Welcoming you for any type of article submission for the upcoming issue on/before February 26, 2021.


Research Article
Volume 5 Issue 11 - 2020
Clinical Profile of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Bpkihs, Dharan, Nepal; A Hospital based Cross Sectional Study
Robin Maskey1*, Mathew Abraham Amprayll2, Poonam Lavaju3, Bhupendra Shah4, Bijay Bartaula5, Manish Subedi5 and Sanjib Kumar Sharma6
1Additional Professor, Department of Internal Medicine, BPKIHS, Dharan, Nepal
2Consultant, Department of Internal Medicine, Sunrise Hospital, India
3Professor, Department of Ophthalmology, BPKIHS, Dharan, Nepal
4Assistant Professor, Department of Internal Medicine, BPKIHS, Dharan, Nepal
5Ex Assistant Professor, Department of Internal Medicine, BPKIHS, Dharan, Nepal
6Professor, Department of Internal Medicine, BPKIHS, Dharan, Nepal
*Corresponding Author: Robin Maskey, Additional Professor, Department of Internal Medicine, BPKIHS, Dharan, Nepal.
Received: September 28, 2020; Published: October 15, 2020




Abstract

Background and Aims: The time of diagnosis, clinical spectrum and treatment pattern of diabetes mellitus in developing countries might be different from the developed countries. We conducted this study to determine the clinical spectrum, complications and treatment pattern of Nepalese diabetes patients.

Methods: This was a hospital-based cross-sectional study among patients with diabetes mellitus aged 30 years and above conducted for a period of one year at B.P. Koirala Institute of Health Sciences, Dharan, Nepal.

Results: Of 130 study population, the mean age of presentation was 53 years. Majority of them had sedentary life style (80%), smoker (57%), alcohol consumer (47%), and obese (34%). The mean fasting glucose, postprandial glucose and HbA1C level of the study population were 156 mg/dl (SD-5), 245 mg/dl (SD-89), and 7.67 (SD-1.88) respectively. Retinopathy (8%), dermatological complication (7%) followed Neuropathy (4%) were the common complication among study population.

Conclusion: Majority of diabetes mellitus patient were smoker and unachieved glycemic control. Retinopathy was the commonest complication. Nepalese diabetes patient required counselling regarding life style medication, monitoring of the glycemic control and complications in timely manner.

