Research Article
Volume 19 Issue 1 - 2020
Control of Somatostatin Receptor 2 (SSTR2) by Proinflammatory, Microbial and Obesity-Associated Signals in Gingival Crevicular Fluid (GCF), Role of Visfatin and Other Adipokines in Obesity with Periodontitis, Besides Diurnal Rhythms-A Systemic Review to Update the Association of Oral Health with Obesity
Kulvinder Kochar Kaur1*, Gautam Allahbadia2 and Mandeep Singh3
1Scientific Director, Dr Kulvinder Kaur Centre for Human Reproduction, Jalandhar, Punjab, India
2Scientific Director, Rotunda-A Centre for Human Reproduction, Mumbai, India
3Consultant Neurologist, Swami Satyanand Hospital, Jalandhar, Punjab, India
*Corresponding Author: Kulvinder Kochar Kaur, Scientific Director, Dr Kulvinder Kaur Centre for Human Reproduction, Jalandhar, Punjab, India.
Received: November 01, 2019; Published: December 05, 2019


With the obesity epidemic getting out of control-simultaneous increase in comorbidities is rising as well like type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), metabolic syndrome (MetS) and increased chances of cardiovascular mortality. Hence need of the hour is to control the related causes associated with aetiopathogenesis. Earlier we have emphasized on the role of oral health in obesity. Here we update the information by showing a correlation of presence of somatostatin (SST) in gingival tissues and crevicular fluid (GCF) and how SSTR2 (SST receptor 2) is regulated by proinflammatory, microbial and obesity associated signals in periodontal cells and tissues. With the antiproliferative, antiangiogenic and antiapoptotic actions of SST, SSTR2 might be playing an important role in the aetiopathogenesis of periodontitis. Further we have emphasized on the role of visfatin in aetiopathogesis of obesity and periodontitis besides other cytokines. Role of circadian rhythms and poor lifestyle habits might be responsible especially in children for higher incidence of obesity and periodontitis. Further importance of losing weight emphasizes on how adiponectin improves while tumor necrosis alpha (TNF-α) falls in GCF and helps in curing periodontitis as well. Use of metformin in type 1 obesity was found to be helpful in reducing obesity and periodontitis, reducing the metalloproteinases 1, 3, 8, V that are present in periodontium of obese subjects.

