Review Article
Volume 7 Issue 8 - 2020
Human Metabolic Syndrome as One of the Last Stages of Postembryonic Ontogenesis. Understanding Human Heart Diseases at Old Age
Alexander V Panov1,2* and Maria V Golubenko3
1Federal Scientific Center for Family Health and Human Reproduction Problems, Irkutsk, Russian Federation
2Mercer University, Augusta, GA, USA
3Research Institute of Medical Genetics, Tomsk National Research Medical Center of RAS, Tomsk, Russian Federation
*Corresponding Author: Alexander V Panov, Federal Scientific Center for Family Health and Human Reproduction Problems, Irkutsk, Russian Federation.
Received: July 07, 2020; Published: July 17, 2020




Abstract

Current definitions of metabolic syndrome give no idea of the origin and metabolic essence of this medical condition. We have provided arguments that from the point of view of the human post-embryonic ontogenesis, MetS may represent metabolic features of the post-reproductive stage of ontogenesis. At this stage, sexual hormones diminish their influence and energy metabolism in men and women becomes based on predominant utilization of fats and proteins. This proposition is confirmed by the facts that the menopause increases incidence of MetS in aging women. Moreover, in younger women, surgical menopause is strongly linked with a higher incidence of MetS [50]. Because the pressure of natural selection on the post-reproductive stage of ontogenesis was weak, the metabolic features at the post-reproductive stage resemble those of our distant ancestors. We suggest that major symptoms of MetS may originate from the mismatch between the genetically predetermined ancient metabolic pattern and the contemporary lifestyle with excessive consumption carbohydrates and insufficient physical activity of elderly people. Inclusion of ontogenesis into the mechanisms of aging and development of MetS might be helpful in finding pharmacological and non-pharmacological methods to slowdown development of these medical conditions.

Keywords: Human Metabolic Syndrome; Postembryonic Ontogenesis; Human Heart Diseases

