Research Article
Volume 19 Issue 1 - 2020
Bite Force Evaluation of Acetal Resin Denture Base in Kennedy Class I Partially Edentulous Patients
Mohamed Kassem1, Mohamed Saief-Elnasr2, Yasser Baraka3 and Mohamed A Helal2*
1Assistant Lecturer, Removable Prosthodontic Department, Faculty of Dental Medicine, Al-Azhar University, Egypt
2Professor, Removable Prosthodontic Department, Faculty of Dental Medicine, Al-Azhar University, Egypt
3Assistant Professor, Removable Prosthodontic Department, Faculty of Dental Medicine, Sinai University, Egypt
*Corresponding Author: Mohamed Helal, Al-Azhar University, Faculty of Dentistry, Department of Removable Prosthodontics, AlmokhyamAldaem St., Nasr Road, 11884 Nasr City, Cairo, Egypt.
Received: November 05, 2019; Published: December 24, 2019


Objective: The Objective was to evaluate the bite force in metallic and thermoplastic acetal resin denture bases in bi-lateral free end saddle cases at three and six months after denture insertion.

Materials and Methods: Twenty-four partially edentulous patients with mandibular Kennedy Class I were randomly selected. Written informed consent was taken from all selected patients after explaining the detailed treatment protocol as per the patient information sheet. The patients were assigned into two groups (twelve patients in each group). Group 1: Patients received metallic RPD. Group 2: Patients received thermoplastic acetal resin RPD. For each patient, bite force was measured at three and six month's follow-up periods using occlusal force meter device, [GM10® - Nagano Keiki Co. LTD. - J. Morita Co. -Japan].

Results: The results of the current study revealed that, the biting force significantly increased in metallic dentures more than thermoplastic acetal resin one in all follow-up periods.

Conclusion: The thermoplastic acetal denture base accompanied with decreased biting force.

