Research Article
Volume 7 Issue 1 - 2020
How to Regulate for Human Physiological Functions by Fermented Material
Yuma Katoh1, Isao Horiuchi1, Hisako Izumi2 and Nobuo Yamaguchi2,3*
1Department of Respiratory Medicine, Tohkai Central Hospital, Gifu, Japan
2Ishikawa Natural Medicinal Products Research Center, Ishikawa, Japan
3Department of Fundamental Research for CAM, Kanazawa Medical University, Ishikawa, Japan
*Corresponding Author: Nobuo Yamaguchi, Department of Fundamental Research for CAM, Kanazawa Medical University, Ishikawa, Japan.
Received: November 29, 2019; Published: December 12, 2019




Abstract

Background: There are many fermented foods either botanical or vertebrate source everywhere in the world. We have been investigated the mechanism of action by these products why these are good for many physiological functions. However, the focus of the products seem to attract as nutritional point of view such as taste and flavor, but few was for biomedical point of view. 

Introduction: Fermentation process are close to digestive process by enzymes in digestive tract. However, we have found that there are difference between stating molecular weight for select to their destiny, digestion by the cleavage enzyme or pass through intestinal tube without attack by the digestive enzyme. The latter one is the fate of fermented material but full molecular original/natural food is not.

Material and Method: A malted rice were prepared by the microorganisms from plum flower (Enterococcus faecalis, MPF). This products were exhibited by safe in animal safety test. The trial was made to investigate the relation between the molecular styles and complement activation.

Results: Our results in animal model showed that MPF was the safe for the animal safety test. Four weeks after the administration, granulocyte and lymphocyte ratio was regulated as modulate and neutral. 

Conclusion: 

  1. A multi-molecular saccharide are attacked by digestive enzyme in digestive tract. 
  2. However, middle molecular saccharide, such as oligo-saccharide made by fermentation escape from digestive enzyme, when that introduced in digestive tract. 
  3. The molecular size less than oligo-saccharide could pass through intestinal barrier to the lymph.
  4. A multi-chained saccharide can activate alternative complement pass way.
  5. The activated complement fragments can augment many physiological function including craniological system.
  6. The activated fragment of alternative pathway Bf was proved by the immuno-precipitin method after electrophoresis of human serum. 

Keywords: Complement; Alternative Pathway; Multi-Molecular Sugar Chain; Fermentation; Digestive Tract; Malted Rice; Mono-Saccharide; Disaccharide; Oligo-Saccharide; Poly-Saccharide

