Welcoming you for any type of article submission for the upcoming issue on/before February 26, 2021.


Research Article
Volume 5 Issue 3 - 2020
Cardiovascular Disease Risk Profiles and Associated Factors Among Health Care Workers in Ethiopia
Fitsum Desta Workneh1*, Tewodros Abera Alemneh1 and Bosena Tebeje Gashaw2
1Department of Internal Medicine, Hawassa University, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, School of Medicine, Hawassa, Ethiopia
2College of Health Sciences, Jimma University, Jimma, Ethiopia
*Corresponding Author: Fitsum Desta Workneh, Department of Internal Medicine, Hawassa University, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, School of Medicine, Hawassa, Ethiopia.
Received: February 13, 2020; Published: February 29, 2020




Abstract

Background: Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the world accounting for 31% of all deaths globally. It was thought to be the problem of the developed world, but currently becoming a public health concern for the developing countries including for Ethiopia. It is affecting individuals across different walks of life including health care workers (HCWs). However, studies related to the risk and associated factors of CVD specifically among the HCWs are limited to non-existent in Hawassa and Ethiopia. The aim of this study is to examine CVD risk profiles and associated factors among health care workers (HCWs).

Methods: A cross sectional study design and probability sampling technique was employed. Pre-tested, structured, and self-administered survey questionnaire abstracted and adapted from relevant literatures (WHO-STEPS questionnaire) was used to collect the required information. Descriptive statistics was computed to determine the risk profile and P Value < 0.05 and odds ratio with 95% CI was estimated to identify factors associated with certain CVD risks using multivariate logistic regression in the SPSS version 20.0 software.

Results: The prevalence of CVD risk profiles were as follows: nearly a third (30.3%, 95% CI = 24.7, 36.0) had high BMI and 31.9% had hypertension (95% CI = 26.2, 38.0) on physical examination, but only 6(2.4%) reported to have hypertension. Similarly, 5(2.0%) reported to have Diabetes Mellitus, but of the total 112 participants who reported their FBS, 10(3.9%) had Diabetes Mellitus (DM) based on FBS (126 Mg/dl or more) while, many others 142(55.91%) did not know their FBS level. Likewise, only 17(6.7%) of participants knew their lipid status, of which 2 of them had high total cholesterol. Of the total, 120 (47.2%) were physically inactive. Eating meat for 3 or more days per week (AOR = 2.73; 95%CI = 1.57, 4.73), increased age (AOR = 3.03, 95%CI: 1.64, 15.61) and midwifery profession (AOR = 4.74, 95%CI = 1.74, 12.89) have increased risk of High BMI. Similarly, male sexes, increased income, eating animal source butter are associated with hypertension.

Conclusion and Recommendations: Nearly a third had high BMI and hypertension and nearly half were physically inactive. Eating habit, age and profession were associated with high BMI. Similarly, eating habit, sex and income were associated with hypertension. Many participants did not know their B/P, FBS level and lipid status. Therefore, behavior change communications on diet, regular exercise, checking of B/P, blood sugar, and lipid status are recommended.

Keywords: HCWs; Cardiovascular Diseases; Risk Factors; BMI; Hypertension; DM; Ethiopia

