Research Article
Volume 20 Issue 10 - 2021
Tobacco Smoking and its Repercussions on Periodontal Health in Rural Population of India - A Comparative and Correlative Study
Shivendra Pal Singh1*, Nidhi Rathore2, Nitin Kumar Goyal3, Pulak Mishra4, Siddharth Acharya5 and Prakhar Mongia6
1Assistant Professor, Periodontics and Oral Implantology, MGUMST University, Mahatma Gandhi Dental College, Jaipur, India
2Associate Professor, Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopaedics, NIMS University, NIMS Dental College, Jaipur, India
3Consultant Orthodontist, Jaipur, India
4Consultant Periodontist, New Delhi, India
5Associate Professor, Public Health Dentistry, D Y Patil University, School of Dentistry, Navi Mumbai, India
6Consultant Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeon, Jaipur, India
*Corresponding Author: Shivendra Pal Singh, Periodontics and Oral Implantology, MGUMST University, Mahatma gandhi Dental college , Jaipur, India.
Received: August 25, 2021; Published: September 07, 2021




Abstract

Tobacco smoking has a substantial influence on periodontal health and disease. Periodontal disease is one of the most common chronic diseases in adults and smoking has been suggested as one of the major indisputable risk factor for periodontal diseases and early loss of teeth. Our study was thus undertaken to evaluate the effect of tobacco smoking on periodontal health status of Jaipur Rural Population and to conduct a comparative evaluation of the periodontal status among smokers and non smokers. Our study included 300 patients aged 18 to 65 years. The subjects were selected from the patients attending the Outpatient Department of Periodontics of our college. For all the samples, age, sex, education level, fluorosis and smoking status were recorded. Clinical parameters like gingival bleeding index (GBI), plaque index (PI), probing pocket depth (PPD) and clinical attachment level (CAL) were also recorded for each patient to evaluate the periodontal health status. The statistical analysis was then carried out using Chi-square test. Our study revealed a statistically significant influence of tobacco smoking on periodontal health status in Jaipur Rural Population. Recording the smoking history for each patient and motivating them to quit smoking plays a very crucial role in maintenance of both periodontal health as well as general health.

Keywords: Clinical Attachment Level; Gingival Bleeding Index; Plaque Index; Probing Pocket Depth; Periodontal Health

