Review Article
Volume 19 Issue 1 - 2020
Prevalence of Malocclusion in Saudi Arabia Children: A Literature Review
Ameera I Amer 1, Amnah Naif Alrasheedi 2, Moayyad Ibrahim Alharbi 3, Ali Mansour Aldalaan 4, Hawra Saeed Almoallim 5, Sahir Abdulrzag Alsaiad 6, Arwa Ahmed Badeeb 7, Danah Saeed Basaad 8, Rana Adel Reda 9, Ahmed Abdullah Bahamid 10, Abdullah Sultan Alhumali 11 and Hassan Abdullah Alzahrani 12
1Department of Pediatric Dentistry, East Jeddah Hospital, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
2College of Dentistry, University of Hail, Hail, Saudi Arabia
3Dental Preventive Department, Ministry of Health, Tabuk, Saudi Arabia
4College of Dentistry, King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University For Health Sciences, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
5College of Dentistry, Ajman University of Sciences and Technology, Ajman, UAE
6Primary Health Care, Ministry of Health, Tabuk, Saudi Arabia
7College of Dentistry, Ibn Sina National College, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
8Primary Health Care, Ministry of Health, Al Qurayyat, Saudi Arabia
9College of Dental Sciences, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio, USA
10Faculty of Dentistry, Riyadh Elm University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
11Primary Health Care, Ministry of Health, Qassim, Saudi Arabia
12Comprehensive Specializesd Clinic, Public Security Training City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
*Corresponding Author: Ameera I Amer, Department of Pediatric Dentistry, East Jeddah Hospital, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.
Received: November 22, 2019; Published: December 17, 2019


There is a wide range of reported prevalence of malocclusions in Saudi Arabia, which reflects variations in study populations with respect to ethnicity and age and also lack of conformity of methods of registration. Age has an impact on the prevalence of different malocclusions. We performed an extensive literature search of the Medline, Cochrane, and EMBASE databases on the 1st of October in 2019 using the medical subject headings (MeSH) terms “Malocclusion” AND “Saudi Arabia”. Papers discussing the prevalence of malocclusion among Saudi children were screened for relevant information. The search date was limited to the last 10 years to get the most updated evidence. Class I molar, canine, and incisal relationships was a dominant feature among Saudi children. Crowding was the most prevalent malocclusion trait, followed by spacing and overbite. Dental trauma, oral hygiene, and oral habits (e.g. digit sucking) are important factors to predict malocclusion prevalence. These findings will help in understanding the occlusion status in order to plan for prevention and treatment of malocclusion among Saudi children.

