Review Article
Volume 8 Issue 1 - 2021
Friend or Foe? Helicobacter pylori Infection: Epidemiology, Signs, and Symptoms, and Treatment
Nicholas A Kerna1,2*, Kyle Kadivi3, Olufemi Odugbemi4, John V Flores5,6, Hilary M Holets5.6, Shain Waugh7, Ijeoma Nnake2 and Fernand Jean-Baptiste8
11SMC–Medical Research, Thailand
22First InterHealth Group, Thailand
3Global Health Group LLC, USA
4Olabisi Onabanjo University, Nigeria
5Beverly Hills Wellness Surgical Institute, USA
6Orange Partners Surgicenter, USA
7Fettle Path, USA
8Department of Biological Sciences, Florida Atlantic University, USA
*Corresponding Author:Nicholas A Kerna, (mailing address) POB47 Phatphong, Suriwongse Road, Bangkok, Thailand 10500.
Received: November 30, 2020; Published: December 31, 2020


pylori can induce gastritis, peptic ulcer diseases, and cancer, including mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma. It is also associated with numerous comorbidities. Nevertheless, several purported positive impacts of the bacterium have been noted, such as maintaining the stomach's healthy environment. Non-pathogenic H. pylori strains may aid in normalizing excess stomach acids and regulating appetite. Patients with H. pylori infection can experience acute gastritis symptoms with acute-onset abdominal pain, nausea, and vomiting. Non-specific abdominal pain, a sense of bloating, belching, and appetite loss are signs of infection. However, about 90% of individuals infected with H. pylori may never experience any symptoms during their lifetime, although 10–20% are at risk for peptic ulcer disease. The precise routes of H. pylori transmission remain unclear, although contaminated food, water, or soil are strongly suspected as well as person-to-person transmission through feco-oral and oral-oral routes. Treatment with antibacterial and antisecretory agents is the standard of care for H. pylori management. Also, phytomedicines and probiotics have been reported effective not only as a treatment but also in lessening the side effects of antimicrobial therapy, such as diarrhea. There are various drug combinations for eradicating H. pylori, as described in this paper. Although the recurrence rate of H. pylori infection after eradication is relatively low, it remains a cause for concern and antibiotic resistance. Poor socio-economic conditions and sanitary habits are risk factors associated with the recurrence of H. pylori infection after successful eradication.

Keywords: Dyspepsia; Heartburn; Hematemesis; Melena; Peptic Ulcer; Phytomedicines; Probiotic; Triple-Drug Therapy


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Citation: Kerna NA, Kadivi K, Odugbemi O, Flores JV, Holets HM, Waugh S, Nnake I, Jean-Baptiste F. “Friend or Foe? Helicobacter pylori Infection: Epidemiology, Signs, and Symptoms, and Treatment”. EC Gastroenterology and Digestive System 8.1 (2021): 59-65.

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