References

  1. Plasschaert AJ., et al. “An epidemiologic survey of periodontal disease in Dutch adults”. Community Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology2 (1978): 65-70.
  2. Hugoson A and T Jordan. “Frequency distribution of individuals aged 20-70 years according to severity of periodontal disease”. Community Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology4 (1982): 187-192.
  3. Freitas E., et al. “A baseline study of periodontal conditions among youths and adults in Portugal”. Community Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology4 (1983): 250-254.
  4. Palmer Richard M., et al. “Mechanisms of action of environmental factors--tobacco smoking”. Journal of Clinical Periodontology6 (2005): 180-195.
  5. Do Loc G., et al. “Smoking-attributable periodontal disease in the Australian adult population”. Journal of Clinical Periodontology5 (2008): 398-404.
  6. Gautam DK., et al. “Effect of cigarette smoking on the periodontal health status: A comparative, cross sectional study”. Journal of Indian Society of Periodontology4 (2011): 383-387.
  7. Wilson T G Jr. “Effects of smoking on the periodontium”. Quintessence International4 (1998): 265-266.
  8. Holm G. “Smoking as an additional risk for tooth loss”. Journal of Periodontology11 (1994): 996-1001.
  9. Johnson GK and NA Slach. “Impact of tobacco use on periodontal status”. Journal of Dental Education4 (2001): 313-321.
  10. Johnson Georgia K and Margaret Hill. “Cigarette smoking and the periodontal patient”. Journal of Periodontology2 (2004): 196-209.
  11. Bergström J and L Boström. “Tobacco smoking and periodontal hemorrhagic responsiveness”. Journal of Clinical Periodontology7 (2001): 680-685.
  12. Shimazaki Yoshihiro., et al. “The influence of current and former smoking on gingival bleeding: the Hisayama study”. Journal of Periodontology8 (2006): 1430-1435.
  13. Feldman RS., et al. “Association between smoking different tobacco products and periodontal disease indexes”. Journal of Periodontology8 (1983): 481-487.
  14. Stoltenberg JL., et al. “Association between cigarette smoking, bacterial pathogens, and periodontal status”. Journal of Periodontology12 (1993): 1225-1230.
  15. Bergström J., et al. “Cigarette smoking and periodontal bone loss”. Journal of Periodontology4 (1991): 242-246.
  16. Matthews John B., et al. “Effect of nicotine, cotinine and cigarette smoke extract on the neutrophil respiratory burst”. Journal of Clinical Periodontology3 (2011): 208-218.
  17. Kazor C., et al. “The prevalence of BANA-hydrolyzing periodontopathic bacteria in smokers”. Journal of Clinical Periodontology12 (1999): 814-821.
  18. Scott DA., et al. “Validation of smoking status in clinical research into inflammatory periodontal disease”. Journal of Clinical Periodontology8 (2001): 715-722.
  19. Johnson NW and CA Bain. “Tobacco and oral disease. EU-Working Group on Tobacco and Oral Health”. British Dental Journal4 (2000): 200-206.
  20. Johnson Georgia K and Margaret Hill. “Cigarette smoking and the periodontal patient”. Journal of Periodontology2 (2004): 196-209.
  21. Morozumi Toshiya., et al. “Smoking cessation increases gingival blood flow and gingival crevicular fluid”. Journal of Clinical Periodontology4 (2004): 267-272.
  22. Bergström J and B Floderus-Myrhed. “Co-twin control study of the relationship between smoking and some periodontal disease factors”. Community Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology2 (1983): 113-116.
  23. Preber H and J Bergström. “Occurrence of gingival bleeding in smoker and non-smoker patients”. Acta Odontologica Scandinavica5 (1985): 315-320.
  24. Preber H and J Bergström. “Cigarette smoking in patients referred for periodontal treatment”. Scandinavian Journal of dental Research2 (1986): 102-108.
  25. Bergström J and H Preber. “The influence of cigarette smoking on the development of experimental gingivitis”. Journal of Periodontal Research6 (1986): 668-676.
  26. Bergström J., et al. “Influence of cigarette smoking on vascular reaction during experimental gingivitis”. Scandinavian Journal of Dental Research1 (1988): 34-39.
  27. Bergström J. “Oral hygiene compliance and gingivitis expression in cigarette smokers”. Scandinavian Journal of Dental Research6 (1990): 497-503.
  28. Danielsen B., et al. “Effect of cigarette smoking on the transition dynamics in experimental gingivitis”. Journal of Clinical Periodontology3 (1990): 159-164.
  29. Dietrich Thomas., et al. “The effect of cigarette smoking on gingival bleeding”. Journal of Periodontology1 (2004): 16-22.
  30. Shuler RL. “Effect of cigarette smoking on the circulation of the oral mucosa”. Journal of Dental Research6 (1968): 910-915.
  31. Chen X., et al. “Cigarette smoking, salivary/gingival crevicular fluid cotinine and periodontal status. A 10-year longitudinal study”. Journal of Clinical Periodontology4 (2001): 331-339.
  32. Müller Hans-Peter., et al. “Longitudinal association between plaque and gingival bleeding in smokers and non-smokers”. Journal of Clinical Periodontology4 (2002): 287-294.
  33. Preber H and T Kant. “Effect of tobacco-smoking on periodontal tissue of 15-year-old schoolchildren”. Journal of Periodontal Research5 (1973): 278-283.
  34. Machuca G., et al. “Effect of cigarette smoking on periodontal status of healthy young adults”. Journal of Periodontology1 (2000): 73-78.
  35. Kerdvongbundit V and U M Wikesjö. “Effect of smoking on periodontal health in molar teeth”. Journal of Periodontology3 (2000): 433-437.
  36. Scott DA and DL Singer. “Suppression of overt gingival inflammation in tobacco smokers - clinical and mechanistic considerations”. International Journal of Dental Hygiene3 (2004): 104-110.
  37. Stammers AF. “Vincent's infection; observations on the histopathology and their application to clinical practice”. British Dental Journal 81 (1946): 4-15.
  38. Pindborg JJ. “Tobacco and gingivitis: statistical examination of the significance of tobacco in the development of ulceromembranous gingivitis and in the formation of calculus”. Journal of Dental Research3 (1947): 261-264.
  39. Pindborg JJ. “Tobacco and gingivitis; correlation between consumption of tobacco, ulceromembranous gingiivitis and calculus”. Journal of Dental Research5 (1949): 460-463.
  40. Frandsen A and JJ Pindborg. “Tobacco and gingivitis; difference in the action of cigarette and pipe smoking”. Journal of Dental Research5 (1949): 464.
  41. Pindborg JJ. “Gingivitis in military personnel with special reference to ulceromembranous gingivitis”. Odontologisk Tidskrift6 (1951): 403-499.
  42. Kowalski CJ. “Relationship between smoking and calculus deposition”. Journal of Dental Research1 (1971): 101-104.
  43. Ludwick W and M Massler. “Relation of dental caries experience and gingivitis to cigarette smoking in males 17 to 21 years old (at the Great Lakes Naval Training Center)”. Journal of Dental Research3 (1952): 319-322.
  44. McGuire JR., et al. “Cotinine in saliva and gingival crevicular fluid of smokers with periodontal disease”. Journal of Periodontology4 (1989): 176-181.
  45. Sasagawa S., et al. “Effects of nicotine on the functions of human polymorphonuclear leukocytes in vitro”. Journal of Leukocyte Biology5 (1985): 493-502.
  46. Linden GJ and BH Mullally. “Cigarette smoking and periodontal destruction in young adults”. Journal of Periodontology7 (1994): 718-723.
  47. Haber J. “Cigarette smoking: a major risk factor for periodontitis”. Compendium8 (1994): 1002.
  48. Schenkein HA., et al. “Smoking and its effects on early-onset periodontitis”. Journal of the American Dental Association8 (1995): 1107-1113.
  49. Haffajee AD and SS Socransky. “Relationship of cigarette smoking to attachment level profiles”. Journal of Clinical Periodontology4 (2001): 283-295.
  50. Hughes John R. “Motivating and helping smokers to stop smoking”. Journal of General Internal Medicine12 (2003): 1053-1057.
  51. Barboza Jose L., et al. “An update on the pharmacotherapeutic interventions for smoking cessation”. Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy11 (2016): 1483-1496.
Citation: Shivendra Pal Singh., et al. “Tobacco Smoking and its Repercussions on Periodontal Health in Rural Population of India - A Comparative and Correlative Study”. EC Dental Science 20.10 (2021): 13-21.

PubMed Indexed Article


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
LC-UV-MS and MS/MS Characterize Glutathione Reactivity with Different Isomers (2,2' and 2,4' vs. 4,4') of Methylene Diphenyl-Diisocyanate.

PMID: 31143884 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6536005


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Alzheimer's Pathogenesis, Metal-Mediated Redox Stress, and Potential Nanotheranostics.

PMID: 31565701 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6764777


EC Neurology
Differences in Rate of Cognitive Decline and Caregiver Burden between Alzheimer's Disease and Vascular Dementia: a Retrospective Study.

PMID: 27747317 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5065347


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Will Blockchain Technology Transform Healthcare and Biomedical Sciences?

PMID: 31460519 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6711478


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Is it a Prime Time for AI-powered Virtual Drug Screening?

PMID: 30215059 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133253


EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Analysis of Evidence for the Combination of Pro-dopamine Regulator (KB220PAM) and Naltrexone to Prevent Opioid Use Disorder Relapse.

PMID: 30417173 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6226033


EC Anaesthesia
Arrest Under Anesthesia - What was the Culprit? A Case Report.

PMID: 30264037 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6155992


EC Orthopaedics
Distraction Implantation. A New Technique in Total Joint Arthroplasty and Direct Skeletal Attachment.

PMID: 30198026 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6124505


EC Pulmonology and Respiratory Medicine
Prevalence and factors associated with self-reported chronic obstructive pulmonary disease among adults aged 40-79: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2012.

PMID: 30294723 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6169793


EC Dental Science
Important Dental Fiber-Reinforced Composite Molding Compound Breakthroughs

PMID: 29285526 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5743211


EC Microbiology
Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites Among HIV Infected and HIV Uninfected Patients Treated at the 1o De Maio Health Centre in Maputo, Mozambique

PMID: 29911204 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5999047


EC Microbiology
Macrophages and the Viral Dissemination Super Highway

PMID: 26949751 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4774560


EC Microbiology
The Microbiome, Antibiotics, and Health of the Pediatric Population.

