Welcoming you for any type of article submission for the upcoming issue on/before February 26, 2021.


Research Article
Volume 5 Issue 7 - 2020
Comparison of Metabolic Syndrome Prevalence between the Pre-crisis and Crisis Period in Syria
Zaynab Alourfi1,3* and Maria Kadri Al Tourjuman2
1Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Damascus University, Syria
2Department of Health, Syrian Society for Social Development, Syria
3Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Syrian Private University, Syria
*Corresponding Author: Zaynab Alourfi, Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Damascus University, Syria.
Received: April 23, 2020; Published: June 29, 2020




Abstract

Background: The Syrian crisis has had a big impact on the country as a whole, including its health and economy. Since Metabolic Syndrome (MetS) has several risk factors, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the crisis on its prevalence.

Methods: A convenient sample of 1550 healthy subjects aged 18-82 years participated in this study from 2010 till 2015. MetS prevalence was compared between the pre-crisis period and crisis period.

Results: MetS prevalence was found to be significantly lower during the crisis period compared to the pre-crisis period, whereby it was 20.1% in 2010 compared to 11% in 2015.Still, when hospital admissions from cardiovascular disease (CVD) were compared between the pre-crisis and crisis periods, the latter was found to be significantly higher during the crisis as opposed to the pre-crisis period.

Conclusion: The lower prevalence of MetS in the crisis period could be attributed to the change in lifestyle (physical activity and dietary habits). Still, hospital admissions from CVD increased, which could be explained by the increase in psychological stress from the crisis. Thus, further studies need to investigate the effect of both MetS and stress on CVD.

Keywords: Metabolic Syndrome; Crisis; Cardiovascular Disease; Stress

References

  1. Galassi Andrea., et al. “Metabolic Syndrome and Risk of Cardiovascular Disease: A Meta-Analysis”. The American Journal of Medicine10 (2006): 812-819.
  2. Isomaa BO., et al. “Cardiovascular Morbidity and Mortality Associated with the Metabolic Syndrome”. Diabetes Care4 (2001): 683-689.
  3. Malik, Shaista., et al. “Impact of the Metabolic Syndrome on Mortality from Coronary Heart Disease, Cardiovascular Disease, and All Causes in United States Adults”. Circulation 10 (2004): 1245-1250.
  4. Han Thang S and Mike EJ Lean. "A Clinical Perspective of Obesity, Metabolic Syndrome and Cardiovascular Disease”. JRSM Cardiovascular Disease 5 (2016): 2048004016633371.
  5. Zhou Ji-Yin., et al. “Omentin: Linking Metabolic Syndrome and Cardiovascular Disease”. Current Vascular Pharmacology1 (2014): 136-143.
  6. Mongraw-Chaffin Morgana., et al. “Metabolically Healthy Obesity, Transition to Metabolic Syndrome, and Cardiovascular Risk”. Journal of the American College of Cardiology17 (2018): 1857-1865.
  7. Kaur Jaspinder. "A Comprehensive Review on Metabolic Syndrome”. Cardiology Research and Practice (2014).
  8. Lovic Milan B., et al. “Impact of Metabolic Syndrome on Clinical Severity and Long-Term Prognosis in Patients with Myocardial Infarction with St-Segment Elevation”. Hellenic Journal of Cardiology4 (2018): 226-231.
  9. Saklayen Mohammad G. "The Global Epidemic of the Metabolic Syndrome”. Current Hypertension Reports2 (2018): 12.
  10. Li Yaru., et al. “Metabolic Syndrome Prevalence and Its Risk Factors among Adults in China: A Nationally Representative Cross-Sectional Study”. PLoS One6 (2018): e0199293.
  11. Aguilar Maria., et al. “Prevalence of the Metabolic Syndrome in the United States, 2003-2012”. The Journal of the American Medical Association 19 (2015): 1973-1974.
  12. Adedoyin Rufus A., et al. “Relationship between Socioeconomic Status and Metabolic Syndrome among Nigerian Adults”. Diabetes and Metabolic Syndrome: Clinical Research and Reviews2 (2013): 91-94.
  13. Santos Ana C., et al. “Gender, Socio-Economic Status and Metabolic Syndrome in Middle-Aged and Old Adults”. BMC Public Health1 (2008): 62.
  14. Organization World Health. "World Health Organization Syrian Arab Republic: Annual Report 2018”. (2018).
  15. Barakat Hani., et al. “Cvd and Obesity in Transitional Syria: A Perspective from the Middle East”. Vascular Health and Risk Management 8 (2012): 145.
  16. Alourfi Zaynab. "Identifying the Optimal Waist Circumference Cut-Off Point of Metabolic Syndrome among Apparently Healthy Syrian Adults”. EC Endocrinology and Metabolic Research 4 (2019): 376-382.
  17. Sayed-Hassan Rima., et al. “Vitamin D Status and Parathyroid Hormone Levels in Relation to Bone Mineral Density in Apparently Healthy Syrian Adults”. Archives of Osteoporosis1 (2016): 18.
  18. Lilianne HH and A Zaynab. "Serum Lipids Effect on Bone Mineral Density: A Pilot Study in Apparently Healthy Syrians”. Internal Medicine 179 (2014): 2.
  19. Alberti George., et al. “The Idf Consensus Worldwide Definition of the Metabolic Syndrome”. Brussels: International Diabetes Federation”. (2006).
  20. Lakka Timo A and David E Laaksonen. "Physical Activity in Prevention and Treatment of the Metabolic Syndrome”. Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism1 (2007): 76-88.
  21. Panagiotakos Demosthenes B., et al. “The Association between Food Patterns and the Metabolic Syndrome Using Principal Components Analysis: The Attica Study”. Journal of the American Dietetic Association6 (2007): 979-987.
  22. Shin Aesun., et al. “Dietary Intake, Eating Habits, and Metabolic Syndrome in Korean Men”. Journal of the American Dietetic Association4 (2009): 633-640.
  23. Damiri Basma., et al. “Metabolic Syndrome among Overweight and Obese Adults in Palestinian Refugee Camps”. Diabetology and Metabolic Syndrome1 (2018): 34.
  24. Proietti Riccardo., et al. “Mental Stress and Ischemic Heart Disease: Evolving Awareness of a Complex Association”. Future Cardiology3 (2011): 425-437.
  25. Ma Huan., et al. “The Role of the Myocardial Microvasculature in Mental Stress–Induced Myocardial Ischemia”. Clinical Cardiology4 (2016): 234-239.
  26. Merz C Noel Bairey., et al. “Psychosocial Stress and Cardiovascular Disease: Pathophysiological Links”. Behavioral Medicine4 (2002): 141-147.
  27. Steptoe Andrew and Mika Kivimäki. "Stress and Cardiovascular Disease”. Nature Reviews Cardiology6 (2012): 360.
Citation: Zaynab Alourfi and Maria Kadri Al Tourjuman. “Comparison of Metabolic Syndrome Prevalence between the Pre-crisis and Crisis Period in Syria”. EC Endocrinology and Metabolic Research 5.7 (2020): 60-66.

