Research Article
Volume 20 Issue 7 - 2021
Awareness and Knowledge of Oral Cancer among the Population of Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
Rehhaf Sindi1*, Bushra Almotairi2, Johara Sindi3, Reem Alshekhi2, Miad almajnuni4, Meaad Aldairi5 and Khalid Aboalshamat6
1General Dentist, Ministry of Health, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
2General Dentist, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
3General Dentist, Ministry of Health, Taif, Saudi Arabia
4General Dentist, Makkah, Saudi Arabia
5General Dentist, Ministry of Health, Tabuk, Saudi Arabia
6Dental Public Health Division, Preventative Dentistry Department, College of Dentistry, Umm Al-Qura University, Makkah, Saudi Arabia
*Corresponding Author: Rehhaf Sindi, General Dentist, Ministry of Health, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.
Received: May 31, 2021; Published: June 29, 2021


Objectives: Oral cancer is ranked as the ninth most common tumor around the world and the third most common tumor in Saudi Arabia. The aim of this study was to determine levels of awareness and knowledge about oral cancer among the general population in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.

Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 800 adult participants were recruited to assess levels of knowledge about oral cancer using a self-administered questionnaire. T-test, one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), and linear regression were used for data analysis.

Results: The results showed that 34.3% of respondents were unaware of the existence of oral cancer, and 65.8% had previously heard about oral cancer. Correct answers for oral cancer risk factors had a mean of 5.47 and SD = 2.84 for 12 questions. Nonsmoking, Saudi female participants with university educations and family incomes higher than SAR 15,000, as well as participants who had previously learned about oral cancer, had significantly (p < 0.05) higher total correct answers. There were 80.50% of participants who identified smoking as a risk factor, but only 25% identified sun exposure as a risk factor. Red and white patches were the least identified signs of oral cancer, with only 22.50% and 24.38% correct responses, respectively.

Conclusion: Public knowledge about oral cancer in Saudi Arabia seems to be insufficient, and more health promotion campaigns should be conducted to boost community awareness.

Keywords: Oral Cancer; Saudi Arabia; Dentistry; Oral Health; Jeddah; Knowledge; Awareness


