Review Article
Volume 21 Issue 7 - 2022
Dental Ceramics: Considerations for New Materials and Processing Methods
Georgia Asproudi1*, Panagiotis Galiatsatos2 and Aristidis Galiatsatos3
1MS Dental Technician, Athens, Greece
2Dental Technician, Postgraduate Student of School of Dentistry, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Athens, Greece
3Associate Professor, Division of Dental Technology, Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of West Attica, Athens, Greece
*Corresponding Author: Georgia Asproudi, MS Dental Technician, Athens, Greece.
Received: June 14, 2022; Published: June 30, 2022




Abstract

The development of advanced systems for the synthesis of dental restorations related to the development of new microstructures for ceramic materials has triggered a significant change in the clinical workflow and publications for dentists and dental technicians, along with the treatment options accessible to patients. Additionally, new microstructures have been developed by the industry to offer ceramic and composite materials with improved properties, such as enhanced mechanical properties, adequate wear resistance and satisfactory aesthetic characteristics. The purpose of this literature review is to analyze the main improvements of new ceramic restoration systems as well as their processing methods. CAD-CAM methods and microstructures have been developed attributing to the evolvement of dental ceramics and their processing technologies. Furthermore, the use of monolithic restorations has changed the way clinical dentists compose all-ceramic dental prostheses, as the more aesthetically pleasing multilevel restorations are, the more prone to breakage or detachment. CAD-CAM composite composites are now an appealing choice, as they exhibit intermediate properties between ceramic and polymeric materials, smoothing and polishing them more easily.

 

Keywords: Dental Ceramics; Computer-Aided Design; Zirconia, Dental Materials; Restorative Dentistry; Prosthetic Dental Technology

