Systematic Review
Volume 18 Issue 5 - 2022
Pneumococcal Colonization and Disease Burden in Malawi from 1995 to 2020, A Systematic Review
Simon Sichone*
Microbiology, Malawi-Liverpool Welcome Trust, Malawi
*Corresponding Author: Simon Sichone, Microbiology, Malawi-Liverpool Welcome Trust, Malawi.
Received: April 06, 2022; Published: April 22, 2022




Abstract

Background: Streptococcus pneumoniae (SPN) is one of the leading causes of mobility and mortality in children, particularly in low- and lower-middle-income nations. This review aims to describe the SPN colonization and the effectiveness of the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) immunization in Malawi, from 1995 - 2020 as well as an estimate if Sustainable Development Goal 3 of eliminating SPN will be achieved by 2030. We examine pneumococcal carriage in Malawi before and after the 2011 introduction of the PCV13 vaccine.

Methods: The research is based on a thorough review of the literature. Relevant articles were systematically evaluated for information on the prevalence of SPN carriage in children (0 - 15 years), adults (>18 years), and HIV-infected individuals residing in Malawi using PubMed, MEDLINE, Scopus, and the African Index Medicus. Seven of the 31 publications found were included in the review.

Results: This study contained seven papers, the bulk of which 4(57.1%) were from Blantyre.

Carriage rates varied greatly between trials. Children under the age of five had the highest rate of SPN carriage, which gradually decreased as they grew older. Individuals over the age of 18 years on ART had more pneumococcal colonization than those not on ART (25.9% vs. 19.8%, P 14 0.03). The five most prevalent isolates were 1,6A, 6B, 19F, and 5.

Conclusion: Despite the introduction of PCV13, the burden of pneumococcal infection remains high in Malawi. With the introduction of PCV13, there is a reduction of Vaccine-type (VT) carriage while Non-Vaccine-type (NVT) carriage has increased. The top seven serotypes that cause invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) in children worldwide include the five most prevalent serotypes in Malawi. PCV13 vaccination changes the distribution of serotypes detected in the nasopharynx. To further assess the impact of PCV13 introduction, ongoing carriage surveillance is required.

Keywords: Pneumococcal Colonization; Disease Burden; Streptococcus pneumoniae

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Citation: Simon Sichone. “Pneumococcal Colonization and Disease Burden in Malawi from 1995 to 2020, A Systematic Review”. EC Microbiology 18.5 (2022): 51-63.

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