Research Article
Volume 5 Issue 4 - 2021
Prevalence of Type II Diabetes Mellitus and Associated Risk Factors among Adult Population in Rural Bahri Administrative Unit, Khartoum State, Sudan
Rania Kamal Hussein1, Mater Adam Abdalla2, Abdalmajed MA3*, Bakheta ABA3
1Master Student, AlzaiemAlazhari University, Sudan
2Associate Professor, AlzaiemAlazhari University, Sudan
3Senior Public Health Specialists, Khartoum State, Ministry of Health, Sudan
*Corresponding Author: Abdalmajed MA, Senior Public Health Specialists, Khartoum State, Ministry of Health, Sudan.
Received: March 25, 2021; Published: April 26, 2021




Abstract

Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus is the predominant form of human diabetes. It is worldwide increasing rapidly. The goal of this study was to determine the prevalence of T2DM and associated risk factors among adult population in Rural Bahri Administrative Unit. A cross-sectional study community based was applied, among 162 adult. Data were collected through structured questionnaires. Anthropometric measurements were taken. Subjects were also screened for random blood sugar sample was drawn from every participant and measured using glucometer strips following the Reference Scale for Normal Random Blood Sugar. The overall preavlence of T2DM was found 11.1%. Socio-demographic factors such gender, age, education level, occupation, residence and relation to member of family with diabetes type 2 were not significantly associated with diabetes type 2 (P > 0.05). Analysis of association of lifestyle factors and other factors and prevalence of diabetes mellitus type 2 revealed that infected with any chronic health problems (94.4%), nutritional status (overweight adult (25 - 29.9) kg/body weight) (77.8%), types of chronic health problems, previous infection of one of family members with any chronic health problems (family history) of diabetes and hypertension (44.4%), diabetes (38.9%) and hypertension (5.6%), frequency of meals intake per day (three meals) (61.1%) followed by 2 meals (38.9%), types of intake any types of tobacco and alcohol mainly intake cigarette (11.1%), practiced of periodic medical check-up, type of practiced of periodic medical check-up mainly blood sugar check-up (50%) were significantly associated with diabetes mellitus type 2 (P < 0.05). Control efforts should be directed on screening and public nutrition programmes.

Keywords: Type II Diabetes Mellitus; Rural Bahri Administrative Unit; Khartoum; Sudan

