Research Article
Volume 20 Issue 7 - 2021
Prevalence, Reasons and Relative Risk Factors for Tooth Extraction in a Tertiary Care Hospital, Pakistan
Yousuf Moosa1, Syeda Natasha Zaidi2*, Junaid Shakeel3, Farzeen Tanwir4, Sumaira Rafique5 and Saima Mazhar6
1Associate Professor and HOD-Periodontology, Sir Syed College of Medical Sciences for Girls, Pakistan
2Senior Registrar, Department of Periodontology, Bahria University Medical and Dental College, Pakistan
3Assistant Professor-Oral and Maxillo facial Surgery, Sir Syed College of Medical Sciences for Girls, Pakistan
4Associate Professor and HOD-Periodontology, Bahria University Medical and Dental College, Pakistan
5Dental Surgeon, Fatima Dental and Maxillofacial Surgery, Pakistan
6Senior Registrar, Department of Periodontology, Bahria University Medical and Dental College, Pakistan
*Corresponding Author: Syeda Natasha Zaidi, Senior Registrar, Department of Periodontology, Bahria University Medical and Dental College, Pakistan.
Received: June 02, 2021; Published: June 25, 2021




Abstract

Objective: The aim of this study is to identify the cause and pattern of tooth extraction and its relative risk factors in our local population.

Study Design and Settings: This Cross-sectional study was performed in Department of Oral Surgery, Sir Syed Medical and Dental Hospital, Pakistan.

Methodology: Hundred and twenty participants were taken, placed on the incorporation and exception standards. These included the patients who reported in the out patient department of Oral Surgery, Sir Syed Medical and Dental Hospital, Karachi, Pakistan. Six months cross-sectional study was performed, from 1st January, 2019 to 31st December, 2019. Following the selection criteria, a number of 242 patients were selected with the age ranging from 15 years to 65 years. A detailed history was acquired from every patient, comprising of age of patient, gender of patient, systemic history etc. After thorough history and examination, following information was recorded in a proforma; age, sex, type of tooth extracted, purpose for extracting the tooth (caries, periodontal disease, trauma, orthodontics, pericoronitis, impactions, prosthesis, supernumerary teeth and failed root canal treatment), relative risk factors (uncontrolled diabetes mellitus, smokers).

Results: A total number of 242 patients underwent extraction of tooth in our study and 1149 dental extractions were performed in a period of 6 months. The average age of participants was ± 63.3 with a male predilection of 56.1% (136 patients). Most commonly extracted tooth was molar. Most common reason of tooth extraction were caries 592 teeth (51.5%), followed by periodontal diseases 411 teeth (35.7%), endodontic issues 81 teeth (7%), prosthetic reasons 35 teeth (3.5%) and due to previous treatment 30 teeth (2.6%). For relative risk factors: 69 patients (28.5%) were smokers and 56 patients (23.1%) were known diabetic. Both relative risk factors were present in 14 patients (5.7%).

Conclusion: Dental extractions were more common in males. Overall, the usual purpose of extracting the tooth was dental cavity. In younger age group, dental caries was the cause of tooth extraction predominantly and in elderly, periodontal diseases were the commonest causes of tooth extraction. Diabetes was a major risk factor for extractions. Good oral hygiene measures and better diabetic control can reduce the incidence of tooth extractions.

Keywords: Tooth Extraction; Relative Risk Factors; Dental Caries; Periodontal Diseases

