Review Article
Volume 13 Issue 4 - 2021
Strategical Initiatives in Schizophrenia Research: Beyond the Genetic Paradigm
Denis Larrivee*
Mind and Brain Institute, Loyola University Chicago, USA and Arts and Sciences, University of Navarra Medical School, Spain
*Corresponding Author: Denis Larrivee, Mind and Brain Institute, Loyola University Chicago, USA and Arts and Sciences, University of Navarra Medical School, Spain.
Received: March 01, 2021; Published: March 23, 2021




Abstract

Despite decades of study - from whole genome studies to risk alleles and copy number variants - the genetic contribution to manifest schizophrenia symptoms remains an enigma. The absence of alignment implicates a tenuous and non-determinative link between genes and their observable effects in psychiatric behavior and a more plastic and subordinate role for genetics in cognition. Gaining increased traction as an explanans for the lack of correlation between gene influence and behavior is a broadly supported thesis that organismal behavior is structured to overcome limitations imposed by strictly deterministic, genetic influences so as to maximize behavioral variation and its control. That is, top down regulation enables and defines organismal behavior and in doing so employs genes and gene products as vehicles to this end. This apparent subordination of genetic influence on behavior favors top down strategical initiatives over genetic studies in schizophrenia research.

Keywords: Schizophrenia; Research Domain Criteria; Whole Genome Study; Cognitive Disease; Genetic Architecture; Psychosis

References

  1. World Health Organization. The Global Burden of Disease: 2004 Update. Geneva, Switzerland: WHO Press (2008).
  2. Jablensky A. “Epidemiology of schizophrenia: the global burden of disease and disability”. European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience6 (2000): 274-285.
  3. Regier DA., et al. “Comorbidity of mental disorders with alcohol and other drug abuse: results from the ECA study”. Journal of the American Medical Association19 (1990): 2511-2518.
  4. Davison K and Bagley CR. “Schizophrenia like psychoses associated with organic disorders of the central nervous system: A review of the literature”. In Urgent Problems in Neurospychiatry: Schizophrenia, Epilepsy, The Temporal Lobe. British Psychiatric Association, Special Publication No 4. London (1969).
  5. Giusti-Rodriguez P and Sullivan PF. “The genomics of schizophrenia: update and implications”. Journal of Clinical Investigation11 (2013): 4557-4563.
  6. Moore S., et al. “The shock of the new: progress in schizophrenia genomics”. Current Genomics 12 (2011): 516-524.
  7. Carpenter WT. “Conceptualizing schizophrenia through attenuated symptoms in the population”. American Journal of Psychiatry9 (2010): 1013-1016.
  8. Cardno A G and Gottesman II. “Twin studies of schizophrenia: from bow-and-arrow concordances to star wars Mx and functional genomics”. American Journal of Medical Genetics1 (2000): 12-17.
  9. Parnas J., et al. “Lifetime DSM-III-R diagnostic outcomes in the offspring of schizophrenic mothers. Results from the Copenhagen High-Risk Study”. Archives Of General Psychiatry 9 (1993): 707-714.
  10. Walsh T., et al. “Rare structural variants disrupt multiple genes in neurodevelopmental pathways in schizophrenia”. Science5875 (2008): 539-543.
  11. Malhotra D., et al. “High Frequencies of de novo CNVs in bipolar disorder and schizophrenia”. Neu- ron6 (2011): 951-963.
  12. Boos HB., et al. “Brain volumes in relatives of patients with schizophrenia: A meta-analysis”. Archives in General Psychiatry 64 (2007): 297-304.
  13. Zheutlin AB. “Cognitive endophenotypes inform genome-wide expression profiling in schizophrenia”. Neuropsychology1 (2016): 40-52.
  14. Gottesman II and Gould TD. “The endophenotype concept in psychiatry: Etymology and strategic intentions”. American Journal of Psychiatry 160 (2003): 636-645.
  15. Aukes MF., et al. “Genetic overlap among intelligence and other candidate endophenotypes for schizophrenia”. Biological Psychiatry 65 (2009): 527-534.
  16. Insel T. “Research Domain Criteria (RDoC): toward a new classification framework for research on mental disorders”. American Journal of Psychiatry7 (2010): 748-751.
  17. Nicholson DJ. “The return of the organism as a fundamental explanatory concept in biology”. Philosophy Compass5 (2014): 347-359.
  18. Changeux JP., et al. “A theory of the epigenesis of neuronal networks by selective stabilization of synapses”. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science, USA10 (1973): 2974-2978.
  19. Gill KM., et al. “Immediate early gene activation in hippocampus and dorsal striatum: Effects of explicit place and response training”. Neurobiology of Learning and Memory 87 (2007): 583-596.
  20. Laubichler MD. “The organism in philosophical focus”. Philosophy of Science3 (2000): S256-S321.
  21. Kirschner MW and Gerhart JC. “The Plausibility of Life: Resolving Darwin’s Dilemma”. New Haven: Yale University Press (2005).
  22. Moreno A and Mossio M. “Biological autonomy: A Philosophical and Theoretical Inquiry”. Dordrecht: Springer Publishing (2015).
  23. Maturana HR and Varela FJ. “Autopoiesis and Cognition”. Boston, MA: Reidel Publishing (1979).
  24. Hempel CG and Oppenheim P. “Studies in the Logic of Explanation”. Philosophy of Science 55 (1948): 135-175.
Citation: Denis Larrivee. “Strategical Initiatives in Schizophrenia Research: Beyond the Genetic Paradigm”. EC Neurology 13.4 (2021): 40-45.

PubMed Indexed Article


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
LC-UV-MS and MS/MS Characterize Glutathione Reactivity with Different Isomers (2,2' and 2,4' vs. 4,4') of Methylene Diphenyl-Diisocyanate.

PMID: 31143884 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6536005


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Alzheimer's Pathogenesis, Metal-Mediated Redox Stress, and Potential Nanotheranostics.

PMID: 31565701 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6764777


EC Neurology
Differences in Rate of Cognitive Decline and Caregiver Burden between Alzheimer's Disease and Vascular Dementia: a Retrospective Study.

PMID: 27747317 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5065347


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Will Blockchain Technology Transform Healthcare and Biomedical Sciences?

PMID: 31460519 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6711478


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Is it a Prime Time for AI-powered Virtual Drug Screening?

PMID: 30215059 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133253


EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Analysis of Evidence for the Combination of Pro-dopamine Regulator (KB220PAM) and Naltrexone to Prevent Opioid Use Disorder Relapse.

PMID: 30417173 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6226033


EC Anaesthesia
Arrest Under Anesthesia - What was the Culprit? A Case Report.

PMID: 30264037 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6155992


EC Orthopaedics
Distraction Implantation. A New Technique in Total Joint Arthroplasty and Direct Skeletal Attachment.

PMID: 30198026 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6124505


EC Pulmonology and Respiratory Medicine
Prevalence and factors associated with self-reported chronic obstructive pulmonary disease among adults aged 40-79: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2012.

PMID: 30294723 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6169793


EC Dental Science
Important Dental Fiber-Reinforced Composite Molding Compound Breakthroughs

PMID: 29285526 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5743211


EC Microbiology
Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites Among HIV Infected and HIV Uninfected Patients Treated at the 1o De Maio Health Centre in Maputo, Mozambique

PMID: 29911204 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5999047


EC Microbiology
Macrophages and the Viral Dissemination Super Highway

PMID: 26949751 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4774560


EC Microbiology
The Microbiome, Antibiotics, and Health of the Pediatric Population.

PