Research Article
Volume 21 Issue 1 - 2022
The Impact of Khat (Catha edulis) Chewing Habit on the Epidemiology of Periodontal Diseases of Two Different Groups’ Type 2 Diabetic Patients in the Arabian Peninsula: Clinical and Microbiological Comparative Study
Mohammed MA Abdullah Al-Abdaly1*, Abdulaziz Saeed Ali AlJuman2, Ghadeer Mohammed Mohammed Al-Abdaly3, Abdullah Mohammed S AlJathnan2, Muidh Mohammed FalehAlasmari2 and Omar Abdulaziz Abdullah AlDhaban2
1AS. Professor of periodontics, College of Dentistry, King Khalid University, Abha, Saudi Arabia
2Intern Doctors, College of Dentistry, King Khalid University, Abha, Saudi Arabia
3Intern Doctor, Faculty of Dentistry, Sana’a University, Republic of Yemen
*Corresponding Author: Mohammed MA Abdullah Al-Abdaly, AS. Professor of periodontics, College of Dentistry, King Khalid University, Abha, Saudi Arabia.
Received: November 15, 2021; Published: December 30, 2021




Abstract

Background: Diabetes mellitus is recognized as a systemic disease linked to the progression and severity of periodontal diseases.

Objective: The current study aimed to assess the clinical and the microbiological effect of Khat (Catha edulis) chewing habit on the epidemiology of periodontal diseases of two different groups’ type 2 diabetic patients in the Arabian Peninsula.

Materials and Methodology: 400 type 2 diabetic patients (between 20-60 years) were enrolled in the present study. They consisted of 200 Khat chewers and 200 non-Khat chewers. The case history of all patients was recorded. Moreover, plaque index (PLI), gingival index (GI), calculus index (CI), periodontal pocket depth (PPD), and clinical attachment loss (CAL). Sub-gingival plaque samples were obtained for investigation using the anaerobic culture technique. All data was collected then assorted and evaluated statistically by utilizing SPSS and the difference in a ratio calculated by Chi-square test.

During the comparison between the groups in the present study, P-value at < 0.05 (p < 0.05) was considered as statistically significant difference and at <0.001 (p < 0.001) high statistically significant difference.

Results: There were significant differences in the prevalence of gingivitis and periodontitis in group I and group II where the prevalence of gingivitis and periodontitis was more in group II than group I. Additionally, there were high significance differences in PLI, GI, CI, PPD, and CAL (p < 0.001). On the other hand, there were statistically significant differences in the comparison of aerobes and anaerobes bacterial colonies/1.5μ accounts between group I and group II.

Conclusion: At the end of the present study, we reached that there was a close link between type 2 diabetes millions, the epidemiology of periodontal diseases, and Khat chewing habits of two different groups of type 2 diabetic patients in the Arabian Peninsula.

Keywords: Arabian Peninsula; Epidemiology of Periodontal Disease; Khat (Catha edulis) Chewing Habit; Type 2 Diabetic Patients