Keywords: Clinical Profile; Complications; Diabetes Mellitus; Nepal; Retinopathy

References

  1. International Diabetes Federation. Diabetes atlas sixth edition poster update 2014, Brussels, Belgium (2014).
  2. Guariguata L., et al. “Global estimates of diabetes prevalence for 2013 and projections for 2035”. Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice 2 (2014): 137-149.
  3. Akter S., et al. “Smoking and the risk of type 2 diabetes in Japan: A systematic review and meta-analysis”. Journal of Epidemiology 12 (2017): 553-561.
  4. BG Bishal Gyawali ., et al. “Prevalence of type 2 diabetes in Nepal: a systematic review and meta-analysis from 2000 to 2014”. Global Health Action 1 (2015): 4-13.
  5. Ji Won R., et al. “Trends in the Prevalence of Type 2 Diabetes in Asians Versus Whites”. Diabetes Care 34 (2011): 353-357.
  6. Xiaotian Liu., et al. “Prevalence, awareness, treatment, control of type 2 diabetes mellitus and risk factors in Chinese rural population: the Rural Diab study”. Scientific Reports 6 (2016): 31426.
  7. Yang L., et al. “Prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus among inland residents in China (2000-2014): A meta-analysis”. Journal of Diabetes Investigation 6 (2016): 845-852.
  8. Annis AM., et al. “Family History, Diabetes, and Other Demographic and Risk Factors Among Participants of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999 - 2002”. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 2 (2005): 1-12.
  9. Pokharel DR., et al. “Prevalence and pattern of dyslipidemia in Nepalese individuals with type 2 diabetes”. BMC Research Notes 1 (2017): 1-11.
  10. A Meyer K., et al. “Carbohydrates, dietary fiber, and incident type 2 diabetes in older”. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 71 (2000): 921-930.
  11. Akter S., et al. “Smoking and the risk of type 2 diabetes in Japan: A systematic review and meta-analysis”. Journal of Epidemiology 12 (2017): 553-561.
  12. Zhang S., et al. “The Relationship between Alcohol Consumption and Incidence of Glycometabolic Abnormality in Middle-Aged and Elderly Chinese Men”. International Journal of Endocrinology (2016): 1-7.
  13. Mehta KD., et al. “Hyperglycemia, glucose intolerance, hypertension and socioeconomic position in eastern Nepal”. The Southeast Asian Journal of Tropical Medicine and Public Health 42 (2011): 197-207.
  14. Sapkota S., et al. “Nepalese patients’ perceptions of treatment modalities for type 2 diabetes”. Patient Prefer Adherence 10 (2016): 1777-1786.
  15. Sapkota LB., et al. “Correlation between glycemic parameters and lipid profile in type 2 diabetic patients attending tertiary care centre in central region of Nepal”. Jalgaon City Municipal Corporation 1 (2017): 20-24.
  16. Shah PK., et al. “Study of Renal Profile In Diabetic Patient at Nobel Medical College Teaching Hospital , Biratnagar”. Journal of Nobel Medical College 2 (2016): 1-4.
  17. BR M., et al. “Microalbuminuria and mortality in type 2 diabetes”. Journal of Nepal Health Research Council 2 (1998): 89-90.
  18. Prando R., et al. “Is type 2 diabetes a different disease in obese and nonobese patients?” Diabetes Care10 (1998): 1680-1685.
  19. Hadrévi J., et al. “Dietary Fiber Intake among Normal-Weight and Overweight Female Health Care Workers: An Exploratory Nested Case-Control Study within FINALE-Health”. Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism (2017).
  20. Pokharel DR., et al. “Prevalence and pattern of dyslipidemia in Nepalese individuals with type 2 diabetes”. BMC Res Notes1 (2017): 1-11.
  21. Khan SB., et al. “Original Article Prevalence Of Diabetes Mellitus Among Obese And Non-Obese Patients With Coronary Artery Disease”. Journal of Ayub Medical College Abbottabad 3 (2010): 64-67.
Citation: Robin Maskey., et al. “Clinical Profile of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Bpkihs, Dharan, Nepal; A Hospital based Cross Sectional Study”. EC Endocrinology and Metabolic Research 5.11 (2020): 04-15.

PubMed Indexed Article


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
LC-UV-MS and MS/MS Characterize Glutathione Reactivity with Different Isomers (2,2' and 2,4' vs. 4,4') of Methylene Diphenyl-Diisocyanate.

PMID: 31143884 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6536005


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Alzheimer's Pathogenesis, Metal-Mediated Redox Stress, and Potential Nanotheranostics.

PMID: 31565701 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6764777


EC Neurology
Differences in Rate of Cognitive Decline and Caregiver Burden between Alzheimer's Disease and Vascular Dementia: a Retrospective Study.

PMID: 27747317 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5065347


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Will Blockchain Technology Transform Healthcare and Biomedical Sciences?

PMID: 31460519 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6711478


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Is it a Prime Time for AI-powered Virtual Drug Screening?

PMID: 30215059 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133253


EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Analysis of Evidence for the Combination of Pro-dopamine Regulator (KB220PAM) and Naltrexone to Prevent Opioid Use Disorder Relapse.

PMID: 30417173 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6226033


EC Anaesthesia
Arrest Under Anesthesia - What was the Culprit? A Case Report.

PMID: 30264037 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6155992


EC Orthopaedics
Distraction Implantation. A New Technique in Total Joint Arthroplasty and Direct Skeletal Attachment.

PMID: 30198026 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6124505


EC Pulmonology and Respiratory Medicine
Prevalence and factors associated with self-reported chronic obstructive pulmonary disease among adults aged 40-79: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2012.

PMID: 30294723 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6169793


EC Dental Science
Important Dental Fiber-Reinforced Composite Molding Compound Breakthroughs

PMID: 29285526 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5743211


EC Microbiology
Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites Among HIV Infected and HIV Uninfected Patients Treated at the 1o De Maio Health Centre in Maputo, Mozambique

PMID: 29911204 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5999047


EC Microbiology
Macrophages and the Viral Dissemination Super Highway

PMID: 26949751 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4774560


EC Microbiology
The Microbiome, Antibiotics, and Health of the Pediatric Population.

