Review Article
Volume 19 Issue 1 - 2020
Bilateral Free-End Distal Extension Partial Denture Treatment Options
Fotoula Nikolopoulou1*, Anestis Crhysostomidis2 and Gerasimos Filippatos2
1Assistant Professor of the Dental School, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Greece
2Dental School National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Greece
*Corresponding Author: Fotoula Nikolopoulou, Assistant Professor of the Dental School, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Greece.
Received: November 25, 2019; Published: December 16, 2019


The use of dental implants is not always affordable for many patients. In such situations, removable partial dentures constitute a feasible option. Attachment provides an important psychological and mechanical union in treating patients. The Kennedy Class I partial denture actually may be a combination of both tissue-supported and tooth supported restorations.

The design of the maxillary Class I removable partial denture will be also based on the opposing mandibular teeth, or fixed bridge, or removable partial denture or complete denture.

Solid attachments are indicated when there is a removable partial or complete denture on the opposing jaw.

Resilient attachments can be used when on the opposing jaw there are natural teeth or fixed bridgework.

Keywords: Extra-Coronal; Intra-Coronal Attachment; Solid, Resilient; Partial Denture


  1. Eliason CM. “RPA clasp design for distal-extension removable partial dentures”. Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry 49.1 (1983): 25-27.
  2. Lavere AM. “Analysis of facial surface undercuts to determine use of RPI or RPA clasps”. Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry 56.6 (1986): 741-743.
  3. Maxfield JB., et al. “The measurement of forces transmitted to abutment teeth of removable partial dentures”. Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry 41.2 (1979): 134-142.
  4. McDowell GC and Fisher RL. “Force transmission by indirect retainers when a unilateral dislodging force is applied”. Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry 47.4 (1982): 360-365.
  5. Carr GB and McGivney GP. “McCracken’s Removable Partial Prosthodontics”. 5th edition, Mosby, St Louis (2000): 183-189.
  6. Burns DR., et al. “Removable partial denture design and fabrication survey of the prosthodontics specialist”. Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry 62.3 (1989): 303-307.
  7. Cowles KR. “Partial denture design a simple teaching aid”. Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry 47.2 (1982): 219. 
  8. Krol AJ and Finzen FC. “Rotational path removable partial dentures: part I Replacement of posterior teeth”. International Journal of Prosthodontics 1.1 (1988): 17-27.
  9. Luk K., et al. “Unilateral rotational path removable partial dentures for tilted mandibular molars: design and clinical applications”. Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry 78.1 (1997): 102-105.
  10. Ruiz Nanas MT and Lopez del Campo M. “A new free-end removable partial denture design”. Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry 70.2 (1993): 176-179. 
  11. Mensor MC Jr. “Attachment fixation on the overdentures: part II”. Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry 39.1 (1978): 16-20.
  12. Clayton JA. “A stable base precision attachment removable partial denture (PARPD) theories and principles”. Dental Clinics of North America 24.1 (1980): 3-29.
  13. Staubli PE and Bagley D. “Attachment and implants”. References Manual, 1st edition, Attachments International Inc, San Mateo, CA-USA (2001): 65-74, 75-88, 128-129. 
  14. Stewart BL and Edwards RO. “Retention and wear of precision type attachment”. Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry 49.1 (1983): 28-34.
  15. Bolouri A. “Removable partial denture design for a few remaining natural teeth”. Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry 39.3 (1978): 346-348.
  16. Davenport JC., et al. “The acquisition and validation of removable partial denture design knowledge II. Design rules and expert reaction”. Journal of Oral Rehabilitation 23.12 (1996): 811-824.
  17. Fisher RL and McDowell GC. “Removable partial denture design and potential stress to the periodontium”. International Journal of Periodontics and Restorative Dentistry 4.1 (1984): 34-47.
  18. Mamoun J S. “The path of placement of removable partial denture: a microscope based approach to survey and design”. Journal of Advanced Prosthodontics 7.1 (2015): 76-84.
  19. Altay OT., et al. “Abutment teeth with extra-coronal attachments. The effects of splinting on tooth movement”. International Journal of Prosthodontics 3.5 (1990): 441-448.
  20. Morrison ML. “Internal precision attachments retainers for partial dentures”. Journal of the American Dental Association 64 (1962): 209-215.
  21. Schmitt J., et al. “Five year clinical follow up of prefabricated precision attachments: A comparison of uni and bilateral removable dental prostheses”. Quintessence International 42.5 (2011): 413-418.
  22. Burns DR and Ward JE. “Review of attachments for removable partial denture design, Part I, Classification and selection”. International Journal of Prosthodontics 3.1 (1990): 98-102.
  23. Shetty NB., et al. “Precision attachments for esthetics and function: A case report”. Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research 8.1 (2014): 268-270.
  24. Feinberg E. “Precision attachment case restoration with implant abutments: A review with case reports”. Journal of Oral Implantology 37.4 (2011): 489-498. 
  25. Wang H-Y., et al. “Effects of rigid and non rigid extra-coronal attachments on supporting tissues in extension base partial removable dental prostheses. A nonlinear finite element study”. Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry 105.5 (2011): 338-346.
  26. Owall B. “Precision attachment-retainer removable partial dentures. Part I Technical long-term study”. International Journal of Prosthodontics 4.3 (1991): 249-257.
  27. Nishimura RD., et al. “Photoelastic stress analysis of load transfer to implants and natural teeth comparing rigid and semi rigid connector”. Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry 81.6 (1999): 696-703.
  28. Ahmed AL-Okl., et al. “Stresses Induced by Integrated and Non-integrated Extra-coronal Semi-Precision Attachments for Maxillary Distal Extension Bases”. Al-Azhar Dental Journal for Girls 5.3 (2018): 297-304.
  29. Williamson M. “Selection of resilient type of attachments used in removable partial dentures”. British Prosthetics Journal 5.1 (2005): 125-129.
Citation: Fotoula Nikolopoulou., et al. “Bilateral Free-End Distal Extension Partial Denture Treatment Options”. EC Dental Science 19.1 (2020): 01-07.