PubMed Indexed Article


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
LC-UV-MS and MS/MS Characterize Glutathione Reactivity with Different Isomers (2,2' and 2,4' vs. 4,4') of Methylene Diphenyl-Diisocyanate.

PMID: 31143884 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6536005


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Alzheimer's Pathogenesis, Metal-Mediated Redox Stress, and Potential Nanotheranostics.

PMID: 31565701 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6764777


EC Neurology
Differences in Rate of Cognitive Decline and Caregiver Burden between Alzheimer's Disease and Vascular Dementia: a Retrospective Study.

PMID: 27747317 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5065347


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Will Blockchain Technology Transform Healthcare and Biomedical Sciences?

PMID: 31460519 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6711478


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Is it a Prime Time for AI-powered Virtual Drug Screening?

PMID: 30215059 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133253


EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Analysis of Evidence for the Combination of Pro-dopamine Regulator (KB220PAM) and Naltrexone to Prevent Opioid Use Disorder Relapse.

PMID: 30417173 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6226033


EC Anaesthesia
Arrest Under Anesthesia - What was the Culprit? A Case Report.

PMID: 30264037 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6155992


EC Orthopaedics
Distraction Implantation. A New Technique in Total Joint Arthroplasty and Direct Skeletal Attachment.

PMID: 30198026 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6124505


EC Pulmonology and Respiratory Medicine
Prevalence and factors associated with self-reported chronic obstructive pulmonary disease among adults aged 40-79: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2012.

PMID: 30294723 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6169793


EC Dental Science
Important Dental Fiber-Reinforced Composite Molding Compound Breakthroughs

PMID: 29285526 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5743211


EC Microbiology
Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites Among HIV Infected and HIV Uninfected Patients Treated at the 1o De Maio Health Centre in Maputo, Mozambique

PMID: 29911204 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5999047


EC Microbiology
Macrophages and the Viral Dissemination Super Highway

PMID: 26949751 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4774560


EC Microbiology
The Microbiome, Antibiotics, and Health of the Pediatric Population.

