Case Report
Volume 10 Issue 7 - 2021
Thoraco Omphalopagus: An Intra Operative Diagnosis of Conjoined Twin Pregnancy
Anberbir Girma* and Atsinagn Girma Borena
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Jimma University, Jimma, Ethiopia
*Corresponding Author: Anberbir Girma, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Jimma University, Jimma, Ethiopia.
Received: May 12, 2021; Published: June 12, 2021


Background: Conjoined twins are a rare type of monoamniotic twins, estimated to occur in 1.5 per 100,000 births worldwide [1]. The incidence appears remarkably similar throughout the world, although the report is higher from Atlanta 1 per 20,000 births [2]. When twins are conjoined, the fusion occurs between the same body parts. Conjoined twins are classified as cephalopagus, thoracopagus, omphalopagus, ischiopagus, parapagus, craniopagus, rachipagus and pygopagus based on the site of fusion.

Case Report: Here we report a case of a 27-year-old Gravida 4 para 2 Abortion 1 mother who presented with labor and rupture of membrane. She had two previous cesarean deliveries. She did not have ultrasound scanning throughout her pregnancy. She was in active labor and an emergency Cesarean section was done. Conjoined twin (Thoraco-omphalopagus) was diagnosed during surgery when the fetuses were extracted from the uterus intra-operatively.

Conclusion: The case of thoraco omphalopagus conjoined twin delivered by cesarean section is presented with a literature review.

Keywords: Monoamniotic-Monochorionic Twins; Thoraco-Omphalopagus; Conjoined Twins


  1. Mutchinik OM., et al. “Conjoined twins: a worldwide collaborative epidemiological study of the international clearinghouse for birth defects surveillance and research”. American Journal of Medical Genetics Part C: Seminars in Medical Genetics 4 (2011): 274-287.
  2. Compton HL. “Conjoined twins”. Obstetrics and Gynecology 37 (1971): 27-33.
  3. Blickistein I and Jones C Keith. “Zygotic splitting rates after single embryo transfers in IVF (2003).
  4. McHugh K., et al. “Imaging of conjoined twins”. Pediatric Radiology 36 (2006): 899-910.
  5. Ö Ünal., et al. “MRI of omphalopagus conjoined twins with a Dandy-Walker malformation: prenatal true FISP and HASTE sequences”. Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology1 (2010): 66-69.
  6. Hill LM., et al. “Sonographic determination of first trimester with chorionicity and amnionicity”. Journal of Clinical Ultrasound 24 (1996): 305-308.
  7. Roqué H., et al. “Perinatal outcomes in monoamniotic gestations”. Journal of Maternal-Fetal and Neonatal Medicine6 (2003): 414-421.
  8. Murakoshi T., et al. “Monochorionic monoamniotic twin pregnancies with two yolk sacs may not be a rare finding: a report of two cases”. Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology 36 (2010): 384-386.
  9. Edmonds LD and Layde PM. “Conjoined twins in the United States, 1970 –1977”. Teratology 25 (1982): 301-308.
  10. Shapiro E., et al. “Ischiopagus tetrapus twins: Urological aspects of separation and 10 year follow up”. The Journal of Urology 145 (1991): 120-125.
  11. Chiu CT., et al. “Separation of thoracopagus conjoined twins. A case report”. The Journal of Cardiovascular Surgery 5 (1994): 459-462.
  12. Czyz W., et al. “Genetic, environmental and stochastic factors in monozygotic twin discordance with a focus on epigenetic differences”. BMC Medicine 10 (2012): 93.
  13. Cuillier F., et al. “Conjoined twins: what ultrasound may add to management”. Journal of Prenatal Medicine1 (2012): 4-6.
  14. Cunniff C., et al. “Laterality defects in conjoined twins: implications for normal asymmetry in human embryogenesis”. American Journal of Medical Genetics3 (1988): 669-677.
  15. Casele HL and Meyer JR. “Ultrafast magnetic resonance imaging of cephalopagus conjoined twins”. Obstetrics and Gynecology 6-2 (2000): 1015-1017.
Citation: Anberbir Girma and Atsinagn Girma Borena. “Thoraco Omphalopagus: An Intra Operative Diagnosis of Conjoined Twin Pregnancy”. EC Gynaecology 10.7 (2020): 33-36.

PubMed Indexed Article

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
LC-UV-MS and MS/MS Characterize Glutathione Reactivity with Different Isomers (2,2' and 2,4' vs. 4,4') of Methylene Diphenyl-Diisocyanate.

PMID: 31143884 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6536005

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Alzheimer's Pathogenesis, Metal-Mediated Redox Stress, and Potential Nanotheranostics.

PMID: 31565701 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6764777

EC Neurology
Differences in Rate of Cognitive Decline and Caregiver Burden between Alzheimer's Disease and Vascular Dementia: a Retrospective Study.

PMID: 27747317 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5065347

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Will Blockchain Technology Transform Healthcare and Biomedical Sciences?

PMID: 31460519 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6711478

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Is it a Prime Time for AI-powered Virtual Drug Screening?

PMID: 30215059 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133253

EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Analysis of Evidence for the Combination of Pro-dopamine Regulator (KB220PAM) and Naltrexone to Prevent Opioid Use Disorder Relapse.

PMID: 30417173 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6226033

EC Anaesthesia
Arrest Under Anesthesia - What was the Culprit? A Case Report.

