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Mini Review
Volume 6 Issue 6 - 2021
The Unexpected Effects of Vitamin D
Francesco Lippi* and Antonetta Picone
Thyroid Center Diseases, School of Endocrinology, University of Pisa, Italy
*Corresponding Author: Francesco Lippi, Thyroid Center Diseases, School of Endocrinology, University of Pisa, Italy.
Received: April 26, 2021; Published: April 29, 2021




Abstract

The role of Vitamin D related to sunlight, has always been recognized in the past fundamental for the reduction of rickets in children. The 1,25-dihydroxy-vitamin D (1,25-OH2)D is the steroid hormone, involved in the regulation of mineral homeostasis and bone metabolism. Vitamin D is synthesized in the skin, due to the effect of ultraviolet radiation (cholecalciferol) and is also introduced with the diet (ergocalciferol), but minimally. The biological effects of 1,25 (OH2) D are manifested thanks to the binding with the Vitamin D receptor (VDR) which belongs to the family of nuclear super-receptors and are expressed in numerous cell types and tissues. The 1,25(OH2)D, like parathyroid hormone (PTH), represents the mechanism which induces bone resorption. In recent years the beneficial effects of Vitamin D it also known in cancer prevention and treatment in several epidemiological studies. In laboratory studies, Vitamin D demonstrate a potential and important role in the tumorigenesis process as the cells regulation and proliferation or apoptosis. Also, in the immunomodulation process seem that the Vitamin D can be involved, both for innate and adaptive immune system. A possible association between Vitamin D deficiency and autoimmune disease (i.e. psoriasis, type I diabetes, multiple sclerosis, etc) has been published. The recent pandemic COVID-19 infection around the world seems that could be influenced by multiple factors (as age, comorbidity, obesity, diabetes, etc.), one of that, seems related to the deficiency of Vitamin D. Vitamin D deficiency is associate with an increasing susceptibility of infection diseases as upper respiratory tract producing antimicrobial peptides that might help to reduce the inflammatory response to COVID-19 infection. This review critically examines the current information on the role of Vitamin D in humans.

Keywords: Vitamin D; Vitamin D Receptors (VDR); 1-25-Dihidroxyvitamin D; Cholecalciferol; Rickets; Parathyroid Hormone (PTH); Bone Metabolism; Inflammation; Immune System; Autoimmune Disorders; COVID-19

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Citation: Francesco Lippi and Antonetta Picone. “The Unexpected Effects of Vitamin D”. EC Gastroenterology and Digestive System 6.5 (2021): 31-34.

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