Review Article
Volume 4 Issue 10 - 2020
SGLT 2 Inhibitors: Review of Systemic Effects and Safety
Amin Ibrahim*
Medical Officer, Ayodele Medical Center, Iju, Lagos, Nigeria
*Corresponding Author: Amin Ibrahim, Medical Officer, Ayodele Medical Center, Iju, Lagos, Nigeria.
Received: May 06, 2020; Published: September 20, 2020




Abstract

Sodium glucose transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors are a new group of drugs for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. They act by inhibiting SGLT2 located in the proximal convoluted tubule (PCT) of the kidney and prevent the reabsorption of filtered glucose into the blood stream. They are effective in lowering blood glucose and glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) when used as monotherapy or add on to other oral antidiabetic agents. SGLT2 inhibitors effectively reduced mortality and duration of hospitalization in diabetic patients with cardiovascular diseases in both the CANVAS and EMPA REG OUTCOME trials. A reduced requirement for renal replacement therapy and improved kidney function were also observed. Other systemic effects of these drugs include weight reduction, increased haematocrit and reduced hepatic fat deposition. The safety profile of SGLT2 inhibitors is generally encouraging but the observation of increased amputation risk in patients treated with the drugs has raised a major concern. In addition, euglycemic diabetic ketoacidosis, bone demineralization and fracture, electrolyte imbalance and acute kidney injury are important safety issues being evaluated in therapy with the drugs. Hypoglycemia is not a common side effect but can occur when used in conjunction with other antidiabetic medications. Nevertheless, they are very well tolerated in the vast majority of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) patients.

Keywords: Sodium Glucose Transporter 2 (SGLT2); Proximal Convoluted Tubule (PCT); Type 2 Diabetes (T2DM)

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Citation: Amin Ibrahim. “SGLT 2 Inhibitors: Review of Systemic Effects and Safety". EC Diabetes and Metabolic Research 4.10 (2020): 01-14.

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