References

  1. International Diabetes Federation, IDF; Diabetes atlas, 7th Edition (2016).
  2. International Diabetes Federation. Diabetes: Facts and figures (2015).
  3. Bagonza J., et al. “Adherence to anti diabetic medication among patients with diabetes in eastern Uganda; a cross sectional study”. BMC Health Services Research1 (2015): 168.
  4. World Health Organization (WHO); Global Report on Diabetes (2016).
  5. Einstein AJ., et al. “Patient-centered imaging: shared decision making for cardiac imaging procedures with exposure to ionizing radiation”. Journal of the American College of Cardiology15 (2014): 1480-1489.
  6. Abdalla E and Ahmed R. “Epidemiology of diabetes among adults in Jabra area “block 14” in Khartoum state–Sudan: community based study”. The International Journal of Community Medicine and Public Health6 (2017): 1863-1869.
  7. Noor SKM., et al. “Undiagnosed diabetes mellitus in rural communities in Sudan: prevalence and risk factors 21 (2015): 3.
  8. Amanyire J., et al. “Prevalence and Risk Factors for Hypertension, Diabetes and Obesity among Lecturers and Support Staff of Bishop Stuart University in Mbarara, Uganda”. Open Journal of Applied Sciences03 (2019): 126.
  9. Paudel VP. “Prevalence of Hypertension and Diabetes Mellitus in Political Cadres of Nepal”. Journal of College of Medical Sciences Nepal 13 (2017): 345-349.
  10. Lasky D., et al. “Obesity and Gender Differences in the Risk of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Uganda”. Nutrition 18 (2002): 417-421.
  11. Mondo CK., et al. “The prevalence and distribution of non-communicable diseases and their risk factors in Kasese district, Uganda”. Cardiovascular Journal of Africa 3 (2013): 52.
  12. WHO STEPS. "STEPS Survey Country Reports”. World Health Organisation (2012).
  13. Ruhembe CC., et al. “Prevalence and awareness of type 2 diabetes mellitus among adult population in Mwanza city, Tanzania”. Tanzania Journal of Health Research2 (2014).
  14. Premkumar D., et al. “The Role of Obesity in Producing Type 2 Diabetes by Insulin Resistance”. Diabetes and Obesity International Journal2 (2020): 000227.
  15. Kirkman MS., et al. “Diabetes in older adults”. Diabetes Care12 (2012): 2650-2664.
  16. CDC, smoking and diabetes (2014).
  17. Stadlmayr A., et al. “Relations of vitamin D status, gender and type 2 diabetes in middle-aged Caucasians”. Acta Diabetologica1 (2015): 39-46.
  18. Ekpenyong CE., et al. “Gender and age specific prevalence and associated risk factors of type 2 diabetes mellitus in Uyo Metropolis, south eastern Nigeria”. Diabetologia Croatica1 (2012): 17.
  19. Kaminsky LA. “ACSM's health-related physical fitness assessment manual (4edition.). Philadelphia, PA:, Wolters Kluwer Health/Lippincott Williams and Wilkins (2014).
  20. Dudzinska M., et al. “Type 2 diabetes mellitus in relation to place of residence: evaluation of selected aspects of socio-demographic status, course of diabetes and quality of life–a cross-sectional study”. Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine4 (2013).
  21. Akter S., et al. “Prevalence of diabetes and prediabetes and their risk factors among Bangladeshi adults: a nationwide survey”. Bulletin of the World Health Organization 92 (2014): 204-213.
  22. Zekewos A., et al. “Prevalence of diabetes mellitus and associated factors in Southern Ethiopia: a community based study”. Ethiopian Journal of Health Sciences 28 (2018): 4.
  23. Maedler K., et al. “Aging correlates with decreased β-cell proliferative capacity and enhanced sensitivity to apoptosis: a potential role for fas and pancreatic duodenal homeobox-1”. Diabetes9 (2006): 2455-2462.
  24. Sacerdote C., et al. “Lower educational level is a predictor of incident type 2 diabetes in european countries: The EPIC-InterAct study”. International Journal of Epidemiology4 (2012): 1162-1173.
  25. Ross SA and Ekoé JM. “Incretin agents in type 2 diabetes”. Canadian Family Physician7 (2010): 639-648.
  26. Flor LS and Campos MR. “The prevalence of diabetes mellitus and its associated factors in the Brazilian adult population: evidence from a population-based survey”. Revista Brasileira de Epidemiologia 20 (2017): 16-29.
  27. Dallman MF. “Stress-induced obesity and the emotional nervous system”. Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism3 (2010): 159-165.
  28. AL-Shammari SA., et al. “Blood lipid concentrations and other cardiovascular risk factors among Saudis”. Family Practice2 (1994): 153-158.
  29. Al-Malki JS., et al. “Overweight and obesity in Saudi females of childbearing age”. International Journal of Obesity1 (2003): 134-139.
  30. Kim SH. “Maturity-onset diabetes of the young: what do clinicians need to know?” Diabetes and Metabolism Journal6 (2015): 468.
  31. Sims M., et al. “The socioeconomic gradient of diabetes prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control among African Americans in the Jackson Heart Study”. Annals of Epidemiology12 (2011): 892-898.
  32. Levine JA. “Poverty and obesity in the US (2011).
  33. Hamman RF., et al. “The SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth study: rationale, findings, and future directions”. Diabetes Care12 (2014): 3336-3344.
  34. Pearson E. “Zinc transport and diabetes risk”. Nature Genetics4 (2014): 323-324.
  35. Alberti L., et al. “Type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome are associated with increased expression of 11 β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1 in obese subjects”. International Journal of Obesity12 (2007): 1826-1831.
  36. Gatineau M., et al. “Adult obesity and type 2 diabetes (2014): 5-14.
  37. Ramachandran A., et al. “Burden of type 2 diabetes and its complications–The Indian scenario”. Current Science 25 (2002): 1471-1476.
  38. Klein BE., et al. “Components of the metabolic syndrome and risk of cardiovascular disease and diabetes in Beaver Dam”. Diabetes Care10 (2002): 1790-1794.
  39. Alcolado JC and Alcolado R. “Importance of maternal history of non-insulin dependent diabetic patients”. British Medical Journal6786 (1991): 1178-1180.
  40. co.k Diabetes and genetics (2017).
  41. Viswanathan M., et al. “Familial aggregation of type 2 (non‐insulin‐dependent) diabetes mellitus in South India; absence of excess maternal transmission”. Diabetic Medicine3 (1996): 232-237.
  42. Molyneaux L., et al. “Strong family history predicts a younger age of onset for subjects diagnosed with type 2 diabetes”. Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism3 (2004): 187-194.
  43. Bo S., et al. “Low birthweight and metabolic abnormalities in twins with increased susceptibility to Type 2 diabetes mellitus”. Diabetic Medicine5 (2000): 365-370.
  44. Baptiste-Roberts K., et al. “Family history of diabetes, awareness of risk factors, and health behaviors among African Americans”. American Journal of Public Health5 (2007): 907-912.
  45. Ahola-Olli AV., et al. “Circulating metabolites and the risk of type 2 diabetes: a prospective study of 11,896 young adults from four Finnish cohorts”. Diabetologia12 (2019): 2298-309.
  46. World Health Organisation. Towards a strategy for Cancer Control in the Eastern Mediterranean Region.1st Edition”. Cairo, World Health Organization Regional office for the Mediterranean (2010).
Citation: Abdalmajed MA., et al. “Prevalence of Type II Diabetes Mellitus and Associated Risk Factors among Adult Population in Rural Bahri Administrative Unit, Khartoum State, Sudan”. EC Diabetes and Metabolic Research 5.4 (2021): 20-32.