References

  1. Lowney C. “Book review: Carranza's clinical periodontology: twelfth edition”. British Dental Journal 218 (2015): 445.
  2. Fox CH. “New considerations in the prevalence of periodontal disease”. Current Opinion in Dentistry 2 (1992): 5-11.
  3. Stoltenberg JL., et al. “Prevalence of periodontal disease in a health maintenance organization and comparisons to the national survey of oral health”. Journal of Periodontology 64 (1993): 853-858.
  4. Bergenholtz A and Jorkjend. “Some modern aspects of periodontal disease”. Saudi Dental Journal4 (1990): 156-164.
  5. Merchant AT., et al. “Epidemiology of Periodontal Diseases”. Journal of Periodontology 76 (2005): 1406-1419.
  6. Wild S., et al. “ Global prevalence of diabetes: estimates for the year 2000 and projections for 2030”. Diabetes Care 27 (2004): 1047-1053.
  7. Nicki R. “Colledge: Davidson's principles and practice of medicine ELBS”. Philadelphia: Churchill Livingstone 17 (1995): 669-774.
  8. Ageely HM. “Prevalence of Khat chewing in college and secondary (high) school students of Jazan region, Saudi Arabia”. Harm Reduction Journal 6 (2009): 11.
  9. Kalix P. “Khat: a plant with amphetamine effects”. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment3 (1988): 163-169.
  10. Ali AA. “Khat habit in Yemeni society.A causative factor for oral periodontal diseases”. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 4 (2007): 243-247.
  11. Jorgensen E and Kaimenyi JT. “The status of periodontal health and oral hygiene of Miraa (Catha edulis) chewers”. East African Medical Journal 67 (1990): 585-590.
  12. Silness J and Loe H. “Periodontal disease in pregnancy. II. Correlation between oral hygiene and periodontal condition”. Acta Odontologica Scandinavica 22 (1964): 121 35.
  13. Loe H and Silness J. “Periodontal disease in pregnancy. I. Prevalence and severity”. Acta Odontologica Scandinavica 21 (1963): 533-551.
  14. Greene JC and Vermillion JR. “The oral hygiene index: A method for classifying oral hygiene status”. The Journal of the American Dental Association 61 (1960): 29-35.
  15. Mathews J and Patel M. “Bacterial endotoxins and microorganisms in the oral cavities of patients on cancer therapy”. Microbial Pathogenesis 123 (2018): 190-195.
  16. Chavarry NGM., et al. “The relationship between diabetes mellitus and destructive periodontal disease: a meta-analysis”. Oral Health and Preventive Dentistry 7 (2009): 107-127.
  17. Mealey BL and Ocampo GL. “Diabetes mellitus and periodontal disease”. Periodontology 2000 44 (2007): 127-153.
  18. Thorstensson H., et al. “Some suspected periodonto-pathogens and serum antibody response in adult long duration insulin-dependent diabetics”. Journal of Clinical Periodontology 22 (1995): 449-458.
  19. Takahashi K., et al. “Subgingival microflora and antibody responses against periodontal bacteria of young Japanese patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus”. Journal of the International Academy of Periodontology 3 (2001): 104-111.
  20. Rylander H., et al. “Prevalence of periodontal disease in young diabetics”. Journal of Clinical Periodontol 14 (1998): 38-43.
  21. Khader YS., et al. “Periodontal status of diabetics compared with nondiabetics: a meta-analysis”. Journal of Diabetes Complications 20 (2006): 59-68.
  22. Kalix P. “Pharmacological properties of the stimulant khat”. PharmacolTher 48.3 (1990): 397-416.
  23. Mengel R., et al. “Periodontal status of a subject sample of Yemen”. Journal of Clinical Periodontol5 (1996): 437.
  24. Humagain M. “Evaluation of knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) about oral health among secondary level students of rural Nepal - A questionnaire study”. Webmed Central Dentistry3 (2011): 7-11.
  25. Ababneh KT., et al. “Prevalence and risk indicators of gingivitis and periodontitis in a Multi-Centre study in North Jordan: a cross sectional study”. BMC Oral Health1 (2012): 1-8.
  26. David J., et al. “The Periodontal Health of Adult Nepalese”. Oral Health and Preventive Dentistry1 (2011): 67-81.
  27. Sumanth S., et al. “Periodontal health status in pan chewers with or without the use of tobacco”. Oral Health and Preventive Dentistry3 (2008): 223-229.
  28. Badet C and Thebaud NB. “Ecology of lactobacilli in the oral cavity: a review of literature.” The open microbiology journal 2 (2008): 38-48.
  29. Elhag H., et al. “Antimicrobial and Cytotoxic Activity of the Extracts of Khat Callus Cultures”. Center for New Crops and Plant Products, West Lafayette, Ind, USA (1999): 463-466.
Citation: Mohammed MA Abdullah Al-Abdaly., et al. “The Impact of Khat (Catha edulis) Chewing Habit on the Epidemiology of Periodontal Diseases of Two Different Groups’ Type 2 Diabetic Patients in the Arabian Peninsula: Clinical and Microbiological Comparative Study”. EC Dental Science 21.1 (2022): 01-16.

PubMed Indexed Article


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
LC-UV-MS and MS/MS Characterize Glutathione Reactivity with Different Isomers (2,2' and 2,4' vs. 4,4') of Methylene Diphenyl-Diisocyanate.

PMID: 31143884 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6536005


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Alzheimer's Pathogenesis, Metal-Mediated Redox Stress, and Potential Nanotheranostics.

PMID: 31565701 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6764777


EC Neurology
Differences in Rate of Cognitive Decline and Caregiver Burden between Alzheimer's Disease and Vascular Dementia: a Retrospective Study.

PMID: 27747317 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5065347


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Will Blockchain Technology Transform Healthcare and Biomedical Sciences?

PMID: 31460519 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6711478


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Is it a Prime Time for AI-powered Virtual Drug Screening?

PMID: 30215059 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133253


EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Analysis of Evidence for the Combination of Pro-dopamine Regulator (KB220PAM) and Naltrexone to Prevent Opioid Use Disorder Relapse.

PMID: 30417173 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6226033


EC Anaesthesia
Arrest Under Anesthesia - What was the Culprit? A Case Report.

PMID: 30264037 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6155992


EC Orthopaedics
Distraction Implantation. A New Technique in Total Joint Arthroplasty and Direct Skeletal Attachment.

PMID: 30198026 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6124505


EC Pulmonology and Respiratory Medicine
Prevalence and factors associated with self-reported chronic obstructive pulmonary disease among adults aged 40-79: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2012.

