Research Article
Volume 17 Issue 8 - 2021
COVID-19 Outbreak in Burkina Faso: Epidemiological Surveillance among High Risk Population
Zekiba Tarnagda1, Assana Cissé1, Abdoul Kader Ilboudo1, Moussa Lingani2*, Jean Charlemagne Kondombo3, Cedric Stéphane Bationo1, Anselme Eric Kyere1, Madi Savadogo1, Risgou Ouedraogo4, Armel Poda5 and Ndongo Dia6
1National Influenza Reference Laboratory, Unité des Maladies à Potentiel Epidémique, Maladies Emergentes et Zoonoses, Institut de Recherche en Sciences de la Santé, Burkina Faso
2Unité de Recherche Clinique de Nanoro, Institut de Recherche en Sciences de la Santé (IRSS), Nanoro, Burkina Faso
3Centre of Incident Management, Ministry of Health, Burkina Faso
4Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Tengandogo, Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso
5Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Sourô Sanou, Bobo-Dioulasso, Burkina Faso
6Institut Pasteur de Dakar, Centre Régional de Référence OMS, Pour COVID-19, Burkina Faso
*Corresponding Author: Moussa Lingani, Unité de Recherche Clinique de Nanoro, Institut de Recherche en Sciences de la Santé (IRSS), Nanoro, Burkina Faso.
Received: June 09, 2021; Published: July 29, 2021




Abstract

Background: In Burkina Faso, the first suspected case of COVID-19 was reported on February 5, 2020. Three months later, few data were available to support public health decision making. This surveillance aimed to provide accurate data on the prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 among high risk population during the early days of the outbreak.

Method: From February 5 to April 4, 2020, we collected sociodemographic, medical history and behavioral characteristic of population with recent travel history from high risk countries, contact cases of COVID-19, clinically suspected cases and health care workers by a one-on-one person interview. Nasopharyngeal or oropharyngeal swabs were collected and shipped to the national influenza reference laboratory (NIRL) for molecular diagnosis. Real time RT-PCR assays using the Tib Molbiol protocol and reagents to detect SARS-CoV-2 E and RdRp genes was used. Infection case was defined by the detection of both E and RdRp genes.

Results: Of the 1062 persons examined, 51.2% had history of contact with confirmed cases. Male patients were predominant (62%) with a median age of 43 years (range, 2 - 80 years). Clinically, 71.09%, 57.63%, 37.5% and 1.3% of the study population had cough, fever, shortness of breath and chest pain respectively. By PCR tests, SARS-CoV-2 was detected in 42.4% (450/1,062) of patient and among them, both E and RdRp genes detected in 76.9% (346/450). The dual detection of E and RdRP gene were considered actual COVID-19 cases according to the WHO definition. Isolated detection of the E gene was considered indeterminate and required further testing. By multivariate logistic regression, the patient age (p = 0.006) and presence of fever (p = 0.002) were the factors positively associated with COVID-19.

Conclusion: PCR assay were effective for COVID-19 diagnostic and the contribution of the NIRL was critical during the early moments of the pandemic in Burkina Faso. The use of the Tib-Molbiol kits were useful for implementing specific COVID-19 control interventions.

Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; Epidemiology; National Influenza Reference Laboratory; Burkina Faso

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Citation: Zekiba Tarnagda., et al. “COVID-19 Outbreak in Burkina Faso: Epidemiological Surveillance among High Risk Population” EC Microbiology 17.8 (2021): 29-40.

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