Keywords: Bite Force; Acetal Resin; Edentulous Patients


  1. Naylor WP and RC Manor. “Fabrication of a flexible prosthesis for the edentulous scleroderma patient with microstomia”. Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry 50.4 (1983): 536-538.
  2. Kapur KK and NR Garrett. “Studies of biologic parameters for denture design. Part II: Comparison of masseter muscle activity, masticatory performance, and salivary secretion rates between denture and natural dentition groups”. Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry 52.3 (1984): 408-413.
  3. Michael CG., et al. “Biting strength and chewing forces in complete denture wearers”. Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry 63.5 (1990): 549-553.
  4. Mohamed GF. “Clinical evaluation of the efficacy of soft acrylic denture compared to conventional one when restoring severely resorbed edentulous ridge”. Cairo Dental Journal 24.2 (2008): 313-323.
  5. Tatematsu M., et al. “Masticatory performance in 80-year-old individuals”. Gerodontology 21.2 (2004): 112-119.
  6. Holm-Pedersen P., et al. “Tooth loss and subsequent disability and mortality in old age”. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society 56.3 (2008): 429-435.
  7. Newton JP., et al. “Changes in human jaw muscles with age and dental state”. Gerodontology 10.1 (1993): 16-22.
  8. Rosa LB., et al. “Bite force and masticatory efficiency in individuals with different oral rehabilitations”. Open Journal of Stomatology 2 (2012): 21-26.
  9. Borie E., et al. “Maximum bite force in elderly indigenous and non-indigenous denture wearers”. Acta Odontológica Latinoamericana 27.3 (2014): 115-119.
  10. Iinuma T., et al. “Maximum occlusal force and physical performance in the oldest old: the Tokyo oldest old survey on total health”. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society 60.1 (2012): 68-76.
  11. Moynihan P., et al. “Researching the impact of oral health on diet and nutritional status: methodological issues”. Journal of Dentistry 37.4 (2009): 237-249.
  12. Hildebrandt GH., et al. “Functional units, chewing, swallowing, and food avoidance among the elderly”. Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry 77.6 (1997): 588-595.
  13. Hamalainen P., et al. “Oral health status and change in handgrip strength over a 5-year period in 80-year-old people”. Gerodontology 21.3 (2004): 155-160.
  14. Fontijn-Tekamp FA., et al. “Biting and chewing in overdentures, full dentures, and natural dentitions”. Journal of Dental Research 79.7 (2000): 1519-1524.
  15. Slagter AP., et al. “Comminution of two artificial test foods by dentate and edentulous subjects”. Journal of Oral Rehabilitation 20.2 (1993): 159-176.
  16. Mousa MA., et al. “Masticatory efficiency and muscular activity in removable partial dental prostheses with different cusp angles”. Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry 28.3 (2016): 160-176.
  17. Kamiyama M., et al. “Validity and reliability of a Self-Implementable method to evaluate masticatory performance: use of color-changeable chewing gum and a color scale”. Journal of Prosthodontic Research 54.1 (2010): 24-28.
  18. Hama Y., et al. “Properties of a color-changeable chewing gum used to evaluate masticatory performance”. Journal of Prosthodontic Research 58.2 (2014): 102-106.
  19. Kaplan P. “Flexible partial denture variations. The use of circumferential, combination, and continuous clasp designs”. Dental Today 31.10 (2012): 138-141.
  20. Shah VR., et al. “Evaluation of flexural strength and color stability of different denture base materials including flexible material after using different denture cleansers”. The Journal of Indian Prosthodontic Society 15.4 (2015): 367-373.
  21. Singh K., et al. “Flexible thermoplastic denture base materials for aesthetical removable partial denture framework”. JCDR - Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research 7.10 (2013): 2372-2373.
  22. Abd-Elrahman IA., et al. “Evaluation of fatigue resistance of acetal resin and cobalt–chromium removable partial denture clasps. An in-vitro study: Part 1”. Journal of Dentistry and Oral Care Medicine 2 (2016): 304.
  23. Helal MA., et al. “Evaluation of Acetal Resin and Cobalt–Chromium Clasp Deformation and Fatigue Resistance in Removable Partial Denture Clasps - An In Vitro Study”. Journal of Clinical Research Dental 1.1 (2018): 1-5.
  24. Abhay PN and S Karishma. “Comparative evaluation of impact and flexural strength of four commercially available flexible denture base materials: an in vitro study”. The Journal of Indian Prosthodontic Society 13.4 (2013): 499-508.
  25. Hill EE., et al. “Flexible removable partial dentures: a basic overview”. General Dentistry 62.2 (2014): 32-36.
  26. Ishikawa Y., et al. “Evaluations of masticatory performance of complete denture wearers using color-changeable chewing gum and other evaluating methods”. Journal of Research in Medical and Dental Science 54.1 (2007): 65-70.
  27. FatmaELzahraa A., et al. “Effect of Different Clasps on Asymmetric Distal Extension Base Supporting Structures”. Journal of American Science 9 (2013): 508-519.
  28. Wyngoarden JB., et al. “Cxecil’s text book of medicine”. 19th edition, Philadelphia: WB, Sanders Co (1992): 1401.
  29. Von Gonten AS. “Nocturnal electromyographic evaluation of masseter muscle activity in the complete denture patient”. Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry 56 (1986): 624-629.
  30. Panno VF. “Crown preparation for semiprecision attachment. Removable partial dentures”. Dental Clinics of North America 29 (1985): 117-129.
  31. Lammie GL and Laird WRE. “Osborne and Lammie's partial dentures”. Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford, London, 5th edition: 289-316.
  32. Carlsson GE., et al. “Changes in contour of the maxillary alveolar process under immediate denture. A longitudinal, clinical and xraycephalometric study covering 5 years”. Acta Odontologica Scandinavica 25 (1967): 44-75.
  33. Atwood DA and Coy WA. “Clinical, cephalometric and densitometric study of reduction of residual ridges”. Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry 26 (1971): 280-295.
  34. Shifman A and Ben-Ur Z. “The mandibular first premolar as an abutment for distalextension removable partial dentures: A modified clasp assembly design”. British Dental Journal 188.5 (2000): 246-248.
  35. DeBoer J. “The effects on function of distal extension removable partial dentures as determined by occlusal rest position”. Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry 60 (1988): 693-696.
  36. Samiksha VK and Bhowate RR. “Evaluation and comparison of alveolar bone loss of maxilla and mandible in completely edentulous patients on digital panoramic radiographs”. Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology and Oral Radiology 2 (2016): 112.
  37. Alhaija E., et al. “Maximum occlusal bite forces in Jordanian individuals with different dentofacial vertical skeletal patterns”. The European Journal of Orthodontics 32 (2010): 71-77.
  38. Bakke M. “Unilateral, isometric bite force in 8-68-year-old women and men related to occlusal factors”. Scandinavian Journal of Dental Research 98 (1990): 149-158.
Citation: Mohamed A Helal., et al. “Bite Force Evaluation of Acetal Resin Denture Base in Kennedy Class I Partially Edentulous Patients”. EC Dental Science 19.1 (2020): 01-08.