References

  1. Julius U., et al. "Hyperinsulinemia in patients with low fractional catabolic rate of triglycerides". Acta Diabetologia Latina 18.3 (1981): 217-223.
  2. Huang PL. "A comprehensive definition for metabolic syndrome". Disease Models and Mechanisms 2.5-6 (2009): 231-237. 
  3. Grundy SM. "Metabolic syndrome: a multiplex cardiovascular risk factor". The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 92.2 (2007): 399-404. 
  4. Reaven GM. "Role of insulin resistance in human disease". Diabetes 37.12 (1988): 1595-1607.
  5. Reaven GM. "The metabolic syndrome: is this diagnosis necessary?" The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 83.6 (2006): 1237-1247.
  6. Zimmet P., et al. "The metabolic syndrome: a global public health problem and a new definition". Journal of Atherosclerosis and Thrombosis 12.6 (2005): 295-300. 
  7. Björntorp Per. "Abdominal obesity and the development of noninsulin‐dependent diabetes mellitus". Diabetes/Metabolism Reviews 4.6 (1988): 615-622. 
  8. Fujioka S., et al. "Improvement of glucose and lipid metabolism associated with selective reduction of intra-abdominal visceral fat in premenopausal women with visceral fat obesity". International Journal of Obesity 15.12 (1991): 853. 
  9. Nakamura T., et al. "Contribution of visceral fat accumulation to the development of coronary artery disease in non-obese men". Atherosclerosis 107.2 (1994): 239-246. 
  10. Koyama K., et al. "Tissue triglycerides, insulin resistance, and insulin production: implications for hyperinsulinemia of obesity". American Journal of Physiology-Endocrinology and Metabolism 273.4 (1997): E708-E713. 
  11. Misra A and Khurana L. "The metabolic syndrome in South Asians: epidemiology, determinants, and prevention". Metabolic Syndrome and Related Disorders 7.6 (2009): 497-514. 
  12. Vikram NK., et al. "Factor analysis of the metabolic syndrome components in urban Asian Indian adolescents". Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition 18.2 (2009): 293-300. 
  13. Poulsen P., et al. "Genetic versus environmental aetiology of the metabolic syndrome among male and female twins". Diabetologia 44.5 (2001): 537-543. 
  14. Groop L. "Genetics of the metabolic syndrome". British Journal of Nutrition 83.S1 (2000): S39-S48. 
  15. Bouchard G. "Genetics and the metabolic syndrome". International Journal of Obesity 19 (1995): S52-S59. 
  16. Wilmot EG., et al. "Sedentary time in adults and the association with diabetes, cardiovascular disease and death: systematic review and meta-analysis". (2012): 2895-2905. 
  17. Edwardson CL., et al. "Association of sedentary behaviour with metabolic syndrome: a meta-analysis". PloS one 7.4 (2012): e34916. 
  18. Sun K., et al. "Alcohol consumption and risk of metabolic syndrome: a meta-analysis of prospective studies". Clinical Nutrition 33.4 (2014): 596-602. 
  19. Ford ES., et al. "Prevalence of the metabolic syndrome among US adults: findings from the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey". The Journal of the American Medical Association 287.3 (2002): 356-359. 
  20. Anderson PJ., et al. "Factor analysis of the metabolic syndrome: obesity vs insulin resistance as the central abnormality". International Journal of Obesity 25.12 (2001): 1782-1788. 
  21. Stančáková A and Laakso M. "Genetics of metabolic syndrome". Reviews in Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders 15.4 (2014): 243-252.
  22. Harman D. "The aging process". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 78.11 (1981): 7124-7128. 
  23. Harman D. "Free radical theory of aging: consequences of mitochondrial aging". Age 6.3 (1983): 86-94. 
  24. Morris CW. “Academic Press dictionary of science and technology”. Gulf Professional Publishing (1992).
  25. Park Y-W., et al. "The metabolic syndrome: prevalence and associated risk factor findings in the US population from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1988-1994". Archives of Internal Medicine 163.4 (2003): 427-436.
  26. Carr MC. "The emergence of the metabolic syndrome with menopause". The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 88.6 (2003): 2404-2411. 
  27. Kim J-H., et al. “The relationship between leukocyte mitochondrial DNA contents and metabolic syndrome in postmenopausal women". Menopause 19.5 (2012): 582-587. 
  28. Baños G., et al. “Arachidonic Acid, Metabolic Syndrome and Alternative Therapeutic Agents". ARACHIDONIC ACID: 115. 
  29. Golubenko MV., et al. "Mitochondrial DNA polymorphism association with myocardial infarction and prognostic signs for atherosclerosis". Journal of Molecular Biology 49.6 (2015): 968-976.
  30. Park KS., et al. “A mitochondrial DNA variant at position 16189 is associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus in Asians”. Diabetologia 51 (2008): 602-608. 
  31. Liou CW., et al. “Mitochondrial DNA coding and control region variants as genetic risk factors for type 2 diabetes”. Diabetes 61.10 (2012): 2642-2651. 
  32. Marinou K., et al. "Young women partition fatty acids towards ketone body production rather than VLDL-TAG synthesis, compared with young men". British Journal of Nutrition 105.6 (2011): 857-865.
  33. Hodson L., et al. "Menopausal status and abdominal obesity are significant determinants of hepatic lipid metabolism in women". Journal of the American Heart Association 4.10 (2015): e002258.
  34. Stanley WC and Chandler MP. "Energy metabolism in the normal and failing heart: potential for therapeutic interventions". Heart Failure Reviews 7.2 (2002): 115-130.
  35. Panov AV. "Practical mitochondriology: pitfalls and problems in studies of mitochondria with a description of mitochondrial functions". Charlston, NC USA: Create Space (2015).
  36. Panov AV. "Synergistic oxidation of fatty acids, glucose and amino acids metabolites by isolated rat heart mitochondria". EC Cardiology 5 (2018): 198-208.
  37. Panov AV and Dikalov SI. "Mitochondrial Metabolism and the Age-Associated Cardiovascular Diseases". EC Cardiology 5 (2018): 750-769.
  38. Panov AV. "A New Look at the Causes of Heart Failure at Old Age". EC Cardiology 7.2 (2020): 01-07.
  39. Kim J-A., et al. “Role of mitochondrial dysfunction in insulin resistance". Circulation Research 102.4 (2008): 401-414.
  40. Ren J., et al. "Mitochondrial biogenesis in the metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease". Journal of Molecular Medicine 88.10 (2010): 993-1001.
  41. Panov A. "Perhydroxyl Radical (HO2•) as Inducer of the Isoprostane Lipid Peroxidation in Mitochondria". Molecular Biology 52.3 (2018): 295-305.
  42. Panov AV and Dikalov SI. "Cardiolipin, Perhydroxyl Radicals and Lipid Peroxidation in Mitochondrial Dysfunctions and Aging". Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity. In press. (2020)
  43. Brand MD. "The sites and topology of mitochondrial superoxide production". Experimental Gerontology 45.7-8 (2010): 466-472.
  44. Brand MD. "Mitochondrial generation of superoxide and hydrogen peroxide as the source of mitochondrial redox signaling". Free Radical Biology and Medicine 100 (2016): 14-31.
  45. Quinlan CL., et al. "Sites of reactive oxygen species generation by mitochondria oxidizing different substrates". Redox Biology 1.1 (2013): 304-312.
  46. Perevoshchikova IV., et al. "Sites of superoxide and hydrogen peroxide production during fatty acid oxidation in rat skeletal muscle mitochondria". Free Radical Biology and Medicine 61 (2013): 298-309.
  47. Gonzalez-Freire M., et al. "Reconsidering the role of mitochondria in aging". Journals of Gerontology Series A: Biomedical Sciences and Medical Sciences 70.11 (2015): 1334-1342.
  48. Quinlan CL., et al. "Mitochondrial complex II can generate reactive oxygen species at high rates in both the forward and reverse reactions". Journal of Biological Chemistry 287.32 (2012): 27255-27264.
  49. Panov A and Orynbayeva Z. "Determination of mitochondrial metabolic phenotype through investigation of the intrinsic inhibition of succinate dehydrogenase". Analytical Biochemistry 552 (2018): 30-37.
  50. Mumusoglu S and Yildiz BO. "Metabolic Syndrome During Menopause”. Current Vascular Pharmacology 17.6 (2019): 595-603.
Citation: Alexander V Panov and Maria V Golubenko. “Human Metabolic Syndrome as One of the Last Stages of Postembryonic Ontogenesis. Understanding Human Heart Diseases at Old Age”. EC Cardiology 7.8 (2020): 41-47.