PMID: 27390782 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4933318


EC Microbiology
Reactive Oxygen Species in HIV Infection

PMID: 28580453 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5450819


EC Microbiology
A Review of the CD4 T Cell Contribution to Lung Infection, Inflammation and Repair with a Focus on Wheeze and Asthma in the Pediatric Population

PMID: 26280024 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4533840


EC Neurology
Identifying Key Symptoms Differentiating Myalgic Encephalomyelitis and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome from Multiple Sclerosis

PMID: 28066845 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5214344


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Paradigm Shift is the Normal State of Pharmacology

PMID: 28936490 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5604476


EC Neurology
Examining those Meeting IOM Criteria Versus IOM Plus Fibromyalgia

PMID: 28713879 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5510658


EC Neurology
Unilateral Frontosphenoid Craniosynostosis: Case Report and a Review of the Literature

PMID: 28133641 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5267489


EC Ophthalmology
OCT-Angiography for Non-Invasive Monitoring of Neuronal and Vascular Structure in Mouse Retina: Implication for Characterization of Retinal Neurovascular Coupling

PMID: 29333536 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5766278


EC Neurology
Longer Duration of Downslope Treadmill Walking Induces Depression of H-Reflexes Measured during Standing and Walking.

PMID: 31032493 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6483108


EC Microbiology
Onchocerciasis in Mozambique: An Unknown Condition for Health Professionals.

PMID: 30957099 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6448571


EC Nutrition
Food Insecurity among Households with and without Podoconiosis in East and West Gojjam, Ethiopia.

PMID: 30101228 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6086333


EC Ophthalmology
REVIEW. +2 to +3 D. Reading Glasses to Prevent Myopia.

PMID: 31080964 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6508883


EC Gynaecology
Biomechanical Mapping of the Female Pelvic Floor: Uterine Prolapse Versus Normal Conditions.

PMID: 31093608 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6513001


EC Dental Science
Fiber-Reinforced Composites: A Breakthrough in Practical Clinical Applications with Advanced Wear Resistance for Dental Materials.

PMID: 31552397 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6758937


EC Microbiology
Neurocysticercosis in Child Bearing Women: An Overlooked Condition in Mozambique and a Potentially Missed Diagnosis in Women Presenting with Eclampsia.

PMID: 31681909 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824723


EC Microbiology
Molecular Detection of Leptospira spp. in Rodents Trapped in the Mozambique Island City, Nampula Province, Mozambique.

PMID: 31681910 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824726


EC Neurology
Endoplasmic Reticulum-Mitochondrial Cross-Talk in Neurodegenerative and Eye Diseases.

PMID: 31528859 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6746603


EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Can Chronic Consumption of Caffeine by Increasing D2/D3 Receptors Offer Benefit to Carriers of the DRD2 A1 Allele in Cocaine Abuse?

PMID: 31276119 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6604646


EC Anaesthesia
Real Time Locating Systems and sustainability of Perioperative Efficiency of Anesthesiologists.

PMID: 31406965 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6690616


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
A Pilot STEM Curriculum Designed to Teach High School Students Concepts in Biochemical Engineering and Pharmacology.

PMID: 31517314 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6741290


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Toxic Mechanisms Underlying Motor Activity Changes Induced by a Mixture of Lead, Arsenic and Manganese.

PMID: 31633124 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6800226


EC Neurology
Research Volunteers' Attitudes Toward Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and Myalgic Encephalomyelitis.

PMID: 29662969 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5898812


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy for Alzheimer's Disease.

PMID: 30215058 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133268


News and Events


June Issue Release

We always feel pleasure to share our updates with you all. Here, notifying you that we have successfully released the June issue of respective journals and the latest articles can be viewed on the current issue pages.

Submission Deadline for upcoming Issue

Ecronicon delightfully welcomes all the authors around the globe for effective collaboration with an article submission for the upcoming issue of respective journals. Submissions are accepted on/before June 25, 2021.

Certificate of Publication

Ecronicon honors with a "Publication Certificate" to the corresponding author by including the names of co-authors as a token of appreciation for publishing the work with our respective journals.

Best Article of the Issue

Editors of respective journals will always be very much interested in electing one Best Article after each issue release. The authors of the selected article will be honored with a "Best Article of the Issue" certificate.

Certifying for Review

Ecronicon certifies the Editors for their first review done towards the assigned article of the respective journals.

Latest Articles

The latest articles will be updated immediately on the articles in press page of the respective journals.

Immediate Assistance

The prime motto of this team is to clarify all the queries without any delay or hesitation to avoid the inconvenience. For immediate assistance on your queries please don't hesitate to drop an email to editor@ecronicon.uk