PubMed Indexed Article


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
LC-UV-MS and MS/MS Characterize Glutathione Reactivity with Different Isomers (2,2' and 2,4' vs. 4,4') of Methylene Diphenyl-Diisocyanate.

PMID: 31143884 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6536005


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Alzheimer's Pathogenesis, Metal-Mediated Redox Stress, and Potential Nanotheranostics.

PMID: 31565701 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6764777


EC Neurology
Differences in Rate of Cognitive Decline and Caregiver Burden between Alzheimer's Disease and Vascular Dementia: a Retrospective Study.

PMID: 27747317 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5065347


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Will Blockchain Technology Transform Healthcare and Biomedical Sciences?

PMID: 31460519 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6711478


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Is it a Prime Time for AI-powered Virtual Drug Screening?

PMID: 30215059 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133253


EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Analysis of Evidence for the Combination of Pro-dopamine Regulator (KB220PAM) and Naltrexone to Prevent Opioid Use Disorder Relapse.

PMID: 30417173 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6226033


EC Anaesthesia
Arrest Under Anesthesia - What was the Culprit? A Case Report.

PMID: 30264037 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6155992


EC Orthopaedics
Distraction Implantation. A New Technique in Total Joint Arthroplasty and Direct Skeletal Attachment.

PMID: 30198026 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6124505


EC Pulmonology and Respiratory Medicine
Prevalence and factors associated with self-reported chronic obstructive pulmonary disease among adults aged 40-79: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2012.

PMID: 30294723 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6169793


EC Dental Science
Important Dental Fiber-Reinforced Composite Molding Compound Breakthroughs

PMID: 29285526 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5743211


EC Microbiology
Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites Among HIV Infected and HIV Uninfected Patients Treated at the 1o De Maio Health Centre in Maputo, Mozambique

PMID: 29911204 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5999047


EC Microbiology
Macrophages and the Viral Dissemination Super Highway

PMID: 26949751 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4774560


EC Microbiology
The Microbiome, Antibiotics, and Health of the Pediatric Population.