PubMed Indexed Article

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
LC-UV-MS and MS/MS Characterize Glutathione Reactivity with Different Isomers (2,2' and 2,4' vs. 4,4') of Methylene Diphenyl-Diisocyanate.

PMID: 31143884 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6536005

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Alzheimer's Pathogenesis, Metal-Mediated Redox Stress, and Potential Nanotheranostics.

PMID: 31565701 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6764777

EC Neurology
Differences in Rate of Cognitive Decline and Caregiver Burden between Alzheimer's Disease and Vascular Dementia: a Retrospective Study.

PMID: 27747317 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5065347

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Will Blockchain Technology Transform Healthcare and Biomedical Sciences?

PMID: 31460519 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6711478

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Is it a Prime Time for AI-powered Virtual Drug Screening?

PMID: 30215059 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133253

EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Analysis of Evidence for the Combination of Pro-dopamine Regulator (KB220PAM) and Naltrexone to Prevent Opioid Use Disorder Relapse.

PMID: 30417173 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6226033

EC Anaesthesia
Arrest Under Anesthesia - What was the Culprit? A Case Report.

PMID: 30264037 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6155992

EC Orthopaedics
Distraction Implantation. A New Technique in Total Joint Arthroplasty and Direct Skeletal Attachment.

PMID: 30198026 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6124505

EC Pulmonology and Respiratory Medicine
Prevalence and factors associated with self-reported chronic obstructive pulmonary disease among adults aged 40-79: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2012.

PMID: 30294723 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6169793

EC Dental Science
Important Dental Fiber-Reinforced Composite Molding Compound Breakthroughs

PMID: 29285526 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5743211

EC Microbiology
Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites Among HIV Infected and HIV Uninfected Patients Treated at the 1o De Maio Health Centre in Maputo, Mozambique

PMID: 29911204 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5999047

EC Microbiology
Macrophages and the Viral Dissemination Super Highway

PMID: 26949751 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4774560

EC Microbiology
The Microbiome, Antibiotics, and Health of the Pediatric Population.

