Mini Review
Volume 21 Issue 9 - 2022
Dental Fluorosis and Oxidative Stress
Fatima Del Muro Casas1*, Gloria Martha Álvarez Morales1, Nelly Alejandra Rodríguez Guajardo1, Juan Carlos Medrano Rodríguez2 and  Juan Manuel Solis Soto3

1Dental Unit Academy Program, Autonomous University of Zacatecas, Zacatecas, Mexico
2Medical and human health Unit Academy Program, Autonomous University of Zacatecas, Zacatecas, Mexico
3Dental Faculty, Autonomous University of Nuevo León, Monterrey, Mexico
*Corresponding Author: Fatima Del Muro Casas, Dental Unit Academy Program, Autonomous University of Zacatecas, Zacatecas, Pediatric Dentistry Specialty Program, Autonomous University of Zacatecas, Zacatecas, Mexico.
Received: July 30, 2022; Published: August 17, 2022




Abstract

Fluoride is an effective caries prophylactic, but at high doses can also be an environmental health hazard. Acute or chronic exposure to high fluoride doses can result in dental enamel and skeletal and soft tissue fluorosis. Fluorine is one of the most important milestones in the history of dentistry due to its undeniable anti-cariogenic properties. Fluoridation occurs in several ways: in the fluoridation of public water supply, added to table salt, prescribed in drops; in topical applications; in community mouthwash programs; in dentifrices; among others. However, its adverse effects are studied and known when its ingestion reaches levels of chronic or acute toxicity and when fluorosis develops. The amount of fluoride used varies according to the region, taking into account the amount of fluoride present in water, food, and other beverages, plus some habits such as tea consumption and cooking and dehydrating foods with coal-rich in fluorides. In the environment, fluoride is abundant in rocks, groundwater, and soils, originating in soils. Increased concentrations of this element in soils are also a result of the use of groundwater for irrigation and/or increased capillarity of the ground. The state of Zacatecas (Central Noth) in México has high level of fluor in it soil, due the variety of minerals due to all the mines surrounding the area. Dental fluorosis is manifested as mottled, discolored, porous enamel that is susceptible to dental caries. Studies with various in vitro and in vivo systems attempt to understand which cellular damage the fluorides can cause. Among these studies, some authors suggest that fluoride can increase the production of free radicals acting on the oxidative degradation of lipids and promoting changes in cell membrane, leading to the formation of cytotoxic products and consequently cell death. In addition, studies seek answers about the epigenetic or DNA repair system mechanisms, which are still not explained. Some of these studies relate the exposure time and amount of fluorides, animal and human cells, and animals and populations exposed to high fluoride levels with the expression of various genes. This mini review wants to establish the link between dental fluorosis and oxidative stress, such as develop the molecular aspects that fluoride induces cell stress, including endoplasmic reticulum stress and oxidative stress, which leads to impairment of ameloblasts responsible for dental enamel formation.

Keywords: Dental Fluorosis; Oxidative Stress; Fluoride; Enamel Formation

References

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Citation: Fatima Del Muro Casas., et al. “Dental Fluorosis and Oxidative Stress”. EC Dental Science 21.9 (2022): 12-17.

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