References

  1. Kojima Y., et al. “Quantitative Aspect of Constitutive Regulation Intestinal Condition by Fermented Herbal Decoction through Permeability”. EC Paediatrics 8.8 (2019): 674-682.
  2. Yamaguchi N., et al. “Aspect of QOL Assessment and Proposed New Scale for Evaluation”. Open Journal of Immunology 5 (2015): 147-182. 
  3. Yamaguchi N., et al. “A Constitution Dependent Digital QOL Assessment”. EC Gynecology 8.5 (2019): 344-352.
  4. Kitada Y. “Regulation of peripheral white blood cells in numbers and functions through hot-spring bathing during a short term - studies in control experiments”. Journal of Japanese Society Balneology Climatology Physiological Medicine 63.3 (2000): 151-164.
  5. Kishida K., et al. “Cranial Irradiation and Lymphocyte Subpopulation in Acute Lymphatic Leukemia”. Journal of Pediatrics 92.5 (1978): 785-786.
  6. Yamaguchi N., et al. “Maternal Bias of Immunity to Her Offspring: Possibility of an Autoimmunity Twist out from Maternal Immunity to Her Young”. Open Journal of Rheumatology and Autoimmune Diseases 3 (2013): 40-55.
  7. Murgita RA and Tomasi Jr TB. “Suppression of the Immune Response by Alpha-Fetoprotein”. The Journal of Experimental Medicine 141.2 (1975): 269-286.
  8. Auerback R and Clark S. “Immunological Tolerance: Transmission from Mother to Offspring”. Science 189.4205 (1975): 811-813.
  9. Koshimo H., et al. “Maternal Antigenic Stimulation Actively Produces Suppressor Activity in Offspring”. Developmental and Comparative Immunology 13.1 (1989): 79-85.
  10. Zoeller M. “Tolerization during Pregnancy: Impact on the Development of Antigen-Specific Help and Suppression”. European Journal of Immunology 18.12 (1988): 1937-1943.
  11. Shinka S., et al. “Immunological Unresponsiveness in Mice. I. Immunological Unresponsiveness Induced in Embryonic Mice by Maternofetal Transfer of Human-Globulin”. Biken Journal 17.2 (1974): 59-72.
  12. Wacharaporn N. et al. “Contribution of Gamma amino butyric acid (GABA) to salt stress responses of Nicotiana sylvestris CMSII mutant and wild type plants”. Journal of Plant Physiology 169 (2012): 452-458.
  13. Thomas B., et al. “Gamma-aminobutyric acid and glutamic acid level sintheauditory pathway of rats with chronic tinnitus: a direct determination using high resolution point-resolved proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS)”. Frontier Systems Neuroscience 6 (2012): 1-12.
  14. Stoika RS., et al. “In Vitro Studies of Activation of Phagocytic Cells by Bioactive Peptides”. Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology 53.4 (2002): 675-688.
  15. Sim RB., et al. “Complement Research with 18th-21st Centuries: Progress come with new technology”. Immunobiology 22.1 (2016): 1037-1045.
  16. Elbim C., et al. “The Role of Phagocytes in HIV-Related Oxidative Stress”. Journal of Clinical Virology 20.3 (2001): 99-109.
  17. Aase J M., et al. “Mumps-Virus Infection in Pregnant Women and the Immunologic Response of Their Offspring”. The New England Journal of Medicine 286.26 (1972): 1379-1382.
  18. Cramer DV., et al. “Immunologic Sensitization Prior to Birth”. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 120.3 (1974): 431-439.
  19. Abo T., et al. “Studies on the Bioperiodicity of the Immune Response. 1. Circadian Rhythms of Human T, B and K Cell Traffic in the Peripheral Blood”. Journal of Immunology 126 (1981): 1360-1363.
  20. Abo T and Kumagai K. “Studies of Surface Immunoglobulins on Human B Lymphocytes. physiological Variations of Sig+ Cells in Peripheral Blood”. Clinical and Experimental Immunology 33 (1978): 4414-4452.
  21. Yamaguchi N., et al. “Overall Estimation of Anti-Oxidant Activity by Mammal Macrophage”. Open Journal of Rheumatology and Autoimmune Diseases 4.1 (2014): 13-21. 
  22. Yamaguchi N. “Rodent Macrophage Select Vin Blank Together with Vin Rouge According to SO Level in Situ”. Open Journal of Rheumatology and Autoimmune Diseases 4.4 (2014): 240-247. 
Citation: Nobuo Yamaguchi., et al. “How to Regulate for Human Physiological Functions by Fermented Material”. EC Cardiology 7.1 (2020): 01-11.

PubMed Indexed Article


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
LC-UV-MS and MS/MS Characterize Glutathione Reactivity with Different Isomers (2,2' and 2,4' vs. 4,4') of Methylene Diphenyl-Diisocyanate.

PMID: 31143884 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6536005


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Alzheimer's Pathogenesis, Metal-Mediated Redox Stress, and Potential Nanotheranostics.

PMID: 31565701 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6764777


EC Neurology
Differences in Rate of Cognitive Decline and Caregiver Burden between Alzheimer's Disease and Vascular Dementia: a Retrospective Study.

PMID: 27747317 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5065347


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Will Blockchain Technology Transform Healthcare and Biomedical Sciences?

PMID: 31460519 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6711478


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Is it a Prime Time for AI-powered Virtual Drug Screening?

PMID: 30215059 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133253


EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Analysis of Evidence for the Combination of Pro-dopamine Regulator (KB220PAM) and Naltrexone to Prevent Opioid Use Disorder Relapse.

PMID: 30417173 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6226033


EC Anaesthesia
Arrest Under Anesthesia - What was the Culprit? A Case Report.

PMID: 30264037 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6155992


EC Orthopaedics
Distraction Implantation. A New Technique in Total Joint Arthroplasty and Direct Skeletal Attachment.

PMID: 30198026 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6124505


EC Pulmonology and Respiratory Medicine
Prevalence and factors associated with self-reported chronic obstructive pulmonary disease among adults aged 40-79: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2012.

PMID: 30294723 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6169793


EC Dental Science
Important Dental Fiber-Reinforced Composite Molding Compound Breakthroughs

PMID: 29285526 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5743211


EC Microbiology
Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites Among HIV Infected and HIV Uninfected Patients Treated at the 1o De Maio Health Centre in Maputo, Mozambique

PMID: 29911204 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5999047


EC Microbiology
Macrophages and the Viral Dissemination Super Highway

PMID: 26949751 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4774560


EC Microbiology
The Microbiome, Antibiotics, and Health of the Pediatric Population.

