Research Article
Volume 9 Issue 1 - 2022
Intestinal Microbiome Activity and Formation in Children Born from Mothers with Gestational Diabetes Mellitus
Grigoryev KI1*, Kharitonova LA1, Papysheva OV1,2, Morozov SG3, Mayatskaya TA1 and Zatevalov AM4
1Pirogov Russian National Research Medical University (RNRMU) of the Ministry of Health of Russia, Russia
2State Budgetary Healthcare Institution of the City of Moscow Yudin City Clinical Hospital of the Department of Healthcare of the City of Moscow, Russia
3Research Institute of General Pathology and Pathophysiology, Moscow, Russia
4Gabrichevsky Moscow Research Institute of Еpidemiology and Microbiology of the Russian Consumer Protection Agency, Russia
*Corresponding Author: Grigoryev KI, Pirogov Russian National Research Medical University (RNRMU) of the Ministry of Health of Russia, Russia.
Received: November 08, 2021; Published: December 30, 2021


Relevance: According to modern studies, a set of microbiocenosis represents the human microbiome. They have shown some factors to shape the architecture and functionality of microorganisms. Human gut microbiome influences on the pathological processes not only in the digestive tract but also in other organs.

Objective: To determine a correlation between intestinal microbiota violations and its functional activity in children born from mothers with gestational diabetes by studying their intestinal microecology to predict health status of the cohort.

Materials and Methods: We studied the changes in intestinal microbiocenosis in 60 infants aged 1 - 28 days, including 22 infants by healthy mothers (control group, CG) and 38 infants by mothers with diabetes (GDM). We studied the species composition of the gut microbiocenosis by fecal ngs sequencing and functional state of the microbiocenosis by short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) concentrations using gas-liquid chromatography of acidified fecal supernatant. To quantify the biodiversity of the microbial community, we calculated Shannon index using the formula:

corresponds to the number of microbial species in the intestinal microbial community. Statistical analysis was performed with Statistica 8.0 and MS Office Excel 2010.

Results: The species diversity increases and different classes of isolated bacteria correlate strongly to form microbiome in infants from mothers with gestational diabetes mellitus. The functional activity of the neonatal microbiota is related directly to the intensity of bacterial colonization. Significant biodiversity and interspecies bacterial symbiosis develop compensatory mechanisms in the colon to allow for the coexistence of the microorganism and the microbial community.


Keywords: Gut Microbiome; Gestational Diabetes Mellitus; Children


  1. McIntyre HD., et al. “Gestational diabetes mellitus”. Nature Reviews Disease Primers 1 (2019): 47.
  2. Patterson E., et al. “Gut microbiota, obesity and diabetes”. Postgraduate Medical Journal 1087 (2016).
  3. Xiao H and Kang S. “The Role of the Gut Microbiome in Energy Balance with a Focus on the Gut- Adipose Tissue Axis”. Frontiers in Genetics (2020).
  4. Simonova EV and Ponomareva OA. “The role of normal microflora in maintaining human health”. Siberian Medical Journal8 (2008): 20-25.
  5. Kuchumova SYu., et al. “Physiological significance of intestinal microflora”. Russian Journal of Gastroenterology, Hepatology, Coloproctology (RZHGGK) T 5 (2011): 17-27.
  6. Aagaard K., et al. “The placenta harbors a unique microbiome”. Science Translational Medicine237 (2014): 237-241.
  7. Singh Sh., et al. “Understanding the Mechanism of Bacterial Biofilms Resistance to Antimicrobial Agents”. The Open Microbiology Journal 11 (2017): 53-62.
  8. Zatevalov AM., et al. “Determination of the concentration of butyric acid in feces, critical for the functional activity of normal intestinal and oropharyngeal microflora, of the concentration of butyric acid in the feces of patients of the intensive care unit who are on tube feeding”. Fundamental and Clinical Medicine1 (2017): 14-22.
  9. Mariat D., et al. “The Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio of the human microbiota changes with age”. BMC Microbiology 9 (2009): 123.
  10. Tytgat HLP., et al. “Bowel biofilms: tipping points between a healthy and compromised gut?” Trends in Microbiology 27 (2019): 17-25.
  11. Bulatova EM and Bogdanova NM. “Formation of intestinal microflora in the postnatal period and its importance in the formation of an adaptive immune response and immunological tolerance”. Vopr sovr pediatr3 (2007): 53-61.
  12. Zhao L., et al. “A Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Receptor Agonist Lowers Weight by Modulating the Structure of Gut Microbiota”. Frontiers in Endocrinology 9 (2018): 233.
  13. Oleskin AV., et al. “Biotechnology and microbial neurochemistry: Biotechnological implications of the role of neuromediators in microbial systems”. Advances in Biotechnology and Microbiology4 (2017): 001-004.
  14. Motta JP., et al. “Gastrointestinal biofilms in health and disease”. Nature Reviews Gastroenterology and Hepatology 18 (2021): 314-334.
  15. Zheng W., et al. “Gestational diabetes mellitus is associated with reduced dynamics of gut microbiota during the first half of pregnancy”. mSystems 5 (2020): e00109-e00120.
  16. Maindal HT., et al. “Systematically developing a family-based health promotion intervention for women with prior gestational diabetes based on evidence, theory and co-production: the Face-it study”. BMC Public Health 1616 (2021).
Citation: Grigoryev KI., et al. “Intestinal Microbiome Activity and Formation in Children Born from Mothers with Gestational Diabetes Mellitus”. EC Gastroenterology and Digestive System 9.1 (2022): 29-36.

