Mini Review
Volume 4 Issue 8 - 2020
Ethnic Disparities in COVID-19 in the USA: An Update
Nasser Mikhail1* and Soma Wali2
1Chief, Endocrinology Division, Department of Medicine, OliveView-UCLA Medical Center, Sylmar, CA, USA
2Chief, Department of Medicine, OliveView-UCLA Medical Center, Sylmar, CA, USA
*Corresponding Author: Nasser Mikhail, Chief, Endocrinology Division, Department of Medicine, OliveView-UCLA Medical Center, Sylmar, CA, USA.
Received: July 27, 2020 ; Published: July 31, 2020




Abstract

Background: Available data suggest that minority groups are particularly impacted by coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2).

Objective: To review the latest data that reflects the impact of COVID-19 in minority groups in the USA.

Methods: Review of English literature by search of electronic databases: Pub/MEDLINE until July 22, 2020. Search terms included COVID-19, testing, admission, mortality, ethnicity, African Americans, Hispanics, and Asians. Retrospective studies, pertinent reviews and consensus guidelines are reviewed. Pre-print, not yet peer-reviewed studies are also carefully included.

Results: African American patients and Hispanics are more likely than Whites to be tested for COVID-19, and to have positive results. African American patients get tested for COVID-19 more frequently in the emergency department or as inpatients rather than in the ambulatory setting. As of June 12, 2020, compared with Whites, hospitalization rates for COVID-19 among American Indians/Alaska Natives was 5.5 times higher, and among non-Hispanic Blacks and Hispanics was 4.0 to 4.4 times higher. As of July 21st, 2020, compared with White patients, age-adjusted mortality rates for Blacks was 3.7 times higher, for Indigenous people was 3.5 times higher, for Pacific Islanders was 2.8 times higher, for Latinos 2.5 times higher, and Asians 1.4 times higher. A national internet survey suggests that knowledge regarding COVID-19 may be insufficient among African Americans and Hispanics.

Conclusion: Covid-19 disproportionately affects minority groups, particularly African Americans, who had the highest mortality among all ethnic/racial groups.

Keywords: COVID-19; Testing; Admission; Mortality; Ethnicity; African Americans; Hispanics; Asians

References

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  3. Cyrus E., et al. “The impact of COVID-19 on African American communities in the United States. Preprint”. Med Rxiv (2020). 
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  17. Mikhail N and Wali S. “Inequalities in diabetes in the USA”. Archives of Diabetes and Obesity 2.5 (2020): 235-240. 
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Citation: Nasser Mikhail and Soma Wali. “Ethnic Disparities in COVID-19 in the USA: An Update". EC Diabetes and Metabolic Research 4.8 (2020): 15-20.

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