Research Article
Volume 10 Issue 6 - 2021
Expression of Angiogenic Proteins in Chorionic Villi of Normal Human Placentas
Jayasri Basu*, Yingyi Wu, Diana M Encalada, Sara Oraee and Magdy Mikhail
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, BronxCare Health System, NY, USA
*Corresponding Author: Jayasri Basu, Director - Graduate Medical Education, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, BronxCare Health System and Clinical Assistant Professor of Obstetrics and Gynecology and Reproductive Science, Icahn School of Medicine of Mount Sinai, Bronx, NY, USA.
Received: May 07, 2021; Published: May 29, 2021




Abstract

Objective: We have explored the interactions of three placental angiogenic proteins at each trimester of normal human pregnancy: Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) VEGF165, VEGF165b and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) MMP-9. We have additionally determined the relationship of VEGF165b and MMP-9 proteins with VEGF165, the potential mediator of placental angiogenesis in human.

Methods: 195 placentas were obtained from normotensive pregnancies. Chorionic villi were isolated and VEGF165, VEGF165b and MMP-9 proteins expression were analyzed by ELISA. The kits were purchased from R&D Systems, Minneapolis, MN. Placentas were grouped by trimesters and non-parametric tests were performed. Mediation test was carried out. P < 0.05 was considered significant.

Results: 61 placentas were collected from the 1st trimester, 42 from the 2nd trimester and 92 from the 3rd trimester of normotensive pregnancies. Kruskal Wallis and Mann Whitney U tests revealed significant differences (p = 0.001) in all three proteins among the trimester groups. The protein profiles throughout gestation showed that in the 2nd trimester, VEGF165 was comparatively lower, while VEGF165b protein showed a peak. MMP-9 protein progressively increased with an increase in gestational age. VEGF165b and MMP-9 proteins were correlated with gestational age in days (GAD) in the 1st trimester of human pregnancy (rho = 0.280, p = 0.029, rho = 0.290, p = 0.023 for VEGF165b and MMP-9, respectively). No correlation was seen in the 2nd trimester. In the 3rd trimester, both isoforms of VEGF165 were significantly correlated (rho = 0.368, p = 0.0001). The correlation between VEGF165 and MMP-9 proteins was significant but negative (rho = -0.306, p = 0.003). Mediation test results revealed that VEGF165b and MMP-9 both exerted independent effects on VEGF165 but the effect of VEGF165b on VEGF165 was not mediated via MMP-9.

Conclusion: The study demonstrates a temporal variation in VEGF165b protein expression throughout gestation, suggesting that VEGF165b protein is more stringently controlled at each phase of human gestation, and may be actively participating in placental development. The correlation of the anti-angiogenic protein VEGF165b with VEGF165 throughout gestation, and the negative association between MMP-9 and VEGF165 proteins in the 3rd trimester suggest that both VEGF165b and MMP-9 proteins in human pregnancy could contribute in restraining over expression of VEGF165; which if left un-checked, could lead to pregnancy-related complications.

Keywords: Gestational Age-Specific Protein Expressions; Normal Human Pregnancy; VEGF165, VEGF165b and MMP-9 Proteins; Hispanic and Black Ethnic Groups; C-Section and Vaginal Methods of Delivery

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Citation: Jayasri Basu., et al. “Expression of Angiogenic Proteins in Chorionic Villi of Normal Human Placentas”. EC Gynaecology 10.6 (2020): 88-97.

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