  1. Ferlay Jacques., et al. “Cancer Incidence and Mortality Worldwide: Sources, Methods and Major Patterns in Globocan 2012”. International Journal of Cancer5 (2015): 359-386.
  2. Horton John. "Breast Cancer in 2020: What Can We Expect?" Cancer Detection and Prevention2 (2006): 109-110.
  3. Forman David., et al. “Cancer Incidence in Five Continents, Volume X (electronic version)”. Lyon: IARC (2013).
  4. Al-Balawi Saeed A and Alagumba L Nwoku. "Management of Oral Cancer in a Tertiary Care Hospital”. Saudi Medical Journal2 (2002): 156-159.
  5. Daigo Kayo., et al. “Characterization of Kif11 as a Novel Prognostic Biomarker and Therapeutic Target for Oral Cancer”. International Journal of Oncology1 (2018): 155-165.
  6. Parkin D Max., et al. “Global Cancer Statistics, 2002”. CA: A Cancer Journal for Clinicians2 (2005): 74-108.
  7. Carter Lachlan M and Graham R Ogden. "Oral Cancer Awareness of Undergraduate Medical and Dental Students”. BMC Medical Education1 (2007): 44.
  8. West R., et al. “Awareness of Mouth Cancer in Great Britain”. British Dental Journal 200 (2006): 167.
  9. Petersen Poul Erik. "Oral Cancer Prevention and Control–the Approach of the World Health Organization”. Oral Oncology4-5 (2009): 454-460.
  10. Warnakulasuriya Saman. "Global Epidemiology of Oral and Oropharyngeal Cancer”. Oral Oncology4-5 (2009): 309-316.
  11. Lohavanichbutr Pawadee., et al. “Genomewide Gene Expression Profiles of Hpv-Positive and Hpv-Negative Oropharyngeal Cancer: Potential Implications for Treatment Choices”. Archives of Otolaryngology–Head and Neck Surgery 2 (2009): 180-188.
  12. Lin Wen-Jiun., et al. “Smoking, Alcohol, and Betel Quid and Oral Cancer: A Prospective Cohort Study”. Journal of Oncology (2011).
  13. Al-Attas Safia Ali., et al. “Prevalence of Potentially Malignant Oral Mucosal Lesions among Tobacco Users in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia”. Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention 2 (2014): 757-762.
  14. El-Husseiny G., et al. “Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oral Tongue: An Analysis of Prognostic Factors”. British Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery 3 (2000): 193-199.
  15. Zhang X., et al. “Shammah—Induced Oral Leukoplakia-Like Lesions”. Oral Oncology 7 (2001): 609-612.
  16. Quadri Mir Faeq Ali., et al. “Effectiveness of an Intervention Program on Knowledge of Oral Cancer among the Youth of Jazan, Saudi Arabia”. Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention5 (2014): 1913-1918.
  17. Wolff Klaus-Dietrich., et al. “The Diagnosis and Treatment of Oral Cavity Cancer”. Deutsches Ärzteblatt International48 (2012): 829.
  18. Tomar Scott L and Henrietta L Logan. "Florida Adults' Oral Cancer Knowledge and Examination Experiences”. Journal of Public Health Dentistry4 (2005): 221-230.
  19. Agrawal Mamta., et al. “Oral Cancer Awareness of the General Public in Gorakhpur City, India”. Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention 10 (2012): 5195-5199.
  20. Al-Maweri Sadeq Ali., et al. “Public Awareness and Knowledge of Oral Cancer in Yemen”. Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention 15 (2014): 10861-10865.
  21. Park JH., et al. “Knowledge and Perceptions Regarding Oral and Pharyngeal Carcinoma among Adult Dental Patients”. Australian Dental Journal 3 (2011): 284-289.
  22. Ghani Wan Maria Nabillah., et al. “Oral Cancer Awareness and Its Determinants among a Selected Malaysian Population”. Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention3 (2013): 1957-1963.
  23. Al-Dubai Sami Abdo Radman., et al. “Awareness and Knowledge of Oral Cancer among University Students in Malaysia”. Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention1 (2012): 165-168.
  24. Ariyawardana A and N Vithanaarachchi. "Awareness of Oral Cancer and Precancer among Patients Attending a Hospital in Sri Lanka”. Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention1 (2005): 58-61.
  25. Rogers Simon N., et al. “Reasons for Delayed Presentation in Oral and Oropharyngeal Cancer: The Patients Perspective”. British Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery5 (2011): 349-353.
  26. Al-Maweri Sadeq Ali., et al. “Oral Cancer Awareness of the General Public in Saudi Arabia”. Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention8 (2015): 3377-3381.
  27. Al-Maweri Sadeq Ali., et al. “Oral Cancer: Awareness and Knowledge among Dental Patients in Riyadh”. Journal of Cancer Education2 (2017): 308-313.
  28. Alhazzazi Turki Y. "Evaluation of Head and Neck Cancer Awareness and Screening Status in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia”. Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention3 (2016): 1135-1139.
  29. Alhazzazi Turki Y and Faisal T Alghamdi. "Head and Neck Cancer in Saudi Arabia: A Systematic Review”. Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention8 (2016): 4043-4048.
  30. Elango J Kalavathy., et al. “Factors Affecting Oral Cancer Awareness in a High-Risk Population in India”. Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention4 (2009): 627-630.
  31. Tadbir Azadeh Andisheh., et al. “Evaluation of Levels of Knowledge About Etiology and Symptoms of Oral Cancer in Southern Iran”. Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention4 (2013): 2217-2220.
Citation: Rehhaf Sindi., et al. “Awareness and Knowledge of Oral Cancer among the Population of Jeddah, Saudi Arabia”. EC Dental Science 20.7 (2021): 69-77.

PubMed Indexed Article

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
LC-UV-MS and MS/MS Characterize Glutathione Reactivity with Different Isomers (2,2' and 2,4' vs. 4,4') of Methylene Diphenyl-Diisocyanate.

PMID: 31143884 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6536005

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Alzheimer's Pathogenesis, Metal-Mediated Redox Stress, and Potential Nanotheranostics.

PMID: 31565701 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6764777

EC Neurology
Differences in Rate of Cognitive Decline and Caregiver Burden between Alzheimer's Disease and Vascular Dementia: a Retrospective Study.

PMID: 27747317 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5065347

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Will Blockchain Technology Transform Healthcare and Biomedical Sciences?

PMID: 31460519 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6711478

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Is it a Prime Time for AI-powered Virtual Drug Screening?

PMID: 30215059 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133253

EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Analysis of Evidence for the Combination of Pro-dopamine Regulator (KB220PAM) and Naltrexone to Prevent Opioid Use Disorder Relapse.

PMID: 30417173 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6226033

EC Anaesthesia
Arrest Under Anesthesia - What was the Culprit? A Case Report.

PMID: 30264037 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6155992

EC Orthopaedics
Distraction Implantation. A New Technique in Total Joint Arthroplasty and Direct Skeletal Attachment.

PMID: 30198026 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6124505

EC Pulmonology and Respiratory Medicine
Prevalence and factors associated with self-reported chronic obstructive pulmonary disease among adults aged 40-79: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2012.