PubMed Indexed Article

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
LC-UV-MS and MS/MS Characterize Glutathione Reactivity with Different Isomers (2,2' and 2,4' vs. 4,4') of Methylene Diphenyl-Diisocyanate.

PMID: 31143884 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6536005

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Alzheimer's Pathogenesis, Metal-Mediated Redox Stress, and Potential Nanotheranostics.

PMID: 31565701 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6764777

EC Neurology
Differences in Rate of Cognitive Decline and Caregiver Burden between Alzheimer's Disease and Vascular Dementia: a Retrospective Study.

PMID: 27747317 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5065347

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Will Blockchain Technology Transform Healthcare and Biomedical Sciences?

PMID: 31460519 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6711478

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Is it a Prime Time for AI-powered Virtual Drug Screening?

PMID: 30215059 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133253

EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Analysis of Evidence for the Combination of Pro-dopamine Regulator (KB220PAM) and Naltrexone to Prevent Opioid Use Disorder Relapse.

PMID: 30417173 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6226033

EC Anaesthesia
Arrest Under Anesthesia - What was the Culprit? A Case Report.

PMID: 30264037 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6155992

EC Orthopaedics
Distraction Implantation. A New Technique in Total Joint Arthroplasty and Direct Skeletal Attachment.

PMID: 30198026 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6124505

EC Pulmonology and Respiratory Medicine
Prevalence and factors associated with self-reported chronic obstructive pulmonary disease among adults aged 40-79: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2012.

PMID: 30294723 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6169793

EC Dental Science
Important Dental Fiber-Reinforced Composite Molding Compound Breakthroughs

PMID: 29285526 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5743211

EC Microbiology
Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites Among HIV Infected and HIV Uninfected Patients Treated at the 1o De Maio Health Centre in Maputo, Mozambique

PMID: 29911204 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5999047

EC Microbiology
Macrophages and the Viral Dissemination Super Highway

PMID: 26949751 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4774560

EC Microbiology
The Microbiome, Antibiotics, and Health of the Pediatric Population.