References

  1. Zhang Y and Lawn BR. “Novel Zirconia Materials in Dentistry”. Journal of Dental Research2 (2018): 140-147.
  2. Marchack BW., et al. “Complete and partial contour zirconia designs for crowns and fixed dental prostheses: a clinical report”. Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry3 (2011): 145-152.
  3. Schley JS., et al. “Survival probability of zirconia‐based fixed dental prostheses up to 5 year: a systematic review of the literature”. European Journal of Oral Sciences5 (2010): 443-450.
  4. Zhang H., et al. “Effect of alumina dopant on transparency of tetragonal zirconia”. Journal of Nanomaterials (2012): 1-5.
  5. Zhang Y. “Making yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia translucent”. Dental Materials10 (2014): 1195-1203.
  6. Klimke J., et al. “Transparent tetragonal yttria‐stabilized zirconia ceramics: influence of scattering caused by birefringence”. Journal of the American Ceramic Society6 (2011): 1850-1858.
  7. Kim HK and Kim SH. “Optical properties of pre-colored dental monolithic zirconia ceramics”. Journal of Dentistry 55 (2016): 75-81.
  8. Sedda M., et al. “Influence of coloring procedure on flexural resistance of zirconia blocks”. Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry1 (2015): 98-102.
  9. Kim HK and Kim SH. “Effect of the number of coloring liquid applications on the optical properties of monolithic zirconia”. Dent Mater 9 (2014): e229-e237.
  10. Rinke S and Fischer C. “Range of indications for translucent zirconia modifications: clinical and technical aspects”. Quintessence International8 (2013): 557-566.
  11. Kim HK., et al. “Effect of the amount of thickness reduction on color and translucency of dental monolithic zirconia ceramics”. The Journal of Advanced Prosthodontics1 (2016): 37-42.
  12. Antonson SA and Anusavice KJ. “Contrast ratio of veneering and core ceramics as a function of thickness”. The International Journal of Prosthodontics4 (2001): 316-320.
  13. Stawarczyk B., et al. “Comparison of four monolithic zirconia materials with conventional ones: contrast ratio, grain size, four-point flexural strength and two-body wear”. Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials 59 (2016): 128-138.
  14. Lawson NC., et al. “Wear of enamel opposing zirconia and lithium disilicate after adjustment, polishing and glazing”. Journal of Dentistry12 (2014): 1586-1591.
  15. Park JH., et al. “Antagonist wear of three CAD/CAM anatomic contour zirconia ceramics”. Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry1 (2014): 20-29.
  16. Jung YS., et al. “A study on the in-vitro wear of the natural tooth structure by opposing zirconia or dental porcelain”. The Journal of Advanced Prosthodontics3 (2010): 111-115.
  17. Lohbauer U and Reich S. “Antagonist wear of monolithic zirconia crowns after 2 years”. Clinical Oral Investigations4 (2017): 1165-1172.
  18. Hamza TA and Sherif RM. “In vitro evaluation of marginal discrepancy of monolithic zirconia restorations fabricated with different CAD-CAM systems”. Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry6 (2017): 762-766.
  19. Flinn BD., et al. “Influence of aging on flexural strength of translucent zirconia for monolithic restorations”. Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry2 (2017): 302-309.
  20. Pereira G., et al. “Mechanical behavior of a Y-TZP ceramic for monolithic restorations: effect of grinding and low-temperature aging”. Materials Science and Engineering: C 63 (2016): 70-77.
  21. Bömicke W., et al. “Short‐term prospective clinical evaluation of monolithic and partially veneered zirconia single crowns”. Journal of Esthetic and Restorative Dentistry1 (2017): 22-30.
  22. Da Silva L. H., et al. “Dental ceramics: A review of new materials and processing methods”. Brazilian Oral Research 31 (2017): 133-146.
  23. Pjetursson BE., et al. “All-ceramic or metal-ceramic tooth-supported fixed dental prostheses (FDPs)? A systematic review of the survival and complication rates. Partm: multiple-unit FDPs”. Dent Mater6 (2015): 624-639.
  24. Lucas LC and Lemons JE. “Biodegradation of restorative metallic systems”. Advances in Dental Research1 (1992): 32-37.
  25. Piconi C and Maccauro G. “Zirconia as a ceramic biomaterial”. Biomaterials1 (1999): 1-25.
  26. Sailer I., et al. “Five-year clinical results of zirconia frameworks for posterior fixed partial dentures”. The International Journal of Prosthodontics4 (2007): 383-388.
  27. Guess PC., et al. “Effect of core design and veneering technique on damage and reliability of Y-TZP-supported crowns”. Dental Materials3 (2013): 307-316.
  28. White SN., et al. “Flexural strength of a layered zirconia and porcelain dental all-ceramic system”. Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry2 (2005): 125-131.
  29. Al-Amleh B., et al. “Influence of veneering porcelain thickness and cooling rate on residual stresses in zirconia molar crowns”. Dental Materials3 (2014): 271-280.
  30. Zhang Y and Lawn BR. “Novel Zirconia Materials in Dentistry”. Journal of Dental Research2 (2018): 140-147.
  31. Schmitter M., et al. “Chipping behaviour of all-ceramic crowns with zirconia framework and CAD/CAM manufactured veneer”. Journal of Dentistry2 (2012): 154-162.
  32. Schmitter M., et al. “Effect on in vitro fracture resistance of the technique used to attach lithium disilicate ceramic veneer to zirconia frameworks”. Dental Materials2 (2014): 122-130.
  33. Choi YS., et al. “In vitro evaluation of fracture strength of zirconia restoration veneered with various ceramic materials”. The Journal of Advanced Prosthodontics3 (2012): 162-169.
  34. Anusavice KJ., et al. “Which mechanical and physical testing methods are relevant for predicting the clinical performance of ceramic-based dental prostheses?” Clinical Oral Implants Research3 (2007): 218-231.
  35. Höland W and Beall GH. “Glass ceramic technology”. 2nd edition. Hoboken: John Wiley and Sons (2012): 550-551.
  36. Höland W., et al. “Clinical applications of glass-ceramics in dentistry”. Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Medicine11 (2006): 1037-1042.
  37. Ritzberger C., et al. “Properties and clinical application of three types of dental glass-ceramics and ceramics for CAD-CAM technologies”. Materials6 (2010): 3700-3713.
  38. Mac Culloch WT. “Advances in dental ceramics”. British Dental Journal8 (1998): 361-365.
  39. Höland W., et al. “A comparison of the microstructure and properties of the IPS Empress 2 and the IPS Empress glass-ceramics”. Journal of Biomedical Materials Research4 (2000): 297-303.
  40. Lin WS., et al. “The effect of core material, veneering porcelain, and fabrication technique on the biaxial flexural strength and weibull analysis of selected dental ceramics”. The Journal of Prosthodontics5 (2012): 353-362.
  41. Quinn JB., et al. “Influence of microstructure and chemistry on the fracture toughness of dental ceramics”. Dental Materials7 (2003): 13-11.
  42. Guazzato M., et al. “Strength, fracture toughness and microstructure of a selection of all-ceramic materials. Part I. Pressable and alumina glass-infiltrated ceramics”. Dental Materials5 (2004): 441-448.
  43. Kern M., et al. “Ten-year outcome of three-unit fixed dental prostheses made from monolithic lithium disilicate ceramic”. Journal of the American Dental Association3 (2012): 234-240.
  44. Schweiger M., et al. “IPS Empress 2: a new pressable high-strength glass-ceramic for esthetic all-ceramic restorations”. Quintessence of Dental Technology 22 (1999): 143-151.
  45. Ritzberger C., et al. “Principles of crystal phase formation in Ivoclar Vivadent glass-ceramics for dental restorations”. Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids 432 (2016): 137-142.
  46. Kang SH., et al. “Flexural strength and microstructure of two lithium disilicate glass ceramics for CAD/CAM restoration in the dental clinic”. Restorative Dentistry and Endodontics3 (2013): 134-140.
  47. Wendler M., et al. “Chairside CAD/CAM materials. Part 2: flexural strength testing”. Dental Materials1 (2017): 99-109.
  48. Silva NR., et al. “Additive CAD/CAM process for dental prostheses”. The Journal of Prosthodontics2 (2011): 93-96.
  49. Belli R., et al. “Chairside CAD/CAM materials. Part 1: measurement of elastic constants and microstructural characterization”. Dental Materials1 (2017): 84-98.
  50. Apel E., et al. “Influence of ZrO2 on the crystallization and properties of lithium disilicate glass-ceramics derived from a multi-component system”. Journal of the European Ceramic Society2-3 (2007): 1571-1577.
  51. Strub JR., et al. “Computer-aided design and fabrication of dental restorations: current systems and future possibilities”. Journal of the American Dental Association9 (2006): 1289-1296.
  52. Gracis S., et al. “A new classification system for all-ceramic and ceramic-like restorative materials”. The International Journal of Prosthodontics3 (2015): 227-235.
  53. Rinke S., et al. “Chairside Fabrication of an all-ceramic partial crown using a zirconia-reinforced lithium silicate ceramic”. Case Reports in Dentistry (2016): ID1354186.
  54. He LH and Swain M. “A novel polymer infiltrated ceramic dental material”. Dental Materials6 (2011): 527-534.
  55. Coldea A., et al. “Damage tolerance of indirect restorative materials (including PICN) after simulated bur adjustments”. Dental Materials6 (2015): 684-694.
  56. Chirumamilla G., et al. “A 2‐year retrospective clinical study of enamic crowns performed in a private practice setting”. Journal of Esthetic and Restorative Dentistry4 (2016): 231-237.
  57. Coldea A., et al. “In-vitro strength degradation of dental ceramics and novel PICN material by sharp indentation”. Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials 26 (2013): 34-42.
  58. Denry I and Kelly JR. “Emerging ceramic-based materials for dentistry”. Journal of Dental Research12 (2014): 1235-1242.
  59. Coldea A., et al. “Mechanical properties of polymer-infiltrated-ceramic-network materials”. Dental Materials4 (2013): 419-426.
  60. Ebert J., et al. “Direct inkjet printing of dental prostheses made of zirconia”. Journal of Dental Research7 (2009): 673-676.
Citation: Georgia Asproudi., et al. “Dental Ceramics: Considerations for New Materials and Processing Methods”. EC Dental Science 21.7 (2022): 106-118.