References

  1. Alesia K and Khalil HS. “Reasons for and patterns relating to the extraction of permanent teeth in a subset of the Saudi population”. Clinical, Cosmetic and Investigational Dentistry5 (2013): 51-56.
  2. Passarelli PC., et al. “Reasons for Tooth Extractions and Related Risk Factors in Adult Patients: A Cohort Study”. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health7 (2020): 2575.
  3. Taiwo AO., et al. “Tooth extraction: Pattern and etiology from extreme Northwestern Nigeria”. European Journal of Dentistry3 (2017): 335-339.
  4. Nuvvula S., et al. “Primary culprit for tooth loss!!” Journal of Indian Society of Periodontology2 (2016): 222-224.
  5. Haseeb M., et al. “Causes of tooth extraction at a tertiary care centre in Pakistan”. Journal of Pakistan Medical Association8 (2012): 812-815.
  6. Medina-Solís CE., et al. “Principalesrazones de extracción de dientespermanentesenunamuestra de adultosmexicanos [Principal reasons for extraction of permanent tooth in a sample of Mexicans adults]”. Clinical and Translational Investigation2 (2013): 141-149.
  7. Montandon A., et al. “Prevalence and reasons for tooth loss in a sample from a dental clinic in Brazil”. International Journal of Dentistry (2012).
  8. Jafarian M and Etebarian A. “Reasons for extraction of permanent teeth in general dental practices in Tehran, Iran”. Medical Principles and Practice3 (2013): 239-244.
  9. Chrysanthakopoulos NA. “Reasons for extraction of permanent teeth in Greece: a five-year follow-up study”. International Dental Journal1 (2011): 19-24.
  10. Zee KY. “Smoking and periodontal disease”. Australian Dental Journal1 (2009): S44-50.
  11. Llambés F., et al. “Relationship between diabetes and periodontal infection”. World Journal of Diabetes7 (2015): 927-935.
  12. Lertpimonchai A., et al. “The association between oral hygiene and periodontitis: a systematic review and meta-analysis”. International Dental Journal6 (2017): 332-343.
  13. Spyros K., et al. “Euchnoteta kai aitiaexagogonmonimondontion se Hellenes astheneis. 2. Klinikostatistikeereuna 10 chronon (1978-1987) [Frequency and causes of extraction of permanent teeth. 2. Ten-year (1978-1987) clinicostatistical investigation]”. Odontostomatol Proodos 5 (1990): 339-349.
  14. Nasruddin J., et al. “Trends in tooth loss due to caries and periodontal disease by tooth type”. Singapore Journal of Dentistry 1 (1989): 39-41.
  15. Skarmoutsos N. “Aities kai paragontespouprokaloun ten apoleia ton dontion se eidikotmemaplethysmou [Reasons and factors which are causing tooth loss in the population of Greece]”. Nederlands Tijdschrift voor Tandheelkunde 3 (1988): 175-182.
  16. Nico HJC. “Oorzaken van het ontbreken van gebitselementen [Etiology of missing teeth]”. Nederlands Tijdschrift voor Tandheelkunde 5 (1999): 162-164.
  17. Adeyemo WL., et al. “Indications for extraction of third molars: a review of 1763 cases”. Nigerian Postgraduate Medical Journal 1 (2008): 42-46.
  18. Stabholz A., et al. “The reasons for tooth loss in geriatric patients attending two surgical clinics in Jerusalem, Israel”. Gerodontology2 (1997): 83-88.
  19. Vignarajah S. “Various reasons for permanent tooth extractions in a Caribbean population—Antigua”. International Dental Journal3 (1993): 207-212.
  20. Ctrnáctová B and Skalská H. “Prícinyextrakcístálýchzubůnaobvodnímstomatologickémpracovisti [Reasons for extraction of permanent teeth in a health community dentalcentre]”. PraktZubnLek5 (1990): 139-144.
  21. Baqain ZH., et al. “Dental extraction for patients presenting at oral surgery student clinic”. Compendium of Continuing Education in Dentistry3 (2007): 146-150.
  22. Anand PS., et al. “Trends in extraction of permanent teeth in private dental practices in Kerala state, India”. The Journal of Contemporary Dental Practice3 (2010): 041-048.
  23. Al-Shammari KF., et al. “Reasons for tooth extraction in Kuwait”. Medical Principles and Practice6 (2006): 417-422.
  24. Zadik Y., et al. “Analysis of factors related to extraction of endodontically treated teeth”. Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology, Oral Radiology, and Endodontology5 (2008): e31-35.
  25. Corbet EF and Davies WI. “Reasons given for tooth extraction in Hong Kong”. Community Dent Health1 (1991):121-130.
Citation: Syeda Natasha Zaidi., et al. “Prevalence, Reasons and Relative Risk Factors for Tooth Extraction in a Tertiary Care Hospital, Pakistan”. EC Dental Science 20.7 (2021): 30-36.

PubMed Indexed Article


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
LC-UV-MS and MS/MS Characterize Glutathione Reactivity with Different Isomers (2,2' and 2,4' vs. 4,4') of Methylene Diphenyl-Diisocyanate.

PMID: 31143884 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6536005


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Alzheimer's Pathogenesis, Metal-Mediated Redox Stress, and Potential Nanotheranostics.

PMID: 31565701 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6764777


EC Neurology
Differences in Rate of Cognitive Decline and Caregiver Burden between Alzheimer's Disease and Vascular Dementia: a Retrospective Study.

PMID: 27747317 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5065347


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Will Blockchain Technology Transform Healthcare and Biomedical Sciences?

PMID: 31460519 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6711478


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Is it a Prime Time for AI-powered Virtual Drug Screening?

PMID: 30215059 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133253


EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Analysis of Evidence for the Combination of Pro-dopamine Regulator (KB220PAM) and Naltrexone to Prevent Opioid Use Disorder Relapse.

PMID: 30417173 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6226033


EC Anaesthesia
Arrest Under Anesthesia - What was the Culprit? A Case Report.

PMID: 30264037 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6155992


EC Orthopaedics
Distraction Implantation. A New Technique in Total Joint Arthroplasty and Direct Skeletal Attachment.

PMID: 30198026 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6124505


EC Pulmonology and Respiratory Medicine
Prevalence and factors associated with self-reported chronic obstructive pulmonary disease among adults aged 40-79: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2012.