PubMed Indexed Article


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
LC-UV-MS and MS/MS Characterize Glutathione Reactivity with Different Isomers (2,2' and 2,4' vs. 4,4') of Methylene Diphenyl-Diisocyanate.

PMID: 31143884 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6536005


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Alzheimer's Pathogenesis, Metal-Mediated Redox Stress, and Potential Nanotheranostics.

PMID: 31565701 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6764777


EC Neurology
Differences in Rate of Cognitive Decline and Caregiver Burden between Alzheimer's Disease and Vascular Dementia: a Retrospective Study.

PMID: 27747317 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5065347


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Will Blockchain Technology Transform Healthcare and Biomedical Sciences?

PMID: 31460519 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6711478


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Is it a Prime Time for AI-powered Virtual Drug Screening?

PMID: 30215059 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133253


EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Analysis of Evidence for the Combination of Pro-dopamine Regulator (KB220PAM) and Naltrexone to Prevent Opioid Use Disorder Relapse.

PMID: 30417173 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6226033


EC Anaesthesia
Arrest Under Anesthesia - What was the Culprit? A Case Report.

PMID: 30264037 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6155992


EC Orthopaedics
Distraction Implantation. A New Technique in Total Joint Arthroplasty and Direct Skeletal Attachment.

PMID: 30198026 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6124505


EC Pulmonology and Respiratory Medicine
Prevalence and factors associated with self-reported chronic obstructive pulmonary disease among adults aged 40-79: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2012.

PMID: 30294723 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6169793


EC Dental Science
Important Dental Fiber-Reinforced Composite Molding Compound Breakthroughs

PMID: 29285526 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5743211


EC Microbiology
Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites Among HIV Infected and HIV Uninfected Patients Treated at the 1o De Maio Health Centre in Maputo, Mozambique

PMID: 29911204 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5999047


EC Microbiology
Macrophages and the Viral Dissemination Super Highway

PMID: 26949751 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4774560


EC Microbiology
The Microbiome, Antibiotics, and Health of the Pediatric Population.