PubMed Indexed Article

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
LC-UV-MS and MS/MS Characterize Glutathione Reactivity with Different Isomers (2,2' and 2,4' vs. 4,4') of Methylene Diphenyl-Diisocyanate.

PMID: 31143884 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6536005

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Alzheimer's Pathogenesis, Metal-Mediated Redox Stress, and Potential Nanotheranostics.

PMID: 31565701 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6764777

EC Neurology
Differences in Rate of Cognitive Decline and Caregiver Burden between Alzheimer's Disease and Vascular Dementia: a Retrospective Study.

PMID: 27747317 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5065347

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Will Blockchain Technology Transform Healthcare and Biomedical Sciences?

PMID: 31460519 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6711478

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Is it a Prime Time for AI-powered Virtual Drug Screening?

PMID: 30215059 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133253

EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Analysis of Evidence for the Combination of Pro-dopamine Regulator (KB220PAM) and Naltrexone to Prevent Opioid Use Disorder Relapse.

PMID: 30417173 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6226033

EC Anaesthesia
Arrest Under Anesthesia - What was the Culprit? A Case Report.

PMID: 30264037 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6155992

EC Orthopaedics
Distraction Implantation. A New Technique in Total Joint Arthroplasty and Direct Skeletal Attachment.

PMID: 30198026 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6124505

EC Pulmonology and Respiratory Medicine
Prevalence and factors associated with self-reported chronic obstructive pulmonary disease among adults aged 40-79: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2012.

PMID: 30294723 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6169793

EC Dental Science
Important Dental Fiber-Reinforced Composite Molding Compound Breakthroughs

PMID: 29285526 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5743211

EC Microbiology
Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites Among HIV Infected and HIV Uninfected Patients Treated at the 1o De Maio Health Centre in Maputo, Mozambique

PMID: 29911204 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5999047

EC Microbiology
Macrophages and the Viral Dissemination Super Highway

PMID: 26949751 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4774560

EC Microbiology
The Microbiome, Antibiotics, and Health of the Pediatric Population.