PubMed Indexed Article


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
LC-UV-MS and MS/MS Characterize Glutathione Reactivity with Different Isomers (2,2' and 2,4' vs. 4,4') of Methylene Diphenyl-Diisocyanate.

PMID: 31143884 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6536005


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Alzheimer's Pathogenesis, Metal-Mediated Redox Stress, and Potential Nanotheranostics.

PMID: 31565701 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6764777


EC Neurology
Differences in Rate of Cognitive Decline and Caregiver Burden between Alzheimer's Disease and Vascular Dementia: a Retrospective Study.

PMID: 27747317 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5065347


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Will Blockchain Technology Transform Healthcare and Biomedical Sciences?

PMID: 31460519 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6711478


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Is it a Prime Time for AI-powered Virtual Drug Screening?

PMID: 30215059 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133253


EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Analysis of Evidence for the Combination of Pro-dopamine Regulator (KB220PAM) and Naltrexone to Prevent Opioid Use Disorder Relapse.

PMID: 30417173 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6226033


EC Anaesthesia
Arrest Under Anesthesia - What was the Culprit? A Case Report.

PMID: 30264037 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6155992


EC Orthopaedics
Distraction Implantation. A New Technique in Total Joint Arthroplasty and Direct Skeletal Attachment.

PMID: 30198026 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6124505


EC Pulmonology and Respiratory Medicine
Prevalence and factors associated with self-reported chronic obstructive pulmonary disease among adults aged 40-79: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2012.

PMID: 30294723 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6169793


EC Dental Science
Important Dental Fiber-Reinforced Composite Molding Compound Breakthroughs

PMID: 29285526 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5743211


EC Microbiology
Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites Among HIV Infected and HIV Uninfected Patients Treated at the 1o De Maio Health Centre in Maputo, Mozambique

PMID: 29911204 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5999047


EC Microbiology
Macrophages and the Viral Dissemination Super Highway

PMID: 26949751 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4774560


EC Microbiology
The Microbiome, Antibiotics, and Health of the Pediatric Population.