Keywords: Malocclusion; Saudi Arabia; Children


  1. Angle EH. “Treatment of Malocculsion of the Teeth and Fractures of the Maxillae”. Creative Media Partners, LLC (2015). 
  2. Mtaya M., et al. "Prevalence of Malocclusion and Its Relationship with Socio-Demographic Factors, Dental Caries, and Oral Hygiene in 12- to 14-Year-Old Tanzanian Schoolchildren”. European Journal of Orthodontics 31.5 (2009): 467-476. 
  3. Proffit WR., et al. “Contemporary Orthodontics”. Elsevier/Mosby (2013). 
  4. Mossey PA. "The Heritability of Malocclusion: Part 2. The Influence of Genetics in Malocclusion”. British Journal of Orthodontics 26.3 (1999): 195-203.
  5. Larsson Erik. "The Effect of Dummy-Sucking on the Occlusion: A Review”. European Journal of Orthodontics 8.2 (1986): 127-130. 
  6. Linder-Aronson S. "Adenoids. Their Effect on Mode of Breathing and Nasal Airflow and Their Relationship to Characteristics of the Facial Skeleton and the Denition. A Biometric, Rhino-Manometric and Cephalometro-Radiographic Study on Children with and without Adenoids”. Acta Oto-Laryngologica 265 (1970): 1-132. 
  7. Oulis CJ., et al. "The Effect of Hypertrophic Adenoids and Tonsils on the Development of Posterior Crossbite and Oral Habits”. Journal of Clinical Pediatric Dentistry 18.3 (1994): 197-201. 
  8. Zicari AM., et al. "Oral Breathing and Dental Malocclusions”. European Journal of Paediatric Dentistry 10.2 (2009): 59-64. 
  9. Vázquez-Nava F., et al. "Association between Allergic Rhinitis, Bottle Feeding, Non-Nutritive Sucking Habits, and Malocclusion in the Primary Dentition”. Archives of Disease in Childhood 91.10 (2006): 836-840. 
  10. Gois EG., et al. "Influence of Nonnutritive Sucking Habits, Breathing Pattern and Adenoid Size on the Development of Malocclusion”. The Angle Orthodontist 78.4 (2008): 647-654.
  11. Hammad Ziyad Abdulaziz Al., et al. "Malocclusion in Saudi Arabia: A Scoping Review”. International Journal of Applied Dental Sciences 5.1 (2019): 37-41. 
  12. Germa A., et al. "Early Risk Factors for Posterior Crossbite and Anterior Open Bite in the Primary Dentition”. The Angle Orthodontist 86.5 (2016): 832-838. 
  13. Dimberg L., et al. "Malocclusions in Children at 3 and 7 Years of Age: A Longitudinal Study”. European Journal of Orthodontics 35.1 (2013): 131-137. 
  14. Grippaudo C., et al. "Association between Oral Habits, Mouth Breathing and Malocclusion”. Acta Otorhinolaryngologica Italica 36.5 (2016): 386-394. 
  15. Zou Jing., et al. "Common Dental Diseases in Children and Malocclusion”. International Journal of Oral Science 10.1 (2018): 7. 
  16. Zhou Xinhua., et al. "Prevalence of Malocclusion in 3- to 5-Year-Old Children in Shanghai, China”. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 14.3 (2017): 328.
  17. Vishnoi., et al. "Prevalence of Need of Orthodontic Treatment in 7-16-Year-Old School Children in Udaipur City, India”. Turkish Journal of Orthodontics 30.3 (2017): 73-77. 
  18. Al Qahtani., et al. "Prevalence of Malocclusion among Female Schoolchildren Aged 12-15 Years: Saudi Arabia”. Journal of International Oral Health 11.2 (2019): 86-91.
  19. Albakri Fahad M., et al. "Prevalence of Malocclusion among Male School Children in Riyadh City”. Open Access Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences 6.7 (2018): 1296-1299. 
  20. Asiry MA. "Occlusal Status among 12-16 Year-Old School Children in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia”. Journal of International Oral Health 7.5 (2015): 20-23. 
  21. AlSadhan SA and AM Al-Jobair. "Oral Habits, Dental Trauma, and Occlusal Characteristics among 4- to 12-Year-Old Institutionalized Orphan Children in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia”. Special Care in Dentistry 37.1 (2017): 10-18.
  22. Fatani Nuha H., et al. "Prevalence of Malocclusion among Schoolchildren in Makkah, Saudi Arabia”. Open Access Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences 7.5 (2019): 856-861.
  23. Mohammed Almalky N and H Mohammad Elattar. "Prevalence of Different Types of Malocclusion among School Children in Makkah Governorate of Saudi Arabia”. International Journal of Dentistry and Oral Science 5.6 (2018): 645-648.
  24. Bhayat A and MS Ahmad. "Oral Health Status of 12-Year-Old Male Schoolchildren in Medina, Saudi Arabia”. East Mediterranean Health Journal 20.11 (2014): 732-737. 
  25. Meer, Zakirulla., et al. "Prevalence of Malocclusion and Its Common Traits in Saudi Males of Aseer Region”. Journal of Dental Research and Review 3.3 (2016): 99-102. 
  26. Zakirulla M., et al. "Awareness and Behaviour Related to Orthodontic Treatment among School Children in Aseer Region, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia”. Open Journal of Stomatology 9.4 (2019): 87-94. 
  27. Alamri Maha H., et al. "Oral Health Status and Treatment Needs of Children with Sickle Cell Disease in Abha and Khamis Mushait Cities of Southern Saudi Arabia”. International Journal of Research in Medical Sciences 6.2 (2018). 
  28. Al-Shahrani, N., et al. "The Prevalence of Premature Loss of Primary Teeth and Its Impact on Malocclusion in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia”. Acta Odontologica Scandinavica 73.7 (2015): 544-549. 
  29. Basyouni Ahmed., et al. "Malocclusion and Craniofacial Characteristics in Saudi Adolescents with Sickle Cell Disease”. Saudi Journal of Medicine and Medical Sciences 6.3 (2018): 149-154.
  30. Alajlan SS., et al. "The Prevalence of Malocclusion and Orthodontic Treatment Need of School Children in Northern Saudi Arabia”. Journal of Orthodontic Science 8 (2019): 10. 
Citation: Ameera I Amer., et al. “Prevalence of Malocclusion in Saudi Arabia Children: A Literature Review”. EC Dental Science 19.1 (2020): 01-06.

PubMed Indexed Article

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
LC-UV-MS and MS/MS Characterize Glutathione Reactivity with Different Isomers (2,2' and 2,4' vs. 4,4') of Methylene Diphenyl-Diisocyanate.

PMID: 31143884 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6536005

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Alzheimer's Pathogenesis, Metal-Mediated Redox Stress, and Potential Nanotheranostics.

PMID: 31565701 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6764777

EC Neurology
Differences in Rate of Cognitive Decline and Caregiver Burden between Alzheimer's Disease and Vascular Dementia: a Retrospective Study.

PMID: 27747317 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5065347

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Will Blockchain Technology Transform Healthcare and Biomedical Sciences?

PMID: 31460519 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6711478

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Is it a Prime Time for AI-powered Virtual Drug Screening?

PMID: 30215059 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133253

EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Analysis of Evidence for the Combination of Pro-dopamine Regulator (KB220PAM) and Naltrexone to Prevent Opioid Use Disorder Relapse.

PMID: 30417173 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6226033

EC Anaesthesia
Arrest Under Anesthesia - What was the Culprit? A Case Report.

PMID: 30264037 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6155992

EC Orthopaedics
Distraction Implantation. A New Technique in Total Joint Arthroplasty and Direct Skeletal Attachment.

PMID: 30198026 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6124505

EC Pulmonology and Respiratory Medicine
Prevalence and factors associated with self-reported chronic obstructive pulmonary disease among adults aged 40-79: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2012.

PMID: 30294723 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6169793

EC Dental Science
Important Dental Fiber-Reinforced Composite Molding Compound Breakthroughs

PMID: 29285526 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5743211

EC Microbiology
Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites Among HIV Infected and HIV Uninfected Patients Treated at the 1o De Maio Health Centre in Maputo, Mozambique

PMID: 29911204 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5999047

EC Microbiology
Macrophages and the Viral Dissemination Super Highway

PMID: 26949751 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4774560

EC Microbiology
The Microbiome, Antibiotics, and Health of the Pediatric Population.