PMID: 27390782 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4933318


EC Microbiology
Reactive Oxygen Species in HIV Infection

PMID: 28580453 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5450819


EC Microbiology
A Review of the CD4 T Cell Contribution to Lung Infection, Inflammation and Repair with a Focus on Wheeze and Asthma in the Pediatric Population

PMID: 26280024 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4533840


EC Neurology
Identifying Key Symptoms Differentiating Myalgic Encephalomyelitis and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome from Multiple Sclerosis

PMID: 28066845 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5214344


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Paradigm Shift is the Normal State of Pharmacology

PMID: 28936490 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5604476


EC Neurology
Examining those Meeting IOM Criteria Versus IOM Plus Fibromyalgia

PMID: 28713879 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5510658


EC Neurology
Unilateral Frontosphenoid Craniosynostosis: Case Report and a Review of the Literature

PMID: 28133641 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5267489


EC Ophthalmology
OCT-Angiography for Non-Invasive Monitoring of Neuronal and Vascular Structure in Mouse Retina: Implication for Characterization of Retinal Neurovascular Coupling

PMID: 29333536 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5766278


EC Neurology
Longer Duration of Downslope Treadmill Walking Induces Depression of H-Reflexes Measured during Standing and Walking.

PMID: 31032493 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6483108


EC Microbiology
Onchocerciasis in Mozambique: An Unknown Condition for Health Professionals.

PMID: 30957099 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6448571


EC Nutrition
Food Insecurity among Households with and without Podoconiosis in East and West Gojjam, Ethiopia.

PMID: 30101228 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6086333


EC Ophthalmology
REVIEW. +2 to +3 D. Reading Glasses to Prevent Myopia.

PMID: 31080964 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6508883


EC Gynaecology
Biomechanical Mapping of the Female Pelvic Floor: Uterine Prolapse Versus Normal Conditions.

PMID: 31093608 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6513001


EC Dental Science
Fiber-Reinforced Composites: A Breakthrough in Practical Clinical Applications with Advanced Wear Resistance for Dental Materials.

PMID: 31552397 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6758937


EC Microbiology
Neurocysticercosis in Child Bearing Women: An Overlooked Condition in Mozambique and a Potentially Missed Diagnosis in Women Presenting with Eclampsia.

PMID: 31681909 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824723


EC Microbiology
Molecular Detection of Leptospira spp. in Rodents Trapped in the Mozambique Island City, Nampula Province, Mozambique.

PMID: 31681910 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824726


EC Neurology
Endoplasmic Reticulum-Mitochondrial Cross-Talk in Neurodegenerative and Eye Diseases.

PMID: 31528859 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6746603


EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Can Chronic Consumption of Caffeine by Increasing D2/D3 Receptors Offer Benefit to Carriers of the DRD2 A1 Allele in Cocaine Abuse?

PMID: 31276119 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6604646


EC Anaesthesia
Real Time Locating Systems and sustainability of Perioperative Efficiency of Anesthesiologists.

PMID: 31406965 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6690616


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
A Pilot STEM Curriculum Designed to Teach High School Students Concepts in Biochemical Engineering and Pharmacology.

PMID: 31517314 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6741290


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Toxic Mechanisms Underlying Motor Activity Changes Induced by a Mixture of Lead, Arsenic and Manganese.

PMID: 31633124 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6800226


EC Neurology
Research Volunteers' Attitudes Toward Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and Myalgic Encephalomyelitis.

PMID: 29662969 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5898812


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy for Alzheimer's Disease.

PMID: 30215058 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133268


News and Events


June Issue Release

We always feel pleasure to share our updates with you all. Here, notifying you that we have successfully released the June issue of respective journals and the latest articles can be viewed on the current issue pages.

Submission Deadline for upcoming Issue

Ecronicon delightfully welcomes all the authors around the globe for effective collaboration with an article submission for the upcoming issue of respective journals. Submissions are accepted on/before June 25, 2021.

Certificate of Publication

Ecronicon honors with a "Publication Certificate" to the corresponding author by including the names of co-authors as a token of appreciation for publishing the work with our respective journals.

Best Article of the Issue

Editors of respective journals will always be very much interested in electing one Best Article after each issue release. The authors of the selected article will be honored with a "Best Article of the Issue" certificate.

Certifying for Review

Ecronicon certifies the Editors for their first review done towards the assigned article of the respective journals.

Latest Articles

The latest articles will be updated immediately on the articles in press page of the respective journals.

Immediate Assistance

The prime motto of this team is to clarify all the queries without any delay or hesitation to avoid the inconvenience. For immediate assistance on your queries please don't hesitate to drop an email to editor@ecronicon.uk