PMID: 27390782 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4933318


EC Microbiology
Reactive Oxygen Species in HIV Infection

PMID: 28580453 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5450819


EC Microbiology
A Review of the CD4 T Cell Contribution to Lung Infection, Inflammation and Repair with a Focus on Wheeze and Asthma in the Pediatric Population

PMID: 26280024 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4533840


EC Neurology
Identifying Key Symptoms Differentiating Myalgic Encephalomyelitis and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome from Multiple Sclerosis

PMID: 28066845 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5214344


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Paradigm Shift is the Normal State of Pharmacology

PMID: 28936490 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5604476


EC Neurology
Examining those Meeting IOM Criteria Versus IOM Plus Fibromyalgia

PMID: 28713879 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5510658


EC Neurology
Unilateral Frontosphenoid Craniosynostosis: Case Report and a Review of the Literature

PMID: 28133641 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5267489


EC Ophthalmology
OCT-Angiography for Non-Invasive Monitoring of Neuronal and Vascular Structure in Mouse Retina: Implication for Characterization of Retinal Neurovascular Coupling

PMID: 29333536 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5766278


EC Neurology
Longer Duration of Downslope Treadmill Walking Induces Depression of H-Reflexes Measured during Standing and Walking.

PMID: 31032493 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6483108


EC Microbiology
Onchocerciasis in Mozambique: An Unknown Condition for Health Professionals.

PMID: 30957099 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6448571


EC Nutrition
Food Insecurity among Households with and without Podoconiosis in East and West Gojjam, Ethiopia.

PMID: 30101228 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6086333


EC Ophthalmology
REVIEW. +2 to +3 D. Reading Glasses to Prevent Myopia.

PMID: 31080964 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6508883


EC Gynaecology
Biomechanical Mapping of the Female Pelvic Floor: Uterine Prolapse Versus Normal Conditions.

PMID: 31093608 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6513001


EC Dental Science
Fiber-Reinforced Composites: A Breakthrough in Practical Clinical Applications with Advanced Wear Resistance for Dental Materials.

PMID: 31552397 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6758937


EC Microbiology
Neurocysticercosis in Child Bearing Women: An Overlooked Condition in Mozambique and a Potentially Missed Diagnosis in Women Presenting with Eclampsia.

PMID: 31681909 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824723


EC Microbiology
Molecular Detection of Leptospira spp. in Rodents Trapped in the Mozambique Island City, Nampula Province, Mozambique.

PMID: 31681910 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824726


EC Neurology
Endoplasmic Reticulum-Mitochondrial Cross-Talk in Neurodegenerative and Eye Diseases.

PMID: 31528859 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6746603


EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Can Chronic Consumption of Caffeine by Increasing D2/D3 Receptors Offer Benefit to Carriers of the DRD2 A1 Allele in Cocaine Abuse?

PMID: 31276119 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6604646


EC Anaesthesia
Real Time Locating Systems and sustainability of Perioperative Efficiency of Anesthesiologists.

PMID: 31406965 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6690616


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
A Pilot STEM Curriculum Designed to Teach High School Students Concepts in Biochemical Engineering and Pharmacology.

PMID: 31517314 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6741290


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Toxic Mechanisms Underlying Motor Activity Changes Induced by a Mixture of Lead, Arsenic and Manganese.

PMID: 31633124 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6800226


EC Neurology
Research Volunteers' Attitudes Toward Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and Myalgic Encephalomyelitis.

PMID: 29662969 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5898812


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy for Alzheimer's Disease.

PMID: 30215058 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133268


News and Events


October Issue Release

We always feel pleasure to share our updates with you all. Here, notifying you that we have successfully released the October issue of respective journals and the latest articles can be viewed on the current issue pages.

Submission Deadline for Upcoming Issue

Ecronicon delightfully welcomes all the authors around the globe for effective collaboration with an article submission for the upcoming issue of respective journals. Submissions are accepted on/before November 01, 2021.

Certificate of Publication

Ecronicon honors with a "Publication Certificate" to the corresponding author by including the names of co-authors as a token of appreciation for publishing the work with our respective journals.

Best Article of the Issue

Editors of respective journals will always be very much interested in electing one Best Article after each issue release. The authors of the selected article will be honored with a "Best Article of the Issue" certificate.

Certifying for Review

Ecronicon certifies the Editors for their first review done towards the assigned article of the respective journals.

Latest Articles

The latest articles will be updated immediately on the articles in press page of the respective journals.

Immediate Assistance

The prime motto of this team is to clarify all the queries without any delay or hesitation to avoid the inconvenience. For immediate assistance on your queries please don't hesitate to drop an email to editor@ecronicon.uk