PMID: 30264037 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6155992

EC Orthopaedics
Distraction Implantation. A New Technique in Total Joint Arthroplasty and Direct Skeletal Attachment.

PMID: 30198026 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6124505

EC Pulmonology and Respiratory Medicine
Prevalence and factors associated with self-reported chronic obstructive pulmonary disease among adults aged 40-79: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2012.

PMID: 30294723 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6169793

EC Dental Science
Important Dental Fiber-Reinforced Composite Molding Compound Breakthroughs

PMID: 29285526 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5743211

EC Microbiology
Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites Among HIV Infected and HIV Uninfected Patients Treated at the 1o De Maio Health Centre in Maputo, Mozambique

PMID: 29911204 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5999047

EC Microbiology
Macrophages and the Viral Dissemination Super Highway

PMID: 26949751 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4774560

EC Microbiology
The Microbiome, Antibiotics, and Health of the Pediatric Population.

PMID: 27390782 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4933318

EC Microbiology
Reactive Oxygen Species in HIV Infection

PMID: 28580453 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5450819

EC Microbiology
A Review of the CD4 T Cell Contribution to Lung Infection, Inflammation and Repair with a Focus on Wheeze and Asthma in the Pediatric Population

PMID: 26280024 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4533840

EC Neurology
Identifying Key Symptoms Differentiating Myalgic Encephalomyelitis and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome from Multiple Sclerosis

PMID: 28066845 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5214344

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Paradigm Shift is the Normal State of Pharmacology

PMID: 28936490 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5604476

EC Neurology
Examining those Meeting IOM Criteria Versus IOM Plus Fibromyalgia

PMID: 28713879 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5510658

EC Neurology
Unilateral Frontosphenoid Craniosynostosis: Case Report and a Review of the Literature

PMID: 28133641 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5267489

EC Ophthalmology
OCT-Angiography for Non-Invasive Monitoring of Neuronal and Vascular Structure in Mouse Retina: Implication for Characterization of Retinal Neurovascular Coupling

PMID: 29333536 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5766278

EC Neurology
Longer Duration of Downslope Treadmill Walking Induces Depression of H-Reflexes Measured during Standing and Walking.

PMID: 31032493 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6483108

EC Microbiology
Onchocerciasis in Mozambique: An Unknown Condition for Health Professionals.

PMID: 30957099 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6448571

EC Nutrition
Food Insecurity among Households with and without Podoconiosis in East and West Gojjam, Ethiopia.

PMID: 30101228 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6086333

EC Ophthalmology
REVIEW. +2 to +3 D. Reading Glasses to Prevent Myopia.

PMID: 31080964 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6508883

EC Gynaecology
Biomechanical Mapping of the Female Pelvic Floor: Uterine Prolapse Versus Normal Conditions.

PMID: 31093608 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6513001

EC Dental Science
Fiber-Reinforced Composites: A Breakthrough in Practical Clinical Applications with Advanced Wear Resistance for Dental Materials.

PMID: 31552397 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6758937

EC Microbiology
Neurocysticercosis in Child Bearing Women: An Overlooked Condition in Mozambique and a Potentially Missed Diagnosis in Women Presenting with Eclampsia.

PMID: 31681909 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824723

EC Microbiology
Molecular Detection of Leptospira spp. in Rodents Trapped in the Mozambique Island City, Nampula Province, Mozambique.

PMID: 31681910 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824726

EC Neurology
Endoplasmic Reticulum-Mitochondrial Cross-Talk in Neurodegenerative and Eye Diseases.

PMID: 31528859 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6746603

EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Can Chronic Consumption of Caffeine by Increasing D2/D3 Receptors Offer Benefit to Carriers of the DRD2 A1 Allele in Cocaine Abuse?

PMID: 31276119 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6604646

EC Anaesthesia
Real Time Locating Systems and sustainability of Perioperative Efficiency of Anesthesiologists.

PMID: 31406965 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6690616

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
A Pilot STEM Curriculum Designed to Teach High School Students Concepts in Biochemical Engineering and Pharmacology.

PMID: 31517314 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6741290

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Toxic Mechanisms Underlying Motor Activity Changes Induced by a Mixture of Lead, Arsenic and Manganese.

PMID: 31633124 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6800226

EC Neurology
Research Volunteers' Attitudes Toward Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and Myalgic Encephalomyelitis.

PMID: 29662969 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5898812

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy for Alzheimer's Disease.

PMID: 30215058 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133268

News and Events

September Issue Release

We always feel pleasure to share our updates with you all. Here, notifying you that we have successfully released the September issue of respective journals and the latest articles can be viewed on the current issue pages.

Submission Deadline for Upcoming Issue

ECronicon delightfully welcomes all the authors around the globe for effective collaboration with an article submission for the upcoming issue of respective journals. Submissions are accepted on/before October 06, 2022.

Certificate of Publication

ECronicon honors with a "Publication Certificate" to the corresponding author by including the names of co-authors as a token of appreciation for publishing the work with our respective journals.

Best Article of the Issue

Editors of respective journals will always be very much interested in electing one Best Article after each issue release. The authors of the selected article will be honored with a "Best Article of the Issue" certificate.

Certifying for Review

ECronicon certifies the Editors for their first review done towards the assigned article of the respective journals.

Latest Articles

The latest articles will be updated immediately on the articles in press page of the respective journals.