PMID: 27390782 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4933318


EC Microbiology
Reactive Oxygen Species in HIV Infection

PMID: 28580453 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5450819


EC Microbiology
A Review of the CD4 T Cell Contribution to Lung Infection, Inflammation and Repair with a Focus on Wheeze and Asthma in the Pediatric Population

PMID: 26280024 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4533840


EC Neurology
Identifying Key Symptoms Differentiating Myalgic Encephalomyelitis and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome from Multiple Sclerosis

PMID: 28066845 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5214344


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Paradigm Shift is the Normal State of Pharmacology

PMID: 28936490 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5604476


EC Neurology
Examining those Meeting IOM Criteria Versus IOM Plus Fibromyalgia

PMID: 28713879 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5510658


EC Neurology
Unilateral Frontosphenoid Craniosynostosis: Case Report and a Review of the Literature

PMID: 28133641 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5267489


EC Ophthalmology
OCT-Angiography for Non-Invasive Monitoring of Neuronal and Vascular Structure in Mouse Retina: Implication for Characterization of Retinal Neurovascular Coupling

PMID: 29333536 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5766278


EC Neurology
Longer Duration of Downslope Treadmill Walking Induces Depression of H-Reflexes Measured during Standing and Walking.

PMID: 31032493 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6483108


EC Microbiology
Onchocerciasis in Mozambique: An Unknown Condition for Health Professionals.

PMID: 30957099 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6448571


EC Nutrition
Food Insecurity among Households with and without Podoconiosis in East and West Gojjam, Ethiopia.

PMID: 30101228 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6086333


EC Ophthalmology
REVIEW. +2 to +3 D. Reading Glasses to Prevent Myopia.

PMID: 31080964 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6508883


EC Gynaecology
Biomechanical Mapping of the Female Pelvic Floor: Uterine Prolapse Versus Normal Conditions.

PMID: 31093608 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6513001


EC Dental Science
Fiber-Reinforced Composites: A Breakthrough in Practical Clinical Applications with Advanced Wear Resistance for Dental Materials.

PMID: 31552397 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6758937


EC Microbiology
Neurocysticercosis in Child Bearing Women: An Overlooked Condition in Mozambique and a Potentially Missed Diagnosis in Women Presenting with Eclampsia.

PMID: 31681909 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824723


EC Microbiology
Molecular Detection of Leptospira spp. in Rodents Trapped in the Mozambique Island City, Nampula Province, Mozambique.

PMID: 31681910 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824726


EC Neurology
Endoplasmic Reticulum-Mitochondrial Cross-Talk in Neurodegenerative and Eye Diseases.

PMID: 31528859 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6746603


EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Can Chronic Consumption of Caffeine by Increasing D2/D3 Receptors Offer Benefit to Carriers of the DRD2 A1 Allele in Cocaine Abuse?

PMID: 31276119 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6604646


EC Anaesthesia
Real Time Locating Systems and sustainability of Perioperative Efficiency of Anesthesiologists.

PMID: 31406965 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6690616


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
A Pilot STEM Curriculum Designed to Teach High School Students Concepts in Biochemical Engineering and Pharmacology.

PMID: 31517314 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6741290


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Toxic Mechanisms Underlying Motor Activity Changes Induced by a Mixture of Lead, Arsenic and Manganese.

PMID: 31633124 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6800226


EC Neurology
Research Volunteers' Attitudes Toward Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and Myalgic Encephalomyelitis.

PMID: 29662969 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5898812


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy for Alzheimer's Disease.

PMID: 30215058 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133268


News and Events


December Issue Release

We always feel pleasure to share our updates with you all. Here, notifying you that we have successfully released the December issue of respective journals and the latest articles can be viewed on the current issue pages.

Submission Deadline for Upcoming Issue

ECronicon delightfully welcomes all the authors around the globe for effective collaboration with an article submission for the upcoming issue of respective journals. Submissions are accepted on/before December 17, 2021.

Certificate of Publication

ECronicon honors with a "Publication Certificate" to the corresponding author by including the names of co-authors as a token of appreciation for publishing the work with our respective journals.

Best Article of the Issue

Editors of respective journals will always be very much interested in electing one Best Article after each issue release. The authors of the selected article will be honored with a "Best Article of the Issue" certificate.

Certifying for Review

ECronicon certifies the Editors for their first review done towards the assigned article of the respective journals.

Latest Articles

The latest articles will be updated immediately on the articles in press page of the respective journals.

Immediate Assistance

The prime motto of this team is to clarify all the queries without any delay or hesitation to avoid the inconvenience. For immediate assistance on your queries please don't hesitate to drop an email to editor@ecronicon.uk