PMID: 30294723 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6169793


EC Dental Science
Important Dental Fiber-Reinforced Composite Molding Compound Breakthroughs

PMID: 29285526 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5743211


EC Microbiology
Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites Among HIV Infected and HIV Uninfected Patients Treated at the 1o De Maio Health Centre in Maputo, Mozambique

PMID: 29911204 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5999047


EC Microbiology
Macrophages and the Viral Dissemination Super Highway

PMID: 26949751 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4774560


EC Microbiology
The Microbiome, Antibiotics, and Health of the Pediatric Population.

PMID: 27390782 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4933318


EC Microbiology
Reactive Oxygen Species in HIV Infection

PMID: 28580453 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5450819


EC Microbiology
A Review of the CD4 T Cell Contribution to Lung Infection, Inflammation and Repair with a Focus on Wheeze and Asthma in the Pediatric Population

PMID: 26280024 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4533840


EC Neurology
Identifying Key Symptoms Differentiating Myalgic Encephalomyelitis and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome from Multiple Sclerosis

PMID: 28066845 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5214344


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Paradigm Shift is the Normal State of Pharmacology

PMID: 28936490 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5604476


EC Neurology
Examining those Meeting IOM Criteria Versus IOM Plus Fibromyalgia

PMID: 28713879 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5510658


EC Neurology
Unilateral Frontosphenoid Craniosynostosis: Case Report and a Review of the Literature

PMID: 28133641 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5267489


EC Ophthalmology
OCT-Angiography for Non-Invasive Monitoring of Neuronal and Vascular Structure in Mouse Retina: Implication for Characterization of Retinal Neurovascular Coupling

PMID: 29333536 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5766278


EC Neurology
Longer Duration of Downslope Treadmill Walking Induces Depression of H-Reflexes Measured during Standing and Walking.

PMID: 31032493 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6483108


EC Microbiology
Onchocerciasis in Mozambique: An Unknown Condition for Health Professionals.

PMID: 30957099 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6448571


EC Nutrition
Food Insecurity among Households with and without Podoconiosis in East and West Gojjam, Ethiopia.

PMID: 30101228 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6086333


EC Ophthalmology
REVIEW. +2 to +3 D. Reading Glasses to Prevent Myopia.

PMID: 31080964 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6508883


EC Gynaecology
Biomechanical Mapping of the Female Pelvic Floor: Uterine Prolapse Versus Normal Conditions.

PMID: 31093608 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6513001


EC Dental Science
Fiber-Reinforced Composites: A Breakthrough in Practical Clinical Applications with Advanced Wear Resistance for Dental Materials.

PMID: 31552397 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6758937


EC Microbiology
Neurocysticercosis in Child Bearing Women: An Overlooked Condition in Mozambique and a Potentially Missed Diagnosis in Women Presenting with Eclampsia.

PMID: 31681909 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824723


EC Microbiology
Molecular Detection of Leptospira spp. in Rodents Trapped in the Mozambique Island City, Nampula Province, Mozambique.

PMID: 31681910 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824726


EC Neurology
Endoplasmic Reticulum-Mitochondrial Cross-Talk in Neurodegenerative and Eye Diseases.

PMID: 31528859 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6746603


EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Can Chronic Consumption of Caffeine by Increasing D2/D3 Receptors Offer Benefit to Carriers of the DRD2 A1 Allele in Cocaine Abuse?

PMID: 31276119 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6604646


EC Anaesthesia
Real Time Locating Systems and sustainability of Perioperative Efficiency of Anesthesiologists.

PMID: 31406965 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6690616


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
A Pilot STEM Curriculum Designed to Teach High School Students Concepts in Biochemical Engineering and Pharmacology.

PMID: 31517314 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6741290


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Toxic Mechanisms Underlying Motor Activity Changes Induced by a Mixture of Lead, Arsenic and Manganese.

PMID: 31633124 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6800226


EC Neurology
Research Volunteers' Attitudes Toward Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and Myalgic Encephalomyelitis.

PMID: 29662969 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5898812


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy for Alzheimer's Disease.

PMID: 30215058 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133268


News and Events


October Issue Release

We always feel pleasure to share our updates with you all. Here, notifying you that we have successfully released the October issue of respective journals and the latest articles can be viewed on the current issue pages.

Submission Deadline for Upcoming Issue

Ecronicon delightfully welcomes all the authors around the globe for effective collaboration with an article submission for the upcoming issue of respective journals. Submissions are accepted on/before November 01, 2021.

Certificate of Publication

Ecronicon honors with a "Publication Certificate" to the corresponding author by including the names of co-authors as a token of appreciation for publishing the work with our respective journals.

Best Article of the Issue

Editors of respective journals will always be very much interested in electing one Best Article after each issue release. The authors of the selected article will be honored with a "Best Article of the Issue" certificate.

Certifying for Review

Ecronicon certifies the Editors for their first review done towards the assigned article of the respective journals.

Latest Articles

The latest articles will be updated immediately on the articles in press page of the respective journals.

Immediate Assistance

The prime motto of this team is to clarify all the queries without any delay or hesitation to avoid the inconvenience. For immediate assistance on your queries please don't hesitate to drop an email to editor@ecronicon.uk