Opinion
Volume 4 Issue 12 - 2020
Steroidogenic Factor 1 (Sf-1) as Important Metabolic Regulators in the Ventromedial Nucleus of the Hypothalamus (Vmh)
Carmine Finelli1,2* and Simone Dal Sasso MBioTech3
1Department of Internal Medicine, Ospedale Cav. R. Apicella - ASL Napoli Sud, Via di Massa, Pollena (Napoli), Italy
2Covid Hospital Boscotrecase - ASL Napoli Sud, Via Lenza, Boscotrecase (Napoli), Italy
3Independent Researcher, Naples, Italy
*Corresponding Author: Carmine Finelli, Department of Internal Medicine, Ospedale Cav. R. Apicella - ASL Napoli Sud, Via di Massa, Pollena (Napoli) and Covid Hospital Boscotrecase - ASL Napoli Sud, Via Lenza, Boscotrecase (Napoli), Italy.
Received: December 03, 2020; Published: November 30, 2020




A nuclear receptor expressed in the adrenal glands, gonads, anterior pituitary, and ventromedial hypothalamus nucleus (VMH) is steroidogenic factor 1 (SF-1) [1]. Not only for the production of VMH, but also for its physiological functions, SF-1 is essential [2]. The VMH is a significant hypothalamic nucleus that is important for controlling feeding and preserving homeostasis of whole body resources. VMH lesions change feeding habits and are associated with hyperphagia and obesity development [3]. Likewise, VMH acts as a nutrient sensor and has been shown to respond to decreasing nutritional conditions such as hypoglycemia by inhibiting the development of insulin and by stimulating the release of glucagon and catecholamines [4]. The expression of leptin receptors in the VMH also indicates the importance of this nucleus in reacting to leptin-induced feeding, metabolism and control of energy balance [2].

References

  1. Zhao L., et al. “Steroidogenic factor 1 (SF1) is essential for pituitary gonadotrope function”. Development2 (2001): 147-154.
  2. Dhillon H., et al. “Leptin directly activates SF1 neurons in the VMH, and this action by leptin is required for normal body-weight homeostasis”. Neuron2 (2006): 191-203.
  3. Gaur A., et al. “Role of Ventromedial hypothalamus in high fat diet induced obesity in male rats: association with lipid profile, thyroid profile and insulin resistance”. Annals of Neuroscience 3 (2014): 104-107.
  4. Santiago AM., et al. “Ventromedial hypothalamic glucose sensing and glucose homeostasis vary throughout the estrous cycle”. Physiology and Behavior 167 (2016): 248-254.
  5. Khan AU., et al. “Cannabidiol-induced panicolytic-like effects and fear-induced antinociception impairment: the role of the CB1 receptor in the ventromedial hypothalamus”. Psychopharmacology 4 (2020): 1063-1079.
  6. Fujikawa T., et al. “P110β in the ventromedial hypothalamus regulates glucose and energy metabolism”. Experimental and Molecular Medicine 4 (2019): 1-9.
  7. Liu H., et al. “AMPK in the Ventromedial Nucleus of the Hypothalamus: A Key Regulator for Thermogenesis”. Frontiers in Endocrinology 11 (2020): 578830.
  8. Kelley L., et al. “Increased Hypothalamic Projections to the Lateral Hypothalamus and Responses to Leptin in Rat Neonates From High Fat Fed Mothers”. Frontiers in Endocrinology 13 (2020): 1454.
  9. Majdic G., et al. “Knockout mice lacking steroidogenic factor 1 are a novel genetic model of hypothalamic obesity”. Endocrinology2 (2002): 607-614.
  10. Güemes A and Georgiou P. “Review of the role of the nervous system in glucose homoeostasis and future perspectives towards the management of diabetes”. Bioelectronic Medicine 4 (2018): 9.
  11. Kinyua AW., et al. “Insulin Regulates Adrenal Steroidogenesis by Stabilizing SF-1 Activity”. Scientific Reports 1 (2018): 5025.
  12. Quenneville S., et al. “Hypoglycemia-Sensing Neurons of the Ventromedial Hypothalamus Require AMPK-Induced Txn2 Expression but Are Dispensable for Physiological Counterregulation”. Diabetes11 (2020): 2253-2266.
  13. Ibrahim MMH., et al. “Norepinephrine regulation of ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus metabolic transmitter biomarker and astrocyte enzyme and receptor expression: Impact of 5' AMP-activated protein kinase”. Brain Research 1711 (2019): 48-57.
  14. Ibrahim MMH., et al. “Effects of Intracerebroventricular Glycogen Phosphorylase Inhibitor CP-316,819 Infusion on Hypothalamic Glycogen Content and Metabolic Neuron AMPK Activity and Neurotransmitter Expression in Male Rat”. Journal of Molecular Neuroscience 5 (2020): 647-658.
  15. Fujikawa T., et al. “SF-1 expression in the hypothalamus is required for beneficial metabolic effects of exercise”. Elife 5 (2016): e18206.
Citation: Carmine Finelli and Simone Dal Sasso MBioTech. “Steroidogenic Factor 1 (Sf-1) as Important Metabolic Regulators in the Ventromedial Nucleus of the Hypothalamus (Vmh)”. EC Diabetes and Metabolic Research 4.12 (2020): 11-13.

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