Mini Review
Volume 8 Issue 12 - 2021
The Role of the Microflora of the Gastrointestinal Tract and Liver in the Pathogenesis of Obesity and Type 2 Diabetes

LA Zvenigorodskay1*, MV Shinkin1, AM Mkrtumyan1,2, TV Nilova1, AV Petrakov1 and SY Silvestrova1

1Moscow Clinical Scientific and Practical Center Named After A.S. Loginov, Moscow, Russia
2Moscow State Medical and Dental University Named After A.I. Evdokimov, Moscow, Russia
*Corresponding Author: LA Zvenigorodskay, Moscow Clinical Scientific and Practical Center Named After A.S. Loginov, Moscow, Russia.
Received: October 16, 2021; Published: November 19, 2021




Abstract

Diabetes mellitus is the basis of polymorbidity. It is associated with various complications, primarily micro- and macrovascular, which often cause disability and death of patients. This disease is associated with an increased risk of developing certain types of cancer. Diabetes mellitus also causes the severe course and progression of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, which remains an underestimated clinical problem. This pathology is usually diagnosed with severe clinical and functional disorders and the development of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis and cirrhosis of the liver.

Bile acid deficiency can lead to bacterial overgrowth syndrome, endotoxin-mediated chronic inflammation. Violation of the metabolic activity of bile acids also plays an important role in the pathogenesis of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, which is the main reason for the ineffectiveness of treatment of many metabolic diseases, including type II diabetes mellitus.

The intestinal microbiome can interact with food components, affecting the body's sensitivity to insulin, intestinal permeability, glucose and fat metabolism. Obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus are often characterized by changes in the intestinal microflora, inflammation and violation of the intestinal barrier. Thus, in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, there is an increase in the number of sulfate-reducing bacteria and a decrease in the number of Accegmapsia muciniphila - mucosal bacteria that are involved in the barrier function of the intestine. A decrease in the number of butyrate-producing bacteria may be the cause of impaired glucose metabolism.

Keywords: Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus; Microbiota; Short-Chain Fatty Acids; Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

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Citation: LA Zvenigorodskay., et al. “The Role of the Microflora of the Gastrointestinal Tract and Liver in the Pathogenesis of Obesity and Type 2 Diabetes”. EC Gastroenterology and Digestive System 8.12 (2021): 26-31.

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