PMID: 27390782 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4933318


EC Microbiology
Reactive Oxygen Species in HIV Infection

PMID: 28580453 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5450819


EC Microbiology
A Review of the CD4 T Cell Contribution to Lung Infection, Inflammation and Repair with a Focus on Wheeze and Asthma in the Pediatric Population

PMID: 26280024 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4533840


EC Neurology
Identifying Key Symptoms Differentiating Myalgic Encephalomyelitis and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome from Multiple Sclerosis

PMID: 28066845 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5214344


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Paradigm Shift is the Normal State of Pharmacology

PMID: 28936490 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5604476


EC Neurology
Examining those Meeting IOM Criteria Versus IOM Plus Fibromyalgia

PMID: 28713879 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5510658


EC Neurology
Unilateral Frontosphenoid Craniosynostosis: Case Report and a Review of the Literature

PMID: 28133641 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5267489


EC Ophthalmology
OCT-Angiography for Non-Invasive Monitoring of Neuronal and Vascular Structure in Mouse Retina: Implication for Characterization of Retinal Neurovascular Coupling

PMID: 29333536 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5766278


EC Neurology
Longer Duration of Downslope Treadmill Walking Induces Depression of H-Reflexes Measured during Standing and Walking.

PMID: 31032493 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6483108


EC Microbiology
Onchocerciasis in Mozambique: An Unknown Condition for Health Professionals.

PMID: 30957099 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6448571


EC Nutrition
Food Insecurity among Households with and without Podoconiosis in East and West Gojjam, Ethiopia.

PMID: 30101228 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6086333


EC Ophthalmology
REVIEW. +2 to +3 D. Reading Glasses to Prevent Myopia.

PMID: 31080964 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6508883


EC Gynaecology
Biomechanical Mapping of the Female Pelvic Floor: Uterine Prolapse Versus Normal Conditions.

PMID: 31093608 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6513001


EC Dental Science
Fiber-Reinforced Composites: A Breakthrough in Practical Clinical Applications with Advanced Wear Resistance for Dental Materials.

PMID: 31552397 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6758937


EC Microbiology
Neurocysticercosis in Child Bearing Women: An Overlooked Condition in Mozambique and a Potentially Missed Diagnosis in Women Presenting with Eclampsia.

PMID: 31681909 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824723


EC Microbiology
Molecular Detection of Leptospira spp. in Rodents Trapped in the Mozambique Island City, Nampula Province, Mozambique.

PMID: 31681910 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824726


EC Neurology
Endoplasmic Reticulum-Mitochondrial Cross-Talk in Neurodegenerative and Eye Diseases.

PMID: 31528859 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6746603


EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Can Chronic Consumption of Caffeine by Increasing D2/D3 Receptors Offer Benefit to Carriers of the DRD2 A1 Allele in Cocaine Abuse?

PMID: 31276119 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6604646


EC Anaesthesia
Real Time Locating Systems and sustainability of Perioperative Efficiency of Anesthesiologists.

PMID: 31406965 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6690616


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
A Pilot STEM Curriculum Designed to Teach High School Students Concepts in Biochemical Engineering and Pharmacology.

PMID: 31517314 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6741290


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Toxic Mechanisms Underlying Motor Activity Changes Induced by a Mixture of Lead, Arsenic and Manganese.

PMID: 31633124 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6800226


EC Neurology
Research Volunteers' Attitudes Toward Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and Myalgic Encephalomyelitis.

PMID: 29662969 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5898812


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy for Alzheimer's Disease.

PMID: 30215058 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133268


News and Events


September Issue Release

We always feel pleasure to share our updates with you all. Here, notifying you that we have successfully released the September issue of respective journals and the latest articles can be viewed on the current issue pages.

Submission Deadline for Upcoming Issue

ECronicon delightfully welcomes all the authors around the globe for effective collaboration with an article submission for the upcoming issue of respective journals. Submissions are accepted on/before October 14, 2022.

Certificate of Publication

ECronicon honors with a "Publication Certificate" to the corresponding author by including the names of co-authors as a token of appreciation for publishing the work with our respective journals.

Best Article of the Issue

Editors of respective journals will always be very much interested in electing one Best Article after each issue release. The authors of the selected article will be honored with a "Best Article of the Issue" certificate.

Certifying for Review

ECronicon certifies the Editors for their first review done towards the assigned article of the respective journals.

Latest Articles

The latest articles will be updated immediately on the articles in press page of the respective journals.