Welcoming you for any type of article submission for the upcoming issue on/before February 26, 2021.

Review Article
Volume 5 Issue 11 - 2020
Blood Group Type, Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and Angiotensin-2 Impact on COVID.19 Outcomes
Mosab Nouraldein Mohammed Hamad1,2*
1Medical Parasitology Department, Faculty of Health Science, Elsheikh Abdallah Elbadri University, Berber, Sudan
2Head of Research Unit, Banoon Fertility Center, Khartoum, Sudan
*Corresponding Author: Mosab Nouraldein Mohammed Hamad, Medical Parasitology Department, Faculty of Health Science, Elsheikh Abdallah Elbadri University, Berber and Head of Research Unit, Banoon Fertility Center, Khartoum, Sudan.
Received: October 09, 2020; Published: October 28, 2020


COVID-19 pandemic influences varied people in dissimilar ways. Infected people have had a broad range of symptoms ranged from mild symptoms to severe illness. This review discussed the direct impact of Angiotensin II in the initiation of the pathogenesis of COVID-19 at the primary phase of infection and its indirect influence severity of it, through stimulus of soluble intracellular adhesion molecule type-1, which lead to increased its concentration and that lead to excessive release of cytokines in a condition known as cytokines storm.

Reduction in Angiotensin II at the secondary phase of infection due to cells being invaded with COVID-19 virus leads to reduction of soluble intracellular adhesion molecules which regulate the immune system, then virus pass to different organs in the body.

Individuals with low-level of intracellular adhesion molecules such as aged, diabetic, patients of cardiovascular disease obese, A blood group and rhesus negative developed severe symptoms when infected with COVID.19, due to weak stimulus from Angiotensin II at the first phase and inactivation of soluble intracellular adhesion molecule type-1 at the second phase of infection, which may lead to loss of patient life.

We conclude that the crucial role in pathogenesis of COVID-19 related to Angiotensin -2 concentration, nor soluble intracellular adhesion molecules type -1 neither ABO blood group nor rhesus system.

Keywords: ABO Blood Group Type; Rhesus System; Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1 (ICAM-1); Angiotensin-2


  1. Yonas Teshome., et al. “The association between ABO blood group distribution and peptic ulcer disease: a cross-sectional study from Ethiopia”. Journal of Blood Medicine 10 (2019): 193-197.
  2. George Garratty. “Relationship of blood groups to disease: do blood group antigens have a biological role?” Revista Medica Del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social 1 (2005): 113-121.
  3. David J Anstee. “The relationship between blood groups and disease”. Blood 115 (2010).
  4. Anderw D Blann., et al. “The influence of age, gender and ABO group on soluble endothelial cell markers and adhesion molecules”. British Journal of Haematology 92 (1996): 498-500.
  5. K Fischermann., et al. “Gastric Function Tests Correlated to A B H Blood Group Substances in Gastric Juice (1967).
  6. Douglas A Steeber and Thomas F Tedder. “Adhesion Molecule Cascades Direct Lymphocyte Recirculation and Leukocyte Migration during Inflammation”. Immunologic Research 22/2-3 (2000): 299-317.
  7. Giovanni Targher., et al. “Relation between Soluble Adhesion Molecules and Insulin Sensitivity in Type 2 Diabetic Individuals, Role of adipose tissue”. Diabetes Care 24 (2001): 1961-1966.
  8. Maja Barbalic., et al. Human Molecular Genetics9 (2010): 1863-1872.
  9. Ramsay PL., et al. “Early clinical markers for the development of bronchopulmonary dysplasia: soluble E-Selectin and ICAM-1”. Pediatrics4-1 (1998): 927-932.
  10. Tommaso Neri., et al. “P-selectin blockade in COVID-19-related ARDS”. American Journal of Physiology-Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology6 (2020): L1237-L1238.
  11. Wenjing Zhang., et al. “Novel association of soluble intercellular adhesion molecule 1 and soluble P-selectin with the ABO blood group in a Chinese population”. Experimental And Therapeutic Medicine (2016).
  12. Nash MC., et al. “Soluble cell adhesion molecules and von Willebrand factor in children with Kawasaki disease”. Clinical and Experimental Immunology 1 (1995): 13-17.
  13. Bunting Michaeline., et al. “Leukocyte adhesion deficiency syndromes: adhesion and tethering defects involving β 2 integrins and selectin ligands”. Current Opinion in Hematology1 (2002): 30-35.
  14. Larson NB., et al. “ABO blood group associations with markers of endothelial dysfunction in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis”. Atherosclerosis 251 (2016): 422-429.
  15. Müller N. “The Role of Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1 in the Pathogenesis of Psychiatric Disorders”. Frontiers in Pharmacology 10 (2019): 1251.
  16. Anne Ponthieux., et al. “Association between Gly241Arg ICAM-1 gene polymorphism and serum sICAM-1 concentration in the Stanislas cohort”. European Journal of Human Genetics 11 (2003): 679-686.
  17. Mariusz Nowak., et al. “Blood serum levels of vascular cell adhesion molecule (sVCAM-1), intercellular adhesion molecule (sICAM-1) and endothelial leucocyte adhesion molecule-1 (ELAM-1) in diabetic retinopathy”. Clinical and Experimental Medicine 8 (2008): 159-164.
  18. Esakandari H., et al. “A comprehensive review of COVID-19 characteristics”. Biological Procedures (2020).
  19. Jin Y., et al. “Virology, Epidemiology, Pathogenesis, and Control of COVID-19”. Viruses4 (2020): 372.
  20. Shi Y., et al. “An overview of COVID-19”. Journal of Zhejiang University Science B 5 (2020): 343-360.
  21. Saioa Zalba Marcos., et al. “Infection and thrombosis associated with COVID-19: Possible role of the ABO blood group”. Medicina Clínica (2020).
  22. Witkowska AM and Borawska MH. “Soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1): an overview”. European Cytokine Network 15 (2004): 91-98.
  23. MR Nicollsa B and RG Gill. “LFA-1 (CD11a) as a Therapeutic Target”. American Journal of Transplantation 6 (2006): 27-36.
  24. Christophe Marguet., et al. “Soluble Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1 (sICAM-1) and Interferon-Gamma in Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid from Children with Airway Diseases”. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 162 (2000): 1016-1022.
  25. Sahlahkh Abbas. “Soluble Intercellular Adhesion molecule-1 and its correlation with some inflammatory markers in Hemodialysis patients”. International Journal of Pharmaceutical Research3 (2019).
  26. Rieckmann P., et al. “Soluble forms of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) block lymphocyte attachment to cerebral endothelial cells”. Journal of Neuroimmunology 1-2 (1995): 9-15.
  27. Chen RF., et al. “Role of vascular cell adhesion molecules and leukocyte apoptosis in the lymphopenia and thrombocytopenia of patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)”. Microbes and Infection 1 (2006): 122-127.
  28. Selvaraj P., et al. “Deficiency of lymphocyte function-associated antigen 3 (LFA-3) in paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria. Functional correlates and evidence for a phosphatidylinositol membrane anchor”. Journal of Experimental Medicine 4 (1987): 1011-1025.
  29. Zhang W., et al. “Novel association of soluble intercellular adhesion molecule 1 and soluble P-selectin with the ABO blood group in a Chinese population”. Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine 2 (2016): 909-914.
  30. Ines J Laudes., et al. “Disturbed Homeostasis of Lung Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1 and Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule-1 During Sepsis”. The American Journal of Pathology4 (2004): 1435-1445.
  31. Schaefer M., et al. “Correlation between sICAM-1 and depressive symptoms during adjuvant treatment of melanoma with interferon-alpha”. Brain, Behavior, and Immunity 6 (2004): 555-562.
  32. Pak VM., et al. “Adhesion molecule increases in sleep apnea: beneficial effect of positive airway pressure and moderation by obesity”. International Journal of Obesity3 (2015): 472-479.
  33. DM Paton. “Lifitegrast: First Lfa-1/Icam-1 Antagonist For Treatment Of Dry Eye Disease”. Drugs of Today9 (2016): 1-10.
  34. Keating SM., et al. “Competition between intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and a small-molecule antagonist for a common binding site on the alphal subunit of lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1”. Protein Science 2 (2006): 290-303.
  35. Paskowitz D., et al. “Safety, tolerability, and bioavailability of topical SAR 1118, a novel antagonist of lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1: a phase 1b study”. Eye 26 (2012): 944-949.
  36. Xiao X., et al. “Intercellular adhesion molecules (ICAMs) and spermatogenesis”. Human Reproduction 2 (2013): 167-186.
  37. Aitken RJ. “COVID-19 and human spermatozoa-Potential risks for infertility and sexual transmission?”. Andrology (2020): 1- 5.
  38. Miesbach W. “Pathological Role of Angiotensin II in Severe COVID-19”. TH Open2 (2020): e138-e144.
  39. Pastore L., et al. “Angiotensin II stimulates intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) expression by human vascular endothelial cells and increases soluble ICAM-1 release In vivo”. Circulation15 (1999): 1646-1652.
  40. Patricia Gassó., et al. “Influence of ABO genotype and phenotype on angiotensin-converting enzyme plasma activity”. Journal of the Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System 4 (2020): 580-584.
  41. Robinson M., et al. “AGT and RH blood group polymorphisms affect blood pressure and lipids in Afro-Caribbeans”. Journal of Human Hypertension 18 (2004): 351-363.
  42. Ryan PM and Caplice N. “COVID-19 and relative angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 deficiency: role in disease severity and therapeutic response”. Open Heart 1 (2020): e001302.
  43. Ni W., et al. “Role of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) in COVID-19”. Critical Care 1 (2020): 422.
Citation: Mosab Nouraldein Mohammed Hamad. “Blood Group Type, Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and Angiotensin-2 Impact on COVID.19 Outcomes”. EC Endocrinology and Metabolic Research 5.11 (2020): 48-55

PubMed Indexed Article

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
LC-UV-MS and MS/MS Characterize Glutathione Reactivity with Different Isomers (2,2' and 2,4' vs. 4,4') of Methylene Diphenyl-Diisocyanate.

PMID: 31143884 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6536005

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Alzheimer's Pathogenesis, Metal-Mediated Redox Stress, and Potential Nanotheranostics.

PMID: 31565701 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6764777

EC Neurology
Differences in Rate of Cognitive Decline and Caregiver Burden between Alzheimer's Disease and Vascular Dementia: a Retrospective Study.

PMID: 27747317 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5065347

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Will Blockchain Technology Transform Healthcare and Biomedical Sciences?

PMID: 31460519 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6711478

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Is it a Prime Time for AI-powered Virtual Drug Screening?

PMID: 30215059 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133253

EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Analysis of Evidence for the Combination of Pro-dopamine Regulator (KB220PAM) and Naltrexone to Prevent Opioid Use Disorder Relapse.

PMID: 30417173 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6226033

EC Anaesthesia
Arrest Under Anesthesia - What was the Culprit? A Case Report.

PMID: 30264037 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6155992

EC Orthopaedics
Distraction Implantation. A New Technique in Total Joint Arthroplasty and Direct Skeletal Attachment.

PMID: 30198026 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6124505

EC Pulmonology and Respiratory Medicine
Prevalence and factors associated with self-reported chronic obstructive pulmonary disease among adults aged 40-79: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2012.

PMID: 30294723 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6169793

EC Dental Science
Important Dental Fiber-Reinforced Composite Molding Compound Breakthroughs

PMID: 29285526 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5743211

EC Microbiology
Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites Among HIV Infected and HIV Uninfected Patients Treated at the 1o De Maio Health Centre in Maputo, Mozambique

PMID: 29911204 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5999047

EC Microbiology
Macrophages and the Viral Dissemination Super Highway

PMID: 26949751 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4774560

EC Microbiology
The Microbiome, Antibiotics, and Health of the Pediatric Population.