PMID: 27390782 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4933318

EC Microbiology
Reactive Oxygen Species in HIV Infection

PMID: 28580453 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5450819

EC Microbiology
A Review of the CD4 T Cell Contribution to Lung Infection, Inflammation and Repair with a Focus on Wheeze and Asthma in the Pediatric Population

PMID: 26280024 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4533840

EC Neurology
Identifying Key Symptoms Differentiating Myalgic Encephalomyelitis and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome from Multiple Sclerosis

PMID: 28066845 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5214344

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Paradigm Shift is the Normal State of Pharmacology

PMID: 28936490 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5604476

EC Neurology
Examining those Meeting IOM Criteria Versus IOM Plus Fibromyalgia

PMID: 28713879 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5510658

EC Neurology
Unilateral Frontosphenoid Craniosynostosis: Case Report and a Review of the Literature

PMID: 28133641 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5267489

EC Ophthalmology
OCT-Angiography for Non-Invasive Monitoring of Neuronal and Vascular Structure in Mouse Retina: Implication for Characterization of Retinal Neurovascular Coupling

PMID: 29333536 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5766278

EC Neurology
Longer Duration of Downslope Treadmill Walking Induces Depression of H-Reflexes Measured during Standing and Walking.

PMID: 31032493 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6483108

EC Microbiology
Onchocerciasis in Mozambique: An Unknown Condition for Health Professionals.

PMID: 30957099 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6448571

EC Nutrition
Food Insecurity among Households with and without Podoconiosis in East and West Gojjam, Ethiopia.

PMID: 30101228 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6086333

EC Ophthalmology
REVIEW. +2 to +3 D. Reading Glasses to Prevent Myopia.

PMID: 31080964 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6508883

EC Gynaecology
Biomechanical Mapping of the Female Pelvic Floor: Uterine Prolapse Versus Normal Conditions.

PMID: 31093608 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6513001

EC Dental Science
Fiber-Reinforced Composites: A Breakthrough in Practical Clinical Applications with Advanced Wear Resistance for Dental Materials.

PMID: 31552397 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6758937

EC Microbiology
Neurocysticercosis in Child Bearing Women: An Overlooked Condition in Mozambique and a Potentially Missed Diagnosis in Women Presenting with Eclampsia.

PMID: 31681909 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824723

EC Microbiology
Molecular Detection of Leptospira spp. in Rodents Trapped in the Mozambique Island City, Nampula Province, Mozambique.

PMID: 31681910 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824726

EC Neurology
Endoplasmic Reticulum-Mitochondrial Cross-Talk in Neurodegenerative and Eye Diseases.

PMID: 31528859 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6746603

EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Can Chronic Consumption of Caffeine by Increasing D2/D3 Receptors Offer Benefit to Carriers of the DRD2 A1 Allele in Cocaine Abuse?

PMID: 31276119 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6604646

EC Anaesthesia
Real Time Locating Systems and sustainability of Perioperative Efficiency of Anesthesiologists.

PMID: 31406965 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6690616

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
A Pilot STEM Curriculum Designed to Teach High School Students Concepts in Biochemical Engineering and Pharmacology.

PMID: 31517314 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6741290

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Toxic Mechanisms Underlying Motor Activity Changes Induced by a Mixture of Lead, Arsenic and Manganese.

PMID: 31633124 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6800226

EC Neurology
Research Volunteers' Attitudes Toward Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and Myalgic Encephalomyelitis.

PMID: 29662969 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5898812

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy for Alzheimer's Disease.

PMID: 30215058 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133268

News and Events

December Issue Release

We always feel pleasure to share our updates with you all. Here, notifying you that we have successfully released the November issue of respective journals and the latest articles can be viewed on the current issue pages.

Submission Deadline for Upcoming Issue

ECronicon delightfully welcomes all the authors around the globe for effective collaboration with an article submission for the upcoming issue of respective journals. Submissions are accepted on/before December 23, 2022.

Certificate of Publication

ECronicon honors with a "Publication Certificate" to the corresponding author by including the names of co-authors as a token of appreciation for publishing the work with our respective journals.

Best Article of the Issue

Editors of respective journals will always be very much interested in electing one Best Article after each issue release. The authors of the selected article will be honored with a "Best Article of the Issue" certificate.

Certifying for Review

ECronicon certifies the Editors for their first review done towards the assigned article of the respective journals.

Latest Articles

The latest articles will be updated immediately on the articles in press page of the respective journals.