PMID: 27390782 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4933318

EC Microbiology
Reactive Oxygen Species in HIV Infection

PMID: 28580453 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5450819

EC Microbiology
A Review of the CD4 T Cell Contribution to Lung Infection, Inflammation and Repair with a Focus on Wheeze and Asthma in the Pediatric Population

PMID: 26280024 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4533840

EC Neurology
Identifying Key Symptoms Differentiating Myalgic Encephalomyelitis and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome from Multiple Sclerosis

PMID: 28066845 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5214344

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Paradigm Shift is the Normal State of Pharmacology

PMID: 28936490 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5604476

EC Neurology
Examining those Meeting IOM Criteria Versus IOM Plus Fibromyalgia

PMID: 28713879 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5510658

EC Neurology
Unilateral Frontosphenoid Craniosynostosis: Case Report and a Review of the Literature

PMID: 28133641 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5267489

EC Ophthalmology
OCT-Angiography for Non-Invasive Monitoring of Neuronal and Vascular Structure in Mouse Retina: Implication for Characterization of Retinal Neurovascular Coupling

PMID: 29333536 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5766278

EC Neurology
Longer Duration of Downslope Treadmill Walking Induces Depression of H-Reflexes Measured during Standing and Walking.

PMID: 31032493 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6483108

EC Microbiology
Onchocerciasis in Mozambique: An Unknown Condition for Health Professionals.

PMID: 30957099 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6448571

EC Nutrition
Food Insecurity among Households with and without Podoconiosis in East and West Gojjam, Ethiopia.

PMID: 30101228 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6086333

EC Ophthalmology
REVIEW. +2 to +3 D. Reading Glasses to Prevent Myopia.

PMID: 31080964 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6508883

EC Gynaecology
Biomechanical Mapping of the Female Pelvic Floor: Uterine Prolapse Versus Normal Conditions.

PMID: 31093608 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6513001

EC Dental Science
Fiber-Reinforced Composites: A Breakthrough in Practical Clinical Applications with Advanced Wear Resistance for Dental Materials.

PMID: 31552397 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6758937

EC Microbiology
Neurocysticercosis in Child Bearing Women: An Overlooked Condition in Mozambique and a Potentially Missed Diagnosis in Women Presenting with Eclampsia.

PMID: 31681909 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824723

EC Microbiology
Molecular Detection of Leptospira spp. in Rodents Trapped in the Mozambique Island City, Nampula Province, Mozambique.

PMID: 31681910 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824726

EC Neurology
Endoplasmic Reticulum-Mitochondrial Cross-Talk in Neurodegenerative and Eye Diseases.

PMID: 31528859 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6746603

EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Can Chronic Consumption of Caffeine by Increasing D2/D3 Receptors Offer Benefit to Carriers of the DRD2 A1 Allele in Cocaine Abuse?

PMID: 31276119 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6604646

EC Anaesthesia
Real Time Locating Systems and sustainability of Perioperative Efficiency of Anesthesiologists.

PMID: 31406965 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6690616

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
A Pilot STEM Curriculum Designed to Teach High School Students Concepts in Biochemical Engineering and Pharmacology.

PMID: 31517314 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6741290

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Toxic Mechanisms Underlying Motor Activity Changes Induced by a Mixture of Lead, Arsenic and Manganese.

PMID: 31633124 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6800226

EC Neurology
Research Volunteers' Attitudes Toward Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and Myalgic Encephalomyelitis.

PMID: 29662969 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5898812

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy for Alzheimer's Disease.

PMID: 30215058 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133268

News and Events

December Issue Release

We always feel pleasure to share our updates with you all. Here, notifying you that we have successfully released the November issue of respective journals and the latest articles can be viewed on the current issue pages.

Submission Deadline for Upcoming Issue

ECronicon delightfully welcomes all the authors around the globe for effective collaboration with an article submission for the upcoming issue of respective journals. Submissions are accepted on/before December 23, 2022.

Certificate of Publication

ECronicon honors with a "Publication Certificate" to the corresponding author by including the names of co-authors as a token of appreciation for publishing the work with our respective journals.

Best Article of the Issue

Editors of respective journals will always be very much interested in electing one Best Article after each issue release. The authors of the selected article will be honored with a "Best Article of the Issue" certificate.

Certifying for Review

ECronicon certifies the Editors for their first review done towards the assigned article of the respective journals.

Latest Articles

The latest articles will be updated immediately on the articles in press page of the respective journals.