PMID: 27390782 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4933318


EC Microbiology
Reactive Oxygen Species in HIV Infection

PMID: 28580453 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5450819


EC Microbiology
A Review of the CD4 T Cell Contribution to Lung Infection, Inflammation and Repair with a Focus on Wheeze and Asthma in the Pediatric Population

PMID: 26280024 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4533840


EC Neurology
Identifying Key Symptoms Differentiating Myalgic Encephalomyelitis and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome from Multiple Sclerosis

PMID: 28066845 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5214344


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Paradigm Shift is the Normal State of Pharmacology

PMID: 28936490 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5604476


EC Neurology
Examining those Meeting IOM Criteria Versus IOM Plus Fibromyalgia

PMID: 28713879 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5510658


EC Neurology
Unilateral Frontosphenoid Craniosynostosis: Case Report and a Review of the Literature

PMID: 28133641 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5267489


EC Ophthalmology
OCT-Angiography for Non-Invasive Monitoring of Neuronal and Vascular Structure in Mouse Retina: Implication for Characterization of Retinal Neurovascular Coupling

PMID: 29333536 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5766278


EC Neurology
Longer Duration of Downslope Treadmill Walking Induces Depression of H-Reflexes Measured during Standing and Walking.

PMID: 31032493 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6483108


EC Microbiology
Onchocerciasis in Mozambique: An Unknown Condition for Health Professionals.

PMID: 30957099 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6448571


EC Nutrition
Food Insecurity among Households with and without Podoconiosis in East and West Gojjam, Ethiopia.

PMID: 30101228 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6086333


EC Ophthalmology
REVIEW. +2 to +3 D. Reading Glasses to Prevent Myopia.

PMID: 31080964 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6508883


EC Gynaecology
Biomechanical Mapping of the Female Pelvic Floor: Uterine Prolapse Versus Normal Conditions.

PMID: 31093608 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6513001


EC Dental Science
Fiber-Reinforced Composites: A Breakthrough in Practical Clinical Applications with Advanced Wear Resistance for Dental Materials.

PMID: 31552397 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6758937


EC Microbiology
Neurocysticercosis in Child Bearing Women: An Overlooked Condition in Mozambique and a Potentially Missed Diagnosis in Women Presenting with Eclampsia.

PMID: 31681909 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824723


EC Microbiology
Molecular Detection of Leptospira spp. in Rodents Trapped in the Mozambique Island City, Nampula Province, Mozambique.

PMID: 31681910 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824726


EC Neurology
Endoplasmic Reticulum-Mitochondrial Cross-Talk in Neurodegenerative and Eye Diseases.

PMID: 31528859 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6746603


EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Can Chronic Consumption of Caffeine by Increasing D2/D3 Receptors Offer Benefit to Carriers of the DRD2 A1 Allele in Cocaine Abuse?

PMID: 31276119 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6604646


EC Anaesthesia
Real Time Locating Systems and sustainability of Perioperative Efficiency of Anesthesiologists.

PMID: 31406965 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6690616


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
A Pilot STEM Curriculum Designed to Teach High School Students Concepts in Biochemical Engineering and Pharmacology.

PMID: 31517314 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6741290


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Toxic Mechanisms Underlying Motor Activity Changes Induced by a Mixture of Lead, Arsenic and Manganese.

PMID: 31633124 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6800226


EC Neurology
Research Volunteers' Attitudes Toward Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and Myalgic Encephalomyelitis.

PMID: 29662969 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5898812


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy for Alzheimer's Disease.

PMID: 30215058 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133268


News and Events


June Issue Release

We always feel pleasure to share our updates with you all. Here, notifying you that we have successfully released the June issue of respective journals and the latest articles can be viewed on the current issue pages.

Submission Deadline for upcoming Issue

Ecronicon delightfully welcomes all the authors around the globe for effective collaboration with an article submission for the upcoming issue of respective journals. Submissions are accepted on/before June 25, 2021.

Certificate of Publication

Ecronicon honors with a "Publication Certificate" to the corresponding author by including the names of co-authors as a token of appreciation for publishing the work with our respective journals.

Best Article of the Issue

Editors of respective journals will always be very much interested in electing one Best Article after each issue release. The authors of the selected article will be honored with a "Best Article of the Issue" certificate.

Certifying for Review

Ecronicon certifies the Editors for their first review done towards the assigned article of the respective journals.

Latest Articles

The latest articles will be updated immediately on the articles in press page of the respective journals.

Immediate Assistance

The prime motto of this team is to clarify all the queries without any delay or hesitation to avoid the inconvenience. For immediate assistance on your queries please don't hesitate to drop an email to editor@ecronicon.uk