PMID: 30294723 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6169793


EC Dental Science
Important Dental Fiber-Reinforced Composite Molding Compound Breakthroughs

PMID: 29285526 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5743211


EC Microbiology
Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites Among HIV Infected and HIV Uninfected Patients Treated at the 1o De Maio Health Centre in Maputo, Mozambique

PMID: 29911204 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5999047


EC Microbiology
Macrophages and the Viral Dissemination Super Highway

PMID: 26949751 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4774560


EC Microbiology
The Microbiome, Antibiotics, and Health of the Pediatric Population.

PMID: 27390782 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4933318


EC Microbiology
Reactive Oxygen Species in HIV Infection

PMID: 28580453 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5450819


EC Microbiology
A Review of the CD4 T Cell Contribution to Lung Infection, Inflammation and Repair with a Focus on Wheeze and Asthma in the Pediatric Population

PMID: 26280024 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4533840


EC Neurology
Identifying Key Symptoms Differentiating Myalgic Encephalomyelitis and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome from Multiple Sclerosis

PMID: 28066845 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5214344


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Paradigm Shift is the Normal State of Pharmacology

PMID: 28936490 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5604476


EC Neurology
Examining those Meeting IOM Criteria Versus IOM Plus Fibromyalgia

PMID: 28713879 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5510658


EC Neurology
Unilateral Frontosphenoid Craniosynostosis: Case Report and a Review of the Literature

PMID: 28133641 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5267489


EC Ophthalmology
OCT-Angiography for Non-Invasive Monitoring of Neuronal and Vascular Structure in Mouse Retina: Implication for Characterization of Retinal Neurovascular Coupling

PMID: 29333536 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5766278


EC Neurology
Longer Duration of Downslope Treadmill Walking Induces Depression of H-Reflexes Measured during Standing and Walking.

PMID: 31032493 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6483108


EC Microbiology
Onchocerciasis in Mozambique: An Unknown Condition for Health Professionals.

PMID: 30957099 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6448571


EC Nutrition
Food Insecurity among Households with and without Podoconiosis in East and West Gojjam, Ethiopia.

PMID: 30101228 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6086333


EC Ophthalmology
REVIEW. +2 to +3 D. Reading Glasses to Prevent Myopia.

PMID: 31080964 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6508883


EC Gynaecology
Biomechanical Mapping of the Female Pelvic Floor: Uterine Prolapse Versus Normal Conditions.

PMID: 31093608 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6513001


EC Dental Science
Fiber-Reinforced Composites: A Breakthrough in Practical Clinical Applications with Advanced Wear Resistance for Dental Materials.

PMID: 31552397 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6758937


EC Microbiology
Neurocysticercosis in Child Bearing Women: An Overlooked Condition in Mozambique and a Potentially Missed Diagnosis in Women Presenting with Eclampsia.

PMID: 31681909 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824723


EC Microbiology
Molecular Detection of Leptospira spp. in Rodents Trapped in the Mozambique Island City, Nampula Province, Mozambique.

PMID: 31681910 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824726


EC Neurology
Endoplasmic Reticulum-Mitochondrial Cross-Talk in Neurodegenerative and Eye Diseases.

PMID: 31528859 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6746603


EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Can Chronic Consumption of Caffeine by Increasing D2/D3 Receptors Offer Benefit to Carriers of the DRD2 A1 Allele in Cocaine Abuse?

PMID: 31276119 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6604646


EC Anaesthesia
Real Time Locating Systems and sustainability of Perioperative Efficiency of Anesthesiologists.

PMID: 31406965 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6690616


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
A Pilot STEM Curriculum Designed to Teach High School Students Concepts in Biochemical Engineering and Pharmacology.

PMID: 31517314 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6741290


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Toxic Mechanisms Underlying Motor Activity Changes Induced by a Mixture of Lead, Arsenic and Manganese.

PMID: 31633124 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6800226


EC Neurology
Research Volunteers' Attitudes Toward Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and Myalgic Encephalomyelitis.

PMID: 29662969 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5898812


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy for Alzheimer's Disease.

PMID: 30215058 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133268


News and Events


January Issue Release

We always feel pleasure to share our updates with you all. Here, notifying you that we have successfully released the January issue of respective journals and the latest articles can be viewed on the current issue pages.

Submission Deadline for Upcoming Issue

ECronicon delightfully welcomes all the authors around the globe for effective collaboration with an article submission for the upcoming issue of respective journals. Submissions are accepted on/before January 17, 2022.

Certificate of Publication

ECronicon honors with a "Publication Certificate" to the corresponding author by including the names of co-authors as a token of appreciation for publishing the work with our respective journals.

Best Article of the Issue

Editors of respective journals will always be very much interested in electing one Best Article after each issue release. The authors of the selected article will be honored with a "Best Article of the Issue" certificate.

Certifying for Review

ECronicon certifies the Editors for their first review done towards the assigned article of the respective journals.

Latest Articles

The latest articles will be updated immediately on the articles in press page of the respective journals.

Immediate Assistance

The prime motto of this team is to clarify all the queries without any delay or hesitation to avoid the inconvenience. For immediate assistance on your queries please don't hesitate to drop an email to editor@ecronicon.uk