PMID: 27390782 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4933318


EC Microbiology
Reactive Oxygen Species in HIV Infection

PMID: 28580453 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5450819


EC Microbiology
A Review of the CD4 T Cell Contribution to Lung Infection, Inflammation and Repair with a Focus on Wheeze and Asthma in the Pediatric Population

PMID: 26280024 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4533840


EC Neurology
Identifying Key Symptoms Differentiating Myalgic Encephalomyelitis and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome from Multiple Sclerosis

PMID: 28066845 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5214344


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Paradigm Shift is the Normal State of Pharmacology

PMID: 28936490 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5604476


EC Neurology
Examining those Meeting IOM Criteria Versus IOM Plus Fibromyalgia

PMID: 28713879 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5510658


EC Neurology
Unilateral Frontosphenoid Craniosynostosis: Case Report and a Review of the Literature

PMID: 28133641 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5267489


EC Ophthalmology
OCT-Angiography for Non-Invasive Monitoring of Neuronal and Vascular Structure in Mouse Retina: Implication for Characterization of Retinal Neurovascular Coupling

PMID: 29333536 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5766278


EC Neurology
Longer Duration of Downslope Treadmill Walking Induces Depression of H-Reflexes Measured during Standing and Walking.

PMID: 31032493 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6483108


EC Microbiology
Onchocerciasis in Mozambique: An Unknown Condition for Health Professionals.

PMID: 30957099 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6448571


EC Nutrition
Food Insecurity among Households with and without Podoconiosis in East and West Gojjam, Ethiopia.

PMID: 30101228 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6086333


EC Ophthalmology
REVIEW. +2 to +3 D. Reading Glasses to Prevent Myopia.

PMID: 31080964 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6508883


EC Gynaecology
Biomechanical Mapping of the Female Pelvic Floor: Uterine Prolapse Versus Normal Conditions.

PMID: 31093608 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6513001


EC Dental Science
Fiber-Reinforced Composites: A Breakthrough in Practical Clinical Applications with Advanced Wear Resistance for Dental Materials.

PMID: 31552397 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6758937


EC Microbiology
Neurocysticercosis in Child Bearing Women: An Overlooked Condition in Mozambique and a Potentially Missed Diagnosis in Women Presenting with Eclampsia.

PMID: 31681909 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824723


EC Microbiology
Molecular Detection of Leptospira spp. in Rodents Trapped in the Mozambique Island City, Nampula Province, Mozambique.

PMID: 31681910 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824726


EC Neurology
Endoplasmic Reticulum-Mitochondrial Cross-Talk in Neurodegenerative and Eye Diseases.

PMID: 31528859 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6746603


EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Can Chronic Consumption of Caffeine by Increasing D2/D3 Receptors Offer Benefit to Carriers of the DRD2 A1 Allele in Cocaine Abuse?

PMID: 31276119 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6604646


EC Anaesthesia
Real Time Locating Systems and sustainability of Perioperative Efficiency of Anesthesiologists.

PMID: 31406965 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6690616


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
A Pilot STEM Curriculum Designed to Teach High School Students Concepts in Biochemical Engineering and Pharmacology.

PMID: 31517314 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6741290


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Toxic Mechanisms Underlying Motor Activity Changes Induced by a Mixture of Lead, Arsenic and Manganese.

PMID: 31633124 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6800226


EC Neurology
Research Volunteers' Attitudes Toward Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and Myalgic Encephalomyelitis.

PMID: 29662969 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5898812


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy for Alzheimer's Disease.

PMID: 30215058 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133268


News and Events


June Issue Release

We always feel pleasure to share our updates with you all. Here, notifying you that we have successfully released the June issue of respective journals and the latest articles can be viewed on the current issue pages.

Submission Deadline for upcoming Issue

Ecronicon delightfully welcomes all the authors around the globe for effective collaboration with an article submission for the upcoming issue of respective journals. Submissions are accepted on/before June 25, 2021.

Certificate of Publication

Ecronicon honors with a "Publication Certificate" to the corresponding author by including the names of co-authors as a token of appreciation for publishing the work with our respective journals.

Best Article of the Issue

Editors of respective journals will always be very much interested in electing one Best Article after each issue release. The authors of the selected article will be honored with a "Best Article of the Issue" certificate.

Certifying for Review

Ecronicon certifies the Editors for their first review done towards the assigned article of the respective journals.

Latest Articles

The latest articles will be updated immediately on the articles in press page of the respective journals.

Immediate Assistance

The prime motto of this team is to clarify all the queries without any delay or hesitation to avoid the inconvenience. For immediate assistance on your queries please don't hesitate to drop an email to editor@ecronicon.uk