PMID: 27390782 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4933318

EC Microbiology
Reactive Oxygen Species in HIV Infection

PMID: 28580453 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5450819

EC Microbiology
A Review of the CD4 T Cell Contribution to Lung Infection, Inflammation and Repair with a Focus on Wheeze and Asthma in the Pediatric Population

PMID: 26280024 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4533840

EC Neurology
Identifying Key Symptoms Differentiating Myalgic Encephalomyelitis and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome from Multiple Sclerosis

PMID: 28066845 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5214344

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Paradigm Shift is the Normal State of Pharmacology

PMID: 28936490 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5604476

EC Neurology
Examining those Meeting IOM Criteria Versus IOM Plus Fibromyalgia

PMID: 28713879 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5510658

EC Neurology
Unilateral Frontosphenoid Craniosynostosis: Case Report and a Review of the Literature

PMID: 28133641 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5267489

EC Ophthalmology
OCT-Angiography for Non-Invasive Monitoring of Neuronal and Vascular Structure in Mouse Retina: Implication for Characterization of Retinal Neurovascular Coupling

PMID: 29333536 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5766278

EC Neurology
Longer Duration of Downslope Treadmill Walking Induces Depression of H-Reflexes Measured during Standing and Walking.

PMID: 31032493 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6483108

EC Microbiology
Onchocerciasis in Mozambique: An Unknown Condition for Health Professionals.

PMID: 30957099 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6448571

EC Nutrition
Food Insecurity among Households with and without Podoconiosis in East and West Gojjam, Ethiopia.

PMID: 30101228 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6086333

EC Ophthalmology
REVIEW. +2 to +3 D. Reading Glasses to Prevent Myopia.

PMID: 31080964 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6508883

EC Gynaecology
Biomechanical Mapping of the Female Pelvic Floor: Uterine Prolapse Versus Normal Conditions.

PMID: 31093608 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6513001

EC Dental Science
Fiber-Reinforced Composites: A Breakthrough in Practical Clinical Applications with Advanced Wear Resistance for Dental Materials.

PMID: 31552397 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6758937

EC Microbiology
Neurocysticercosis in Child Bearing Women: An Overlooked Condition in Mozambique and a Potentially Missed Diagnosis in Women Presenting with Eclampsia.

PMID: 31681909 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824723

EC Microbiology
Molecular Detection of Leptospira spp. in Rodents Trapped in the Mozambique Island City, Nampula Province, Mozambique.

PMID: 31681910 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824726

EC Neurology
Endoplasmic Reticulum-Mitochondrial Cross-Talk in Neurodegenerative and Eye Diseases.

PMID: 31528859 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6746603

EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Can Chronic Consumption of Caffeine by Increasing D2/D3 Receptors Offer Benefit to Carriers of the DRD2 A1 Allele in Cocaine Abuse?

PMID: 31276119 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6604646

EC Anaesthesia
Real Time Locating Systems and sustainability of Perioperative Efficiency of Anesthesiologists.

PMID: 31406965 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6690616

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
A Pilot STEM Curriculum Designed to Teach High School Students Concepts in Biochemical Engineering and Pharmacology.

PMID: 31517314 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6741290

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Toxic Mechanisms Underlying Motor Activity Changes Induced by a Mixture of Lead, Arsenic and Manganese.

PMID: 31633124 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6800226

EC Neurology
Research Volunteers' Attitudes Toward Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and Myalgic Encephalomyelitis.

PMID: 29662969 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5898812

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy for Alzheimer's Disease.

PMID: 30215058 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133268

News and Events

December Issue Release

We always feel pleasure to share our updates with you all. Here, notifying you that we have successfully released the November issue of respective journals and the latest articles can be viewed on the current issue pages.

Submission Deadline for Upcoming Issue

ECronicon delightfully welcomes all the authors around the globe for effective collaboration with an article submission for the upcoming issue of respective journals. Submissions are accepted on/before December 23, 2022.

Certificate of Publication

ECronicon honors with a "Publication Certificate" to the corresponding author by including the names of co-authors as a token of appreciation for publishing the work with our respective journals.

Best Article of the Issue

Editors of respective journals will always be very much interested in electing one Best Article after each issue release. The authors of the selected article will be honored with a "Best Article of the Issue" certificate.

Certifying for Review

ECronicon certifies the Editors for their first review done towards the assigned article of the respective journals.

Latest Articles

The latest articles will be updated immediately on the articles in press page of the respective journals.