PMID: 27390782 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4933318

EC Microbiology
Reactive Oxygen Species in HIV Infection

PMID: 28580453 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5450819

EC Microbiology
A Review of the CD4 T Cell Contribution to Lung Infection, Inflammation and Repair with a Focus on Wheeze and Asthma in the Pediatric Population

PMID: 26280024 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4533840

EC Neurology
Identifying Key Symptoms Differentiating Myalgic Encephalomyelitis and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome from Multiple Sclerosis

PMID: 28066845 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5214344

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Paradigm Shift is the Normal State of Pharmacology

PMID: 28936490 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5604476

EC Neurology
Examining those Meeting IOM Criteria Versus IOM Plus Fibromyalgia

PMID: 28713879 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5510658

EC Neurology
Unilateral Frontosphenoid Craniosynostosis: Case Report and a Review of the Literature

PMID: 28133641 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5267489

EC Ophthalmology
OCT-Angiography for Non-Invasive Monitoring of Neuronal and Vascular Structure in Mouse Retina: Implication for Characterization of Retinal Neurovascular Coupling

PMID: 29333536 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5766278

EC Neurology
Longer Duration of Downslope Treadmill Walking Induces Depression of H-Reflexes Measured during Standing and Walking.

PMID: 31032493 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6483108

EC Microbiology
Onchocerciasis in Mozambique: An Unknown Condition for Health Professionals.

PMID: 30957099 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6448571

EC Nutrition
Food Insecurity among Households with and without Podoconiosis in East and West Gojjam, Ethiopia.

PMID: 30101228 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6086333

EC Ophthalmology
REVIEW. +2 to +3 D. Reading Glasses to Prevent Myopia.

PMID: 31080964 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6508883

EC Gynaecology
Biomechanical Mapping of the Female Pelvic Floor: Uterine Prolapse Versus Normal Conditions.

PMID: 31093608 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6513001

EC Dental Science
Fiber-Reinforced Composites: A Breakthrough in Practical Clinical Applications with Advanced Wear Resistance for Dental Materials.

PMID: 31552397 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6758937

EC Microbiology
Neurocysticercosis in Child Bearing Women: An Overlooked Condition in Mozambique and a Potentially Missed Diagnosis in Women Presenting with Eclampsia.

PMID: 31681909 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824723

EC Microbiology
Molecular Detection of Leptospira spp. in Rodents Trapped in the Mozambique Island City, Nampula Province, Mozambique.

PMID: 31681910 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824726

EC Neurology
Endoplasmic Reticulum-Mitochondrial Cross-Talk in Neurodegenerative and Eye Diseases.

PMID: 31528859 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6746603

EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Can Chronic Consumption of Caffeine by Increasing D2/D3 Receptors Offer Benefit to Carriers of the DRD2 A1 Allele in Cocaine Abuse?

PMID: 31276119 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6604646

EC Anaesthesia
Real Time Locating Systems and sustainability of Perioperative Efficiency of Anesthesiologists.

PMID: 31406965 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6690616

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
A Pilot STEM Curriculum Designed to Teach High School Students Concepts in Biochemical Engineering and Pharmacology.

PMID: 31517314 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6741290

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Toxic Mechanisms Underlying Motor Activity Changes Induced by a Mixture of Lead, Arsenic and Manganese.

PMID: 31633124 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6800226

EC Neurology
Research Volunteers' Attitudes Toward Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and Myalgic Encephalomyelitis.

PMID: 29662969 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5898812

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy for Alzheimer's Disease.

PMID: 30215058 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133268

News and Events

December Issue Release

We always feel pleasure to share our updates with you all. Here, notifying you that we have successfully released the November issue of respective journals and the latest articles can be viewed on the current issue pages.

Submission Deadline for Upcoming Issue

ECronicon delightfully welcomes all the authors around the globe for effective collaboration with an article submission for the upcoming issue of respective journals. Submissions are accepted on/before December 23, 2022.

Certificate of Publication

ECronicon honors with a "Publication Certificate" to the corresponding author by including the names of co-authors as a token of appreciation for publishing the work with our respective journals.

Best Article of the Issue

Editors of respective journals will always be very much interested in electing one Best Article after each issue release. The authors of the selected article will be honored with a "Best Article of the Issue" certificate.

Certifying for Review

ECronicon certifies the Editors for their first review done towards the assigned article of the respective journals.

Latest Articles

The latest articles will be updated immediately on the articles in press page of the respective journals.