Keywords: SSTR2; GCF; Visfatin; Adiponectin; Metformin; Periodontitis; Obesity


    1. Kulvinder Kochar Kaur., et al. “An update on a etiopathogenesis and pathogenesis of obesity”. Obesity and Control Therapies1 (2016): 1-17.
    2. Kulvinder Kochar Kaur., et al. “Correlation of Poor Oral Hygiene with Obesity-A Mini Review”. EC Dental Science6 (2018): 1304-1318.
    3. Kulvinder Kochar Kaur., et al. “Obesity, Diabetes Mellitus and Oral Health: A Comprehensive Review with Emphasis on Geographical Area Childhood Obesity and Prevention along with Role of Breast Feeding”. EC Dental Science10 (2018): 1-11.
    4. Kulvinder Kochar Kaur., et al. “Correlation of Poor Oral Health (POH) with Obesity in Extremes of Age with Role of Excessive Sugars in Childhood Obesity and Oral Salivary Molecule Use for Prognosis of Cardiovascular Events like Acute Myocardial Infarction in Elderly with POH and Obesity-A Review”. EC Dental Science2 (2019): 1-11.
    5. Kulvinder Kochar Kaur., et al. “With the Advancement of Knowledge Regarding Correlation of Oral Health and Obesity Role of Dentist Emphasized to Act in Prevention of Further Progression, along with Association with Pregnancy, Fetal Macrosomia, Beta 3 Adrenergic Receptor Polymorphisms, Energy Drinks”. EC Dental Science8 (2019): 1927-1938.
    6. Kulvinder Kochar Kaur., et al. “Association of Poor Oral Health (OH) with Obesity-Further Emphasis on Childhood OH, Including Salivary Parameters, Reduction in Sweetened Beverages, Tax on Same, CGAS Regarding SNP Associated with Obesity, OH, Metal Changes in Tooth and Blood and Association with T2DM and Metabolic Syndrome in Elderly”. EC Dental Science6 (2019).
    7. Kulvinder Kochar Kaur., et al. “Obesity and Oral Health-Emphasis on Early childhood caries’(ECC) and trying to implement prevention strategies right from neonatal age besides updating on other causes of the same-A Mini Review’’. EC Dental Science11(2019): 51-60.
    8. Slots J. “Periodontitis facts, fellacies and future”. Periodontology 2000 75 (2017): 7-25.
    9. Beikler T and Fleming TF. “Oral-biofilm –associated diseases: trends and implications for quality of life, systemic health and expenditures”. Periodontology 2000 55 (2011): 87-103.
    10. Holt SC and Ebersole JL. “Porphyromonas gingivalis. Treponema denticola and Tannerella forsythia: the red complex, a prototype polybacterial pathogenic consortium in Periodontitis”. Periodontology 2000 38 (2005): 72-122.
    11. Pihlstrom PL., et al. “Periodontal diseases”. Lancet 366 (2005): 1809-1820.
    12. Yucel-Lindberg T and Bage T. “Inflammatory mediators in the pathogenesis of Periodontitis”. Expert Reviews in Molecular Medicine 7 (2013): 181-188.
    13. Suvan J., et al. “Association between chronic Periodontal disease and obesity: a systematic review”. Obesity Reviews 12 (2011): e381-404.
    14. Chavarry NG., et al. “The relationship between diabetes mellitus and destructive Periodontal diseases: a meta-analysis”. Oral Health and Preventive Dentistry 7 (2009): 107-127.
    15. Nibali L., et al. “Association between metabolic syndrome and Periodontitis: a systematic review and meta-analysis”. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 98 (2013): 913-920.
    16. Deschner J., et al. “The role of adipokines in periodontal infection and healing”. Molecular Oral Microbiology 29 (2014): 258-269.
    17. Conde J., et al. “Adipokines: biofactors from white adipose tissue. A complex hub among inflammation, metabolism and immunity”. Biofactors 37 (2011): 413-420.
    18. Cinkaizlova A., et al. “Lymphocytes and macrophages in adipose tissue in obesity: markers or makers of inflammation?”. Protoplasma3 (2017): 219-232.
    19. Raucci R., et al. “Functional and structural features of adipokine family?” Cytokine 33 (2013): 2-13.
    20. Considine RV., et al. “Serum immunoreactive concentrations in normal-weight and obese humans”. The New England Journal of Medicine 334 (1996): 292-295.
    21. Taskesen D., et al. “Serum visfatin levels , adiposity and glucose metabolism in obese adolescents”. Journal of Clinical Research İn Pediatric Endocrinology 4 (2012): 76-81.
    22. , et al. “Visfatin in overweight/obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus , insulin resistance , metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disorders: a meta-analysis and systematic review”. Diabetes/Metabolism Research and Reviews 27 (2011): 515-527.
    23. Kanoriya D., et al. “Correlation of crevicular fluid and serum levels of retinol binding protein 4 and leptin in chronic Periodontitis and obesity”. Clinical Oral Investigations 21 (2017): 2319-2325.
    24. Daranaki A., et al. “Regulation of NAMPT in human gingival fibroblasts and biopsies”. Mediators of Inflammation 2014 (2014): 912821.
    25. Nokhbehsaim M., et al. “Leptin effect s on the regenerative capacity oh human periodontal cells”. International Journal of Endocrinology (2014): 180304.
    26. Rai U., et al. “Therapeutic uses of somatostatin and its analogues: current view and potential applications”. Pharmacology and Therapeutics 152 (2015): 98-110.
    27. Imhof AK., et al. “Differential anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive effects of the somatostatin analogs octreotide and pasireotide in a mouse model of immunomediated arthritis”. Arthritis and Rheumatology 63 (2011): 2352-2362.
    28. Luthman J., et al. “Immunohistochemical markers in gingiva obtained from Periodontitis affected sites”. Journal of Periodontal Research 24 (1989): 267-278.
    29. Luthman J., et al. “Immunohistochemical Studies of the neurochemical markers , CGRP, enkephalin , galanin , gamma-MSH, NPY, PHI, Proctolin , PTH, somatostatin, SP, VIP, tyrosine hydroxylase and neurofilaments in nerve cells of the human attached gingival”. Archives of Oral Biology 33 (1988): 149-158.
    30. Luthman J., et al. “Immunohistochemical Study of the Neuronal markers in human gingival with phenytoin induced overgrowth”. Scandinavian Journal of Dental Research 33 (1988): 149-158.
    31. Mei S., et al. “Mechanism underlying somatostatin receptor2 down regulation of vascular endothelial growth factor expression in response to hypoxia in mouse retinal explants”. The Journal of Pathology 226 (2012): 519-533.
    32. Boss hardt DD. “Biological mediators and Periodontal regeneration: a review of enamel matrix protein at the cellular and molecular levels”. Journal of Clinical Periodontology 35 (2008): 87-105.
    33. Dal Monte M., et al. “Antiangiogenic role of somatostatin receptor2 in a mouse model of hypoxia-induced neovascularisation in the retina: results from transgenic mice”. Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science 48 (2007): 3480-3489.
    34. Papathanasou ND., et al. “99mTc –depreotide in the evaluation of bone infection and inflammation”. Nuclear Medicine Communications 29 (2009): 239-246.
    35. Memmert S., et al. “Regulation of somatostatin receptor2 by proinflammatory, microbial and obesity-related signals in Periodontal cells and tissues”. Head and Face Medicine 15 (2019): 2.
    36. Cetiner D., et al. “The role of visfatin in Gingival Cervicular Fluid as a potential biomarker in the relationship between obesity and Periodontal disease”. Journal of Applied Oral Science 27 (2019): e20180365.
    37. Vivekannanda L and Faizuddin M. “Impact of weight reduction on adiponectin and TNF-α Levels in the Gingival Cervicular Fluids of Obese Patients with and without Periodontal disease”. The Journal of Contemporary Dental Practice3 (2019): 355-362.
    38. Basconez-Martinez A., et al. “Periodontal disease and diabetes-review of the literature”. Medicina Oral Patologia Oral Cirugia Bucal 16 (2011): e722-729.
    39. Jenabian N., et al. “Periodontal status of patient’s underwent haemodialysis therapy”. Caspian Journal of Internal Medicine 4 (2013): 658-661.
    40. Mohamed HG., et al. “Influence of type2 diabetes on local production of Inflammatory molecules in adults with and without chronic Periodontitis: a cross sectional study”. BMC Oral Health 15 (2015): 86.
    41. Pauno Martin N., et al. “Caries, Periodontal diseases and tooth loss in patients with diabetes mellitus type 1and 2”. Acta odontológica Latinoamericana 21 (2008): 127-133.
    42. Mesgarani A., et al. “Frequency of odontogenic periradicular lesions in diabetic patients”. Caspian Journal of Internal Medicine 5 (2014): 22-25.
    43. Barnes VM., et al. “Global metabolomic analysis of human saliva and plasma from healthy and diabetic subjects with and without Periodontal disease”. PLoS One 9 (2014): e105181.
    44. Ribeiro FV., et al. “Cytokines and bone-related factors in systemically healthy patients with chronic Periodontitis”. Journal of Periodontology 82 (2011): 1187-1196.
    45. Iwakura Y., et al. “IL-23/IL-17 axis in Inflammation”. Journal of Clinical Investigation 116 (2006): 1218-1222.
    46. Li X., et al. “IL-35is a novel responsive anti-inflammatory cytokine –a new system of categorizing anti Inflammatory cytokines”. PLoS One 7 (2012): e33628.
    47. Santos VR., et al. “Cytokines Levels in sites of chronic Periodontitis of poorly controlled and well controlled type 2 diabetic subjects”. Journal of Clinical Periodontology 37 (2010): 1049-1058.
    48. Maboudi A., et al. “Serum levels of interleukin-23 and 35 in patients with and without type 2 diabetes mellitus and chronic Periodontitis”. Caspian Journal of Internal Medicine3 (2019): 295-302.
    49. Roenneberg T., et al. “Social jetlag and obesity”. Current Biology 22 (2012): 939-943.
    50. Ferguson DB., et al. “Circadian rhythms in human resting submandibular saliva flow and composition”. Archives of Oral Biology 19 (1974): 47-55.
    51. Shirakawa T., et al. “Circadian rhythms in S-IgA and cortisol in whole saliva-Compensatory mechanisms of oral immune system for nocturnal fall of saliva secretion”. Pediatric Dental Journal (2004).
    52. Vujovic N., et al. “Sympathetic input modulates, but does not determine , phase of peripheral circadian oscillators”. American Journal of Physiology-Regulatory, Integrative Physiology 295 (2008): r355-360.
    53. Nirvani M., et al. “Circadian rhythms and gene expression during mouse molar tooth development”. Acta Odontologica Scandinavica 75 (2017): 144-153.
    54. Janjic K., et al. “Expression of Circadian core clock genes in fibroblasts of human gingival and periodontal ligament is modulated by L-Mimosine and hypoxia in monolayer and spheroid cultures”. Archives of Oral Biology 79 (2017): 95-99.
    55. Nishide SY., et al. “The Circadian pacemaker in the cultured suprachiasmatic nucleus from pup mice is highly sensitive to external perturbations”. European Journal of Neuroscience 27 (2008): 2686-2690.
    56. Harris R., et al. “Risk factors for dental caries in young children : a systematic review of the literature”. Community Dental Health 21 (2004): 71-85.
    57. Grindefjord M., et al. “Prediction of dental caries development in 1 year-old children”. Caries Research 29 (1995): 343-348.
    58. Thibodeau EA., et al. “Salivary mutans streptococcus and caries development in the primary and mixed dentitions of the children”. Community Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology 77 (1999): 406-412.
    59. Nishide S., et al. “Daily life habits associated with eveningness lead to h higher prevalence of dental caries in children”. Journal of Dental Sciences 14 (2019): 302-308.
    60. Gawron-Skarbek A., et al. “Salivary and plasma native and non urate total antioxidant capacity versus oral health status in older non smoking adults”. Archives of Oral Biology 107 (2019): 104515.
    61. Gomes-Filho IS., et al. “Obesity and periodontitis are not associated in pregnant women”. Journal of Periodontology Res (2019).
    62. Khan S., et al. “Obesity and periodontitis in Australian adults : A population –based cross-sectional study”. International Dental Journal (2019).
    63. Gupta S., et al. “Status of tobacco Smoking and Diabetes with Periodontal diseases”. Journal of Nepal Medical Association213 (2018): 818-24.
    64. Micheloglannakis D., et al. “Influence of increased body mass index on orthodontic tooth movement and related parameters in children and adolescents: a systematic review of longitudinal controlled clinical studies”. Journal of Orthodontics 14 (2019): 1465312519873669.
    65. Manohar N., et al. “Obesity and dental caries in early childhood : a systematic review protocol”. JBI Database of Systematic Reviews and Implementation (2019).
    66. Zuniga Curz CA., et al. “Effect of the management of class 1 obesity with metformin on metalloproteinase activity in patients with chronic periodontitis”. Nutricion Hospitalaria5 (2019): 1095-1100.
Citation: Kulvinder Kochar Kaur., et al. “Control of Somatostatin Receptor 2 (SSTR2) by Proinflammatory, Microbial and Obesity-Associated Signals in Gingival Crevicular Fluid (GCF), Role of Visfatin and Other Adipokines in Obesity with Periodontitis, Besides Diurnal Rhythms-A Systemic Review to Update the Association of Oral Health with Obesity”. EC Dental Science 19.1 (2020): 01-11.

PubMed Indexed Article

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
LC-UV-MS and MS/MS Characterize Glutathione Reactivity with Different Isomers (2,2' and 2,4' vs. 4,4') of Methylene Diphenyl-Diisocyanate.

PMID: 31143884 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6536005

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Alzheimer's Pathogenesis, Metal-Mediated Redox Stress, and Potential Nanotheranostics.

PMID: 31565701 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6764777

EC Neurology
Differences in Rate of Cognitive Decline and Caregiver Burden between Alzheimer's Disease and Vascular Dementia: a Retrospective Study.

PMID: 27747317 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5065347

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Will Blockchain Technology Transform Healthcare and Biomedical Sciences?

PMID: 31460519 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6711478

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Is it a Prime Time for AI-powered Virtual Drug Screening?

PMID: 30215059 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133253

EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Analysis of Evidence for the Combination of Pro-dopamine Regulator (KB220PAM) and Naltrexone to Prevent Opioid Use Disorder Relapse.

PMID: 30417173 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6226033

EC Anaesthesia
Arrest Under Anesthesia - What was the Culprit? A Case Report.

PMID: 30264037 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6155992

EC Orthopaedics
Distraction Implantation. A New Technique in Total Joint Arthroplasty and Direct Skeletal Attachment.

PMID: 30198026 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6124505

EC Pulmonology and Respiratory Medicine
Prevalence and factors associated with self-reported chronic obstructive pulmonary disease among adults aged 40-79: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2012.

PMID: 30294723 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6169793

EC Dental Science
Important Dental Fiber-Reinforced Composite Molding Compound Breakthroughs

PMID: 29285526 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5743211

EC Microbiology
Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites Among HIV Infected and HIV Uninfected Patients Treated at the 1o De Maio Health Centre in Maputo, Mozambique

PMID: 29911204 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5999047

EC Microbiology
Macrophages and the Viral Dissemination Super Highway

PMID: 26949751 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4774560

EC Microbiology
The Microbiome, Antibiotics, and Health of the Pediatric Population.

PMID: 27390782 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4933318

EC Microbiology
Reactive Oxygen Species in HIV Infection

PMID: 28580453 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5450819

EC Microbiology
A Review of the CD4 T Cell Contribution to Lung Infection, Inflammation and Repair with a Focus on Wheeze and Asthma in the Pediatric Population

PMID: 26280024 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4533840

EC Neurology
Identifying Key Symptoms Differentiating Myalgic Encephalomyelitis and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome from Multiple Sclerosis

PMID: 28066845 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5214344

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Paradigm Shift is the Normal State of Pharmacology

PMID: 28936490 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5604476

EC Neurology
Examining those Meeting IOM Criteria Versus IOM Plus Fibromyalgia

PMID: 28713879 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5510658

EC Neurology
Unilateral Frontosphenoid Craniosynostosis: Case Report and a Review of the Literature

PMID: 28133641 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5267489

EC Ophthalmology
OCT-Angiography for Non-Invasive Monitoring of Neuronal and Vascular Structure in Mouse Retina: Implication for Characterization of Retinal Neurovascular Coupling

PMID: 29333536 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5766278

EC Neurology
Longer Duration of Downslope Treadmill Walking Induces Depression of H-Reflexes Measured during Standing and Walking.

PMID: 31032493 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6483108

EC Microbiology
Onchocerciasis in Mozambique: An Unknown Condition for Health Professionals.

PMID: 30957099 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6448571

EC Nutrition
Food Insecurity among Households with and without Podoconiosis in East and West Gojjam, Ethiopia.

PMID: 30101228 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6086333

EC Ophthalmology
REVIEW. +2 to +3 D. Reading Glasses to Prevent Myopia.

PMID: 31080964 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6508883

EC Gynaecology
Biomechanical Mapping of the Female Pelvic Floor: Uterine Prolapse Versus Normal Conditions.

PMID: 31093608 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6513001

EC Dental Science
Fiber-Reinforced Composites: A Breakthrough in Practical Clinical Applications with Advanced Wear Resistance for Dental Materials.

PMID: 31552397 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6758937

EC Microbiology
Neurocysticercosis in Child Bearing Women: An Overlooked Condition in Mozambique and a Potentially Missed Diagnosis in Women Presenting with Eclampsia.

PMID: 31681909 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824723

EC Microbiology
Molecular Detection of Leptospira spp. in Rodents Trapped in the Mozambique Island City, Nampula Province, Mozambique.

PMID: 31681910 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824726

EC Neurology
Endoplasmic Reticulum-Mitochondrial Cross-Talk in Neurodegenerative and Eye Diseases.

PMID: 31528859 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6746603

EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Can Chronic Consumption of Caffeine by Increasing D2/D3 Receptors Offer Benefit to Carriers of the DRD2 A1 Allele in Cocaine Abuse?

PMID: 31276119 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6604646

EC Anaesthesia
Real Time Locating Systems and sustainability of Perioperative Efficiency of Anesthesiologists.

PMID: 31406965 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6690616

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
A Pilot STEM Curriculum Designed to Teach High School Students Concepts in Biochemical Engineering and Pharmacology.

PMID: 31517314 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6741290

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Toxic Mechanisms Underlying Motor Activity Changes Induced by a Mixture of Lead, Arsenic and Manganese.

PMID: 31633124 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6800226

EC Neurology
Research Volunteers' Attitudes Toward Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and Myalgic Encephalomyelitis.

PMID: 29662969 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5898812

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy for Alzheimer's Disease.

PMID: 30215058 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133268

News and Events

December Issue Release

We always feel pleasure to share our updates with you all. Here, notifying you that we have successfully released the November issue of respective journals and the latest articles can be viewed on the current issue pages.

Submission Deadline for Upcoming Issue

ECronicon delightfully welcomes all the authors around the globe for effective collaboration with an article submission for the upcoming issue of respective journals. Submissions are accepted on/before December 23, 2022.

Certificate of Publication

ECronicon honors with a "Publication Certificate" to the corresponding author by including the names of co-authors as a token of appreciation for publishing the work with our respective journals.

Best Article of the Issue

Editors of respective journals will always be very much interested in electing one Best Article after each issue release. The authors of the selected article will be honored with a "Best Article of the Issue" certificate.

Certifying for Review

ECronicon certifies the Editors for their first review done towards the assigned article of the respective journals.

Latest Articles

The latest articles will be updated immediately on the articles in press page of the respective journals.