PMID: 30294723 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6169793

EC Dental Science
Important Dental Fiber-Reinforced Composite Molding Compound Breakthroughs

PMID: 29285526 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5743211

EC Microbiology
Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites Among HIV Infected and HIV Uninfected Patients Treated at the 1o De Maio Health Centre in Maputo, Mozambique

PMID: 29911204 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5999047

EC Microbiology
Macrophages and the Viral Dissemination Super Highway

PMID: 26949751 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4774560

EC Microbiology
The Microbiome, Antibiotics, and Health of the Pediatric Population.

PMID: 27390782 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4933318

EC Microbiology
Reactive Oxygen Species in HIV Infection

PMID: 28580453 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5450819

EC Microbiology
A Review of the CD4 T Cell Contribution to Lung Infection, Inflammation and Repair with a Focus on Wheeze and Asthma in the Pediatric Population

PMID: 26280024 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4533840

EC Neurology
Identifying Key Symptoms Differentiating Myalgic Encephalomyelitis and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome from Multiple Sclerosis

PMID: 28066845 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5214344

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Paradigm Shift is the Normal State of Pharmacology

PMID: 28936490 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5604476

EC Neurology
Examining those Meeting IOM Criteria Versus IOM Plus Fibromyalgia

PMID: 28713879 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5510658

EC Neurology
Unilateral Frontosphenoid Craniosynostosis: Case Report and a Review of the Literature

PMID: 28133641 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5267489

EC Ophthalmology
OCT-Angiography for Non-Invasive Monitoring of Neuronal and Vascular Structure in Mouse Retina: Implication for Characterization of Retinal Neurovascular Coupling

PMID: 29333536 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5766278

EC Neurology
Longer Duration of Downslope Treadmill Walking Induces Depression of H-Reflexes Measured during Standing and Walking.

PMID: 31032493 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6483108

EC Microbiology
Onchocerciasis in Mozambique: An Unknown Condition for Health Professionals.

PMID: 30957099 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6448571

EC Nutrition
Food Insecurity among Households with and without Podoconiosis in East and West Gojjam, Ethiopia.

PMID: 30101228 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6086333

EC Ophthalmology
REVIEW. +2 to +3 D. Reading Glasses to Prevent Myopia.

PMID: 31080964 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6508883

EC Gynaecology
Biomechanical Mapping of the Female Pelvic Floor: Uterine Prolapse Versus Normal Conditions.

PMID: 31093608 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6513001

EC Dental Science
Fiber-Reinforced Composites: A Breakthrough in Practical Clinical Applications with Advanced Wear Resistance for Dental Materials.

PMID: 31552397 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6758937

EC Microbiology
Neurocysticercosis in Child Bearing Women: An Overlooked Condition in Mozambique and a Potentially Missed Diagnosis in Women Presenting with Eclampsia.

PMID: 31681909 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824723

EC Microbiology
Molecular Detection of Leptospira spp. in Rodents Trapped in the Mozambique Island City, Nampula Province, Mozambique.

PMID: 31681910 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824726

EC Neurology
Endoplasmic Reticulum-Mitochondrial Cross-Talk in Neurodegenerative and Eye Diseases.

PMID: 31528859 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6746603

EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Can Chronic Consumption of Caffeine by Increasing D2/D3 Receptors Offer Benefit to Carriers of the DRD2 A1 Allele in Cocaine Abuse?

PMID: 31276119 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6604646

EC Anaesthesia
Real Time Locating Systems and sustainability of Perioperative Efficiency of Anesthesiologists.

PMID: 31406965 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6690616

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
A Pilot STEM Curriculum Designed to Teach High School Students Concepts in Biochemical Engineering and Pharmacology.

PMID: 31517314 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6741290

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Toxic Mechanisms Underlying Motor Activity Changes Induced by a Mixture of Lead, Arsenic and Manganese.

PMID: 31633124 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6800226

EC Neurology
Research Volunteers' Attitudes Toward Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and Myalgic Encephalomyelitis.

PMID: 29662969 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5898812

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy for Alzheimer's Disease.

PMID: 30215058 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133268

News and Events

February Issue Release

We always feel pleasure to share our updates with you all. Here, notifying you that we have successfully released the February issue of respective journals and the latest articles can be viewed on the current issue pages.

Submission Deadline for Upcoming Issue

ECronicon delightfully welcomes all the authors around the globe for effective collaboration with an article submission for the upcoming issue of respective journals. Submissions are accepted on/before February 17, 2023.

Certificate of Publication

ECronicon honors with a "Publication Certificate" to the corresponding author by including the names of co-authors as a token of appreciation for publishing the work with our respective journals.

Best Article of the Issue

Editors of respective journals will always be very much interested in electing one Best Article after each issue release. The authors of the selected article will be honored with a "Best Article of the Issue" certificate.

Certifying for Review

ECronicon certifies the Editors for their first review done towards the assigned article of the respective journals.

Latest Articles

The latest articles will be updated immediately on the articles in press page of the respective journals.