PMID: 27390782 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4933318

EC Microbiology
Reactive Oxygen Species in HIV Infection

PMID: 28580453 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5450819

EC Microbiology
A Review of the CD4 T Cell Contribution to Lung Infection, Inflammation and Repair with a Focus on Wheeze and Asthma in the Pediatric Population

PMID: 26280024 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4533840

EC Neurology
Identifying Key Symptoms Differentiating Myalgic Encephalomyelitis and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome from Multiple Sclerosis

PMID: 28066845 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5214344

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Paradigm Shift is the Normal State of Pharmacology

PMID: 28936490 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5604476

EC Neurology
Examining those Meeting IOM Criteria Versus IOM Plus Fibromyalgia

PMID: 28713879 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5510658

EC Neurology
Unilateral Frontosphenoid Craniosynostosis: Case Report and a Review of the Literature

PMID: 28133641 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5267489

EC Ophthalmology
OCT-Angiography for Non-Invasive Monitoring of Neuronal and Vascular Structure in Mouse Retina: Implication for Characterization of Retinal Neurovascular Coupling

PMID: 29333536 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5766278

EC Neurology
Longer Duration of Downslope Treadmill Walking Induces Depression of H-Reflexes Measured during Standing and Walking.

PMID: 31032493 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6483108

EC Microbiology
Onchocerciasis in Mozambique: An Unknown Condition for Health Professionals.

PMID: 30957099 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6448571

EC Nutrition
Food Insecurity among Households with and without Podoconiosis in East and West Gojjam, Ethiopia.

PMID: 30101228 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6086333

EC Ophthalmology
REVIEW. +2 to +3 D. Reading Glasses to Prevent Myopia.

PMID: 31080964 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6508883

EC Gynaecology
Biomechanical Mapping of the Female Pelvic Floor: Uterine Prolapse Versus Normal Conditions.

PMID: 31093608 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6513001

EC Dental Science
Fiber-Reinforced Composites: A Breakthrough in Practical Clinical Applications with Advanced Wear Resistance for Dental Materials.

PMID: 31552397 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6758937

EC Microbiology
Neurocysticercosis in Child Bearing Women: An Overlooked Condition in Mozambique and a Potentially Missed Diagnosis in Women Presenting with Eclampsia.

PMID: 31681909 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824723

EC Microbiology
Molecular Detection of Leptospira spp. in Rodents Trapped in the Mozambique Island City, Nampula Province, Mozambique.

PMID: 31681910 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824726

EC Neurology
Endoplasmic Reticulum-Mitochondrial Cross-Talk in Neurodegenerative and Eye Diseases.

PMID: 31528859 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6746603

EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Can Chronic Consumption of Caffeine by Increasing D2/D3 Receptors Offer Benefit to Carriers of the DRD2 A1 Allele in Cocaine Abuse?

PMID: 31276119 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6604646

EC Anaesthesia
Real Time Locating Systems and sustainability of Perioperative Efficiency of Anesthesiologists.

PMID: 31406965 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6690616

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
A Pilot STEM Curriculum Designed to Teach High School Students Concepts in Biochemical Engineering and Pharmacology.

PMID: 31517314 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6741290

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Toxic Mechanisms Underlying Motor Activity Changes Induced by a Mixture of Lead, Arsenic and Manganese.

PMID: 31633124 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6800226

EC Neurology
Research Volunteers' Attitudes Toward Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and Myalgic Encephalomyelitis.

PMID: 29662969 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5898812

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy for Alzheimer's Disease.

PMID: 30215058 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133268

News and Events

December Issue Release

We always feel pleasure to share our updates with you all. Here, notifying you that we have successfully released the November issue of respective journals and the latest articles can be viewed on the current issue pages.

Submission Deadline for Upcoming Issue

ECronicon delightfully welcomes all the authors around the globe for effective collaboration with an article submission for the upcoming issue of respective journals. Submissions are accepted on/before December 23, 2022.

Certificate of Publication

ECronicon honors with a "Publication Certificate" to the corresponding author by including the names of co-authors as a token of appreciation for publishing the work with our respective journals.

Best Article of the Issue

Editors of respective journals will always be very much interested in electing one Best Article after each issue release. The authors of the selected article will be honored with a "Best Article of the Issue" certificate.

Certifying for Review

ECronicon certifies the Editors for their first review done towards the assigned article of the respective journals.

Latest Articles

The latest articles will be updated immediately on the articles in press page of the respective journals.