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Volume 5 Issue 3 - 2020
Reduction, Reversal, and Prevention of Cardiometabolic Diseases
Gundu HR Rao*
Emeritus Professor, Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, Director, Thrombosis Research, Lillehei Heart Institute, University of Minnesota, USA
*Corresponding Author: Gundu HR Rao, Emeritus Professor, Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, Director, Thrombosis Research, Lillehei Heart Institute, University of Minnesota, USA.
Received: January 30, 2020; Published: February 06, 2020

It gives me great pleasure, to write this invited Editorial, for the journal of EC Endocrinology and Metabolic Research. Framingham heart studies started over seventy years ago (1948) identified modifiable risks, responsible for the development of promotion of vascular diseases [1]. Based on this seminal study and other multinational clinical trials, risk assessment, risk prediction analytics and algorithms were developed [2]. Seven Countries Study (SCS) launched in 1958, explored the research on the relationship between dietary pattern and the prevalence of coronary artery disease in Greece, Italy, Spain, South Africa, Japan, and Finland [3]. In a recent critical review on this study, authors Dr Pett and associates conclude, “While legitimate debate exists about the details of optimal dietary patterns for health, there is no evidence that the SCS was conducted in bad faith or violated standards of good science. Further direct evidence refutes, the popular allegations used to discredit the study, the work of Professor Ancel Keys of the University of Minnesota, and related research that ensued [3]”. According to these authors, those findings (SCS) were applied with fidelity, in North Karelia, Finland. Replacement of saturated fats (mainly dairy fats), by unsaturated fats and vegetable oils, led to a dramatic reduction in serum cholesterol and incident of heart disease.


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  2. Jahangiry L., et al. “Framingham risk score for estimation of 10-years of cardiovascular disease risk in patients with metabolic syndrome”. Journal of Health, Population and Nutrition 36.1 (2017): 36.
  3. Pett KD., et al. “The Seven Countries Study”. European Heart Journal 38.42 (2017): 3119-3121.
  4. Vartiainen E. “The North Karelia Project: Cardiovascular disease prevention in Finland”. Global Cardiology Science and Practice 2018.2 (2018): 13.
  5. Yususf S., et al. “Effect of potentially modifiable risk factors associated with myocardial infraction in 52 countries (the INTEHEART study): case-control study”. Lancet 364.9438 (2004): 937-952.
  6. Khera AV., et al. “Genetic risk, adherence to a healthy lifestyle, and coronary artery disease”. The New England Journal of Medicine 375 (2016): 2349-2358.
  7. Luepker RV. “WHO MONICA Project: What we learned and where to go from here?” Public Health Reviews 33.2 (2001): 373-396.
  8. Nilsson RM., et al. “Use of complementary and alternative medicine in Sweden. A Population-based longitudinal study within the northern Sweden MONICA Project”. Journal of Internal Medicine 250 (2001): 225-233.
  9. Krueger A., et al. “Dietary and Lifestyle changes reverses hypertension rapidly”. Current Developments in Nutrition 3.1 (2019): P16-020-19. 
  10. Kumayika SK., et al. “Population-based Prevention of Obesity: The need for comprehensive promotion of healthful eating, physical activity, and energy balance: A scientific statement from American Heart Association Council on Epidemiology and Prevention, Interdisciplinary committee for Prevention (Formerly the Expert Panel on Population and Prevention Science”. Circular 118 (2008): 428-464.
  11. Taylor R., et al. “Understanding the mechanism of reversal of type-2 diabetes. Personal View”. The Lancet Diabetes and Endocrinology 7.9 (2019): P726-736.
  12. Di Cesare M., et al. “The Contributions of risk factor trends to cardiometabolic mortality decline in 26 industrialized countries”. International Journal of Epidemiology 42.3 (2013): 838-848.
  13. Siegel KR., et al. “Noncommunicable diseases in South Asia: contemporary perspectives”. British Medical Bills 111 (2014): 31-44.
  14. The Global Burden of Disease: Generating evidence guiding policy-South Asia Regional Edition. Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation University of Washington and Human Deployment Network. The World Bank (2013).
  15. Rjal A., et al. “The economic impact of noncommunicable disease among household in South Asia and their coping strategy”. PLoS One 13 (2018): e205745. 
  16. Jonas WB. “Alternative medicine-learning from the past, examining the present, advancing to the future”. The Journal of the American Medical Association 280 (1998): 1616-1619.
  17. Raghuram N., et al. “Yoga based lifestyle for type-2 diabetes: need for a nation-wide movement to control type 2 diabetes”. Journal of Diabetes Metabolic Disorders and Control 5.5 (2018): 188-193.
  18. McDermott KA., et al. “A yoga intervention for type-2 diabetes risk reduction: a pilot randomized controlled trial”. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 14 (2014): 212. 
  19. Rao GHR. “Integrative approach to health: Challenges and opportunities”. Journal of Ayurveda and Integrative Medicine 6.3 (2015): 215-219.
  20. Rao GHR. “Opportunities and Challenges in Ayurveda: Global Perspectives”. Alternative and Integrative Medicine 6 (2017): 239. 
  21. Rao GHR. “Integrative approach to the management of cardiometabolic diseases”. Journal of Cardiology and Cardiovascular Sciences 2.3 (2018): 37-42.
  22. Malmefeldt E and Rao GHR. “Changing concepts in healthcare: Physical activity, fitness and wellness”. EC Endocrinology and Metabolic Research 4.6 (2019) 238250.
  23. Malmefeldt E and Rao GHR. “Noinvasive diagnostic tools: Cardiometabolic Risk Assessment and Prediction”. International Journal of Clinical Cardiology and Diagnostics 2.1 (2019): 1-10.
Citation: Gundu HR Rao. “Reduction, Reversal, and Prevention of Cardiometabolic Diseases”. EC Endocrinology and Metabolic Research 5.3 (2020): 01-04.

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