 gene disruption causes severe renal pathology in the mouse”. Cell 83 (1995): 473-482.
  18. Narumiya S and FitzGerald GA. “Genetic and pharmacological analysis of prostanoid receptor function”. Journal of Clinical Investigation 108 (2001): 25-30.
  19. Madore E., et al. “An aldose reductase with 20µ hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activity is most likely the enzyme responsible for the production of prostaglandin F2µ in the bovine endometrium”. Journal of Biological Chemistry 278 (2003): 11205-11212.
  20. Lacroix Pepin N., et al. “Generation of human endometrial knockout cell lines with the CRISPR/Cas9 system confirms the prostaglandin F2α synthase activity of aldo-ketoreductase 1B1”. Molecular Human Reproduction 20 (2014): 650-663.
Citation: S Mondal., et al. “Enhancing Embryo Survivality by CRISPR/Cas9 Mediated Editing of PTGFS Gene”. EC Clinical and Medical Case Reports 4.6 (2021): 37-39.

PubMed Indexed Article

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
LC-UV-MS and MS/MS Characterize Glutathione Reactivity with Different Isomers (2,2' and 2,4' vs. 4,4') of Methylene Diphenyl-Diisocyanate.

PMID: 31143884 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6536005

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Alzheimer's Pathogenesis, Metal-Mediated Redox Stress, and Potential Nanotheranostics.

PMID: 31565701 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6764777

EC Neurology
Differences in Rate of Cognitive Decline and Caregiver Burden between Alzheimer's Disease and Vascular Dementia: a Retrospective Study.

PMID: 27747317 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5065347

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Will Blockchain Technology Transform Healthcare and Biomedical Sciences?

PMID: 31460519 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6711478

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Is it a Prime Time for AI-powered Virtual Drug Screening?

PMID: 30215059 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133253

EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Analysis of Evidence for the Combination of Pro-dopamine Regulator (KB220PAM) and Naltrexone to Prevent Opioid Use Disorder Relapse.

PMID: 30417173 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6226033

EC Anaesthesia
Arrest Under Anesthesia - What was the Culprit? A Case Report.

PMID: 30264037 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6155992

EC Orthopaedics
Distraction Implantation. A New Technique in Total Joint Arthroplasty and Direct Skeletal Attachment.

PMID: 30198026 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6124505

EC Pulmonology and Respiratory Medicine
Prevalence and factors associated with self-reported chronic obstructive pulmonary disease among adults aged 40-79: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2012.

PMID: 30294723 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6169793

EC Dental Science
Important Dental Fiber-Reinforced Composite Molding Compound Breakthroughs

PMID: 29285526 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5743211

EC Microbiology
Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites Among HIV Infected and HIV Uninfected Patients Treated at the 1o De Maio Health Centre in Maputo, Mozambique

PMID: 29911204 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5999047

EC Microbiology
Macrophages and the Viral Dissemination Super Highway

PMID: 26949751 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4774560

EC Microbiology
The Microbiome, Antibiotics, and Health of the Pediatric Population.

PMID: 27390782 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4933318

EC Microbiology
Reactive Oxygen Species in HIV Infection

PMID: 28580453 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5450819

EC Microbiology
A Review of the CD4 T Cell Contribution to Lung Infection, Inflammation and Repair with a Focus on Wheeze and Asthma in the Pediatric Population

PMID: 26280024 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4533840

EC Neurology
Identifying Key Symptoms Differentiating Myalgic Encephalomyelitis and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome from Multiple Sclerosis

PMID: 28066845 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5214344

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Paradigm Shift is the Normal State of Pharmacology

PMID: 28936490 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5604476

EC Neurology
Examining those Meeting IOM Criteria Versus IOM Plus Fibromyalgia

PMID: 28713879 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5510658

EC Neurology
Unilateral Frontosphenoid Craniosynostosis: Case Report and a Review of the Literature

PMID: 28133641 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5267489

EC Ophthalmology
OCT-Angiography for Non-Invasive Monitoring of Neuronal and Vascular Structure in Mouse Retina: Implication for Characterization of Retinal Neurovascular Coupling

PMID: 29333536 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5766278

EC Neurology
Longer Duration of Downslope Treadmill Walking Induces Depression of H-Reflexes Measured during Standing and Walking.

PMID: 31032493 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6483108

EC Microbiology
Onchocerciasis in Mozambique: An Unknown Condition for Health Professionals.

PMID: 30957099 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6448571

EC Nutrition
Food Insecurity among Households with and without Podoconiosis in East and West Gojjam, Ethiopia.

PMID: 30101228 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6086333

EC Ophthalmology
REVIEW. +2 to +3 D. Reading Glasses to Prevent Myopia.

PMID: 31080964 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6508883

EC Gynaecology
Biomechanical Mapping of the Female Pelvic Floor: Uterine Prolapse Versus Normal Conditions.

PMID: 31093608 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6513001

EC Dental Science
Fiber-Reinforced Composites: A Breakthrough in Practical Clinical Applications with Advanced Wear Resistance for Dental Materials.

PMID: 31552397 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6758937

EC Microbiology
Neurocysticercosis in Child Bearing Women: An Overlooked Condition in Mozambique and a Potentially Missed Diagnosis in Women Presenting with Eclampsia.

PMID: 31681909 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824723

EC Microbiology
Molecular Detection of Leptospira spp. in Rodents Trapped in the Mozambique Island City, Nampula Province, Mozambique.

PMID: 31681910 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824726

EC Neurology
Endoplasmic Reticulum-Mitochondrial Cross-Talk in Neurodegenerative and Eye Diseases.

PMID: 31528859 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6746603

EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Can Chronic Consumption of Caffeine by Increasing D2/D3 Receptors Offer Benefit to Carriers of the DRD2 A1 Allele in Cocaine Abuse?

PMID: 31276119 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6604646

EC Anaesthesia
Real Time Locating Systems and sustainability of Perioperative Efficiency of Anesthesiologists.

PMID: 31406965 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6690616

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
A Pilot STEM Curriculum Designed to Teach High School Students Concepts in Biochemical Engineering and Pharmacology.

PMID: 31517314 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6741290

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Toxic Mechanisms Underlying Motor Activity Changes Induced by a Mixture of Lead, Arsenic and Manganese.

PMID: 31633124 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6800226

EC Neurology
Research Volunteers' Attitudes Toward Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and Myalgic Encephalomyelitis.

PMID: 29662969 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5898812

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy for Alzheimer's Disease.

PMID: 30215058 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133268

News and Events

July Issue Release

We always feel pleasure to share our updates with you all. Here, notifying you that we have successfully released the July issue of respective journals and the latest articles can be viewed on the current issue pages.

Submission Deadline for Upcoming Issue

ECronicon delightfully welcomes all the authors around the globe for effective collaboration with an article submission for the upcoming issue of respective journals. Submissions are accepted on/before July 18, 2022.

Certificate of Publication

ECronicon honors with a "Publication Certificate" to the corresponding author by including the names of co-authors as a token of appreciation for publishing the work with our respective journals.

Best Article of the Issue

Editors of respective journals will always be very much interested in electing one Best Article after each issue release. The authors of the selected article will be honored with a "Best Article of the Issue" certificate.

Certifying for Review

ECronicon certifies the Editors for their first review done towards the assigned article of the respective journals.

Latest Articles

The latest articles will be updated immediately on the articles in press page of the respective journals.