References

  1. Members Writing Group., et al. “Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics-2014 Update: A Report from the American Heart Association”. Circulation 129.3 (2014): e28. 
  2. Mozaffarian Dariush., et al. “Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics-2016 Update”. Circulation 133.4 (2016): e38-e360. 
  3. Lozano Rafael., et al. “Global and Regional Mortality from 235 Causes of Death for 20 Age Groups in 1990 and 2010: A Systematic Analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010”. The Lancet 380.9859 (2012): 2095-128. 
  4. Di Angela Antonio E., et al. “Careaca Tive Protein Concentration and Risk of Coronary Heart Disease, Stroke, and Mortality: An Individual Participant Metaaanalysis”. Lancet 375 (2010): 132-40. 
  5. Di Angelantonio E., et al. (2012). 
  6. Cappuccio., et al. “Cardiovascular Disease and Hypertension in Sub-Saharan Africa: Burden, Risk and Interventions”. Internal and Emergency Medicine 11.3 (2016): 299-305. 
  7. De Oliveira Fonseca-Machado M., et al. “Mental Health of Women Who Suffer Intimate Partner Violence During Pregnancy”. Invest Educ Enferm 32.2 (2014): 291-305. 
  8. Ahmadou M Jingi., et al. “Cardiovascular Risk Factors Awarenessand Prevalence among Primary Care Physicians: An Insight from the West Region Awareness Initiative Survey to Fight Cardiovascular Disease (Wait Cvd) in Cameroon”. BMC (2015). 
  9. Helmy Hazmi and Wan Rosli Wan Ishak. "Traditional Cardiovascular Risk-Factors among Healthcare Workers in Kelantan, Malaysia”. The Southeast Asian Journal of Tropical Medicine and Public Health 46.3 (2015). 
  10. Ebrahim Shah., et al. “Tackling Non-Communicable Diseases in Low-and Middle-Income Countries: Is the Evidence from High-Income Countries All We Need?" PLoS Medicine 10.1 (2013): e1001377. 
  11. WHO. "Who Steps Instrument - World Health Organization” (2010).
  12. Organization, World Health. “Global Health Risks: Mortality and Burden of Disease Attributable to Selected Major Risks”. World Health Organization (2009). 
  13. Mocumbi AO. "Lack of Focus on Cardiovascular Disease in Sub-Saharan Africa”. Cardiovascular Diagnosis and Therapy 2.1 (2012): 74-77. 
  14. Misganaw A., et al. “Epidemiology of Major Non-Communicable Diseases in Ethiopia: A Systematic Review”. Journal of Health, Population and Nutrition 32.1 (2014): 1-13. 
  15. Hagos A., et al. “The Prevalence of Peripheral Arterial Disease and Associated Factors among Adults in Jimma Town, South-West Ethiopia: A Community Based Survey”. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Cardiology (2017). 
  16. Orpana Heather M., et al. “Bmi and Mortality: Results from a National Longitudinal Study of Canadian Adults”. Obesity 18.1 (2010): 214-218. 
  17. Jayawardana NW., et al. “Lifestyle Factors Associated with Obesity in a Cohort of Males in the Central Province of Sri Lanka: A Cross-Sectional Descriptive Study”. BMC Public Health 17.1 (2017): 27. 
  18. Greenland P and E Peterson. "The New 2017 Acc/Aha Guidelines "up the Pressure" on Diagnosis and Treatment of Hypertension”. JAMA (2017).
  19. Association American Diabetic. "Standard of Medical Care in Diabetes”. (2017). 
  20. CDC. "Center for Disease Control and Prevention; National Health Interview Survey”. (2017). 
  21. Osei-Yeboah James., et al. “Cardiometabolic Risk Factors among Healthcare Workers: A Cross-Sectional Study at the Sefwi-Wiawso Municipal Hospital, Ghana”. Bio Med Research International (2018). 
  22. Paquissi Feliciano Chanana., et al. “Prevalence of Cardiovascular Risk Factors among Workers at a Private Tertiary Center in Angola”. Vascular Health and Risk Management 12 (2016): 497. 
  23. Borrell LN and L Samuel. "Body Mass Index Categories and Mortality Risk in Us Adults: The Effect of Overweight and Obesity on Advancing Death”. American Journal of Public Health 104.3 (2014): 512-519. 
  24. Muluneh Ayalew T., et al. “Population Based Survey of Chronic Non-Communicable Diseases at Gilgel Gibe Field Research Center, Southwest Ethiopia”. Ethiopian Journal of Health Sciences 22.4 (2012): 7-18. 
  25. Awoke Misganaw., et al. “Epidemiology of Major Non-Communicable Diseases in Ethiopia: A Systematic Review”. Journal of Health, Population and Nutrition 32.1 (2014): 1-13. 
  26. Esaiyas A., et al. “Prevalence of Hypertension and Associate Risk Factors among Workers at Hawassa University, Ethiopia”. Journal of Vascular Medicine and Surgery 6 (2018): 354. 
  27. Desalegn., et al. “Clinical Assessment of Cardiovascular Disease Associated Risk Factors in Jimmatown, Southwest Ethiopia; a Community Based Cross–Sectional Study”. Ethiopian Medical Journal 55.1 (2017): 3-9. 
  28. Kadiri S. "Tackling Cardiovascular Disease in Africa”. British Medical Journal Publishing Group (2005). 
  29. Gudina EK., et al. “Prevalence of Hypertension and Its Risk Factors in Southwest Ethiopia: A Hospital-Based Cross-Sectional Survey”. Integr Blood Press Control 6 (2013): 111-117. 
  30. Sinaga M., et al. “Optimal Cut-Off for Obesity and Markers of Metabolic Syndrome for Ethiopian Adults”. Nutrition Journal 17.1 (2018): 109. 
  31. Bogossian Fiona E., et al. “A Cross-Sectional Analysis of Patterns of Obesity in a Cohort of Working Nurses and Midwives in Australia, New Zealand, and the United Kingdom”. International Journal of Nursing Studies 49.6 (2012): 727-738. 
  32. Kyle Richard G., et al. “Obesity Prevalence among Healthcare Professionals in England: A Cross-Sectional Study Using the Health Survey for England”. BMJ Open 7.12 (2017): e018498. 
  33. Purohit N., et al. “Quantifying Socioeconomic and Lifestyle Related Health Risks: Burden of Cardiovascular Disease among Indian Males”. The Central Asian Journal of Global Health 4.2 (2015): 218. 
  34. Beegom Raheena and Ram B Singh. "Association of Higher Saturated Fat Intake with Higher Risk of Hypertension in an Urban Population of Trivandrum in South India”. International Journal of Cardiology 58.1 (1997): 63-70. 
  35. Jaddou HY., et al. “Hypertension Prevalence, Awareness, Treatment and Control, and Associated Factors: Results from a National Survey, Jordan”. International Journal of Hypertension (2011). 
  36. Friel Sharon., et al. “Unequal Weight: Equity Oriented Policy Responses to the Global Obesity Epidemic”. BMJ 335.7632 (2007): 1241-1243. 
  37. Barroso M., et al. “Interaction between Cardiovascular Risk Factors and Body Mass Index and 10-Year Incidence of Cardiovascular Disease, Cancer Death, and Overall Mortality”. Prev Med (2017). 
  38. Used ROUTINELY. "Lipid-Related Markers and Cardiovascular Disease Prediction”. JAMA 307.2499 (2012): 506. 
  39. Wang Lu., et al. “Dietary Fatty Acids and the Risk of Hypertension in Middle-Aged and Older Women”. Hypertension 56.4 (2010): 598-604. 
  40. World Health Organization. Global Status Report on Non-Communicable Diseases 2010. Geneva: World Health Organization (2011). 
  41. Wong Nathan D. "Epidemiological Studies of Chd and the Evolution of Preventive Cardiology”. Nature Reviews Cardiology 11.5 (2014): 276-289.
Citation: Fitsum Desta Workneh., et al. “Cardiovascular Disease Risk Profiles and Associated Factors Among Health Care Workers in Ethiopia”. EC Endocrinology and Metabolic Research 5.3 (2020): 01-16.

PubMed Indexed Article


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
LC-UV-MS and MS/MS Characterize Glutathione Reactivity with Different Isomers (2,2' and 2,4' vs. 4,4') of Methylene Diphenyl-Diisocyanate.

PMID: 31143884 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6536005


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Alzheimer's Pathogenesis, Metal-Mediated Redox Stress, and Potential Nanotheranostics.

PMID: 31565701 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6764777


EC Neurology
Differences in Rate of Cognitive Decline and Caregiver Burden between Alzheimer's Disease and Vascular Dementia: a Retrospective Study.

PMID: 27747317 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5065347


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Will Blockchain Technology Transform Healthcare and Biomedical Sciences?

PMID: 31460519 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6711478


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Is it a Prime Time for AI-powered Virtual Drug Screening?

PMID: 30215059 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133253


EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Analysis of Evidence for the Combination of Pro-dopamine Regulator (KB220PAM) and Naltrexone to Prevent Opioid Use Disorder Relapse.

PMID: 30417173 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6226033


EC Anaesthesia
Arrest Under Anesthesia - What was the Culprit? A Case Report.

PMID: 30264037 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6155992


EC Orthopaedics
Distraction Implantation. A New Technique in Total Joint Arthroplasty and Direct Skeletal Attachment.

PMID: 30198026 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6124505


EC Pulmonology and Respiratory Medicine
Prevalence and factors associated with self-reported chronic obstructive pulmonary disease among adults aged 40-79: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2012.

PMID: 30294723 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6169793


EC Dental Science
Important Dental Fiber-Reinforced Composite Molding Compound Breakthroughs

PMID: 29285526 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5743211


EC Microbiology
Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites Among HIV Infected and HIV Uninfected Patients Treated at the 1o De Maio Health Centre in Maputo, Mozambique

PMID: 29911204 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5999047


EC Microbiology
Macrophages and the Viral Dissemination Super Highway

PMID: 26949751 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4774560


EC Microbiology
The Microbiome, Antibiotics, and Health of the Pediatric Population.

PMID: 27390782 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4933318


EC Microbiology
Reactive Oxygen Species in HIV Infection

PMID: 28580453 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5450819


EC Microbiology
A Review of the CD4 T Cell Contribution to Lung Infection, Inflammation and Repair with a Focus on Wheeze and Asthma in the Pediatric Population

PMID: 26280024 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4533840


EC Neurology
Identifying Key Symptoms Differentiating Myalgic Encephalomyelitis and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome from Multiple Sclerosis

PMID: 28066845 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5214344


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Paradigm Shift is the Normal State of Pharmacology

PMID: 28936490 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5604476


EC Neurology
Examining those Meeting IOM Criteria Versus IOM Plus Fibromyalgia

PMID: 28713879 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5510658


EC Neurology
Unilateral Frontosphenoid Craniosynostosis: Case Report and a Review of the Literature

PMID: 28133641 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5267489


EC Ophthalmology
OCT-Angiography for Non-Invasive Monitoring of Neuronal and Vascular Structure in Mouse Retina: Implication for Characterization of Retinal Neurovascular Coupling

PMID: 29333536 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5766278


EC Neurology
Longer Duration of Downslope Treadmill Walking Induces Depression of H-Reflexes Measured during Standing and Walking.

PMID: 31032493 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6483108


EC Microbiology
Onchocerciasis in Mozambique: An Unknown Condition for Health Professionals.

PMID: 30957099 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6448571


EC Nutrition
Food Insecurity among Households with and without Podoconiosis in East and West Gojjam, Ethiopia.

PMID: 30101228 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6086333


EC Ophthalmology
REVIEW. +2 to +3 D. Reading Glasses to Prevent Myopia.

PMID: 31080964 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6508883


EC Gynaecology
Biomechanical Mapping of the Female Pelvic Floor: Uterine Prolapse Versus Normal Conditions.

PMID: 31093608 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6513001


EC Dental Science
Fiber-Reinforced Composites: A Breakthrough in Practical Clinical Applications with Advanced Wear Resistance for Dental Materials.

PMID: 31552397 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6758937


EC Microbiology
Neurocysticercosis in Child Bearing Women: An Overlooked Condition in Mozambique and a Potentially Missed Diagnosis in Women Presenting with Eclampsia.

PMID: 31681909 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824723


EC Microbiology
Molecular Detection of Leptospira spp. in Rodents Trapped in the Mozambique Island City, Nampula Province, Mozambique.

PMID: 31681910 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824726


EC Neurology
Endoplasmic Reticulum-Mitochondrial Cross-Talk in Neurodegenerative and Eye Diseases.

PMID: 31528859 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6746603


EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Can Chronic Consumption of Caffeine by Increasing D2/D3 Receptors Offer Benefit to Carriers of the DRD2 A1 Allele in Cocaine Abuse?

PMID: 31276119 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6604646


EC Anaesthesia
Real Time Locating Systems and sustainability of Perioperative Efficiency of Anesthesiologists.

PMID: 31406965 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6690616


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
A Pilot STEM Curriculum Designed to Teach High School Students Concepts in Biochemical Engineering and Pharmacology.

PMID: 31517314 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6741290


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Toxic Mechanisms Underlying Motor Activity Changes Induced by a Mixture of Lead, Arsenic and Manganese.

PMID: 31633124 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6800226


EC Neurology
Research Volunteers' Attitudes Toward Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and Myalgic Encephalomyelitis.

PMID: 29662969 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5898812


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy for Alzheimer's Disease.

PMID: 30215058 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133268


News and Events


June Issue Release

We always feel pleasure to share our updates with you all. Here, notifying you that we have successfully released the June issue of respective journals and the latest articles can be viewed on the current issue pages.

Submission Deadline for upcoming Issue

Ecronicon delightfully welcomes all the authors around the globe for effective collaboration with an article submission for the upcoming issue of respective journals. Submissions are accepted on/before June 30, 2021.

Certificate of Publication

Ecronicon honors with a "Publication Certificate" to the corresponding author by including the names of co-authors as a token of appreciation for publishing the work with our respective journals.

Best Article of the Issue

Editors of respective journals will always be very much interested in electing one Best Article after each issue release. The authors of the selected article will be honored with a "Best Article of the Issue" certificate.

Certifying for Review

Ecronicon certifies the Editors for their first review done towards the assigned article of the respective journals.

Latest Articles

The latest articles will be updated immediately on the articles in press page of the respective journals.

Immediate Assistance

The prime motto of this team is to clarify all the queries without any delay or hesitation to avoid the inconvenience. For immediate assistance on your queries please don't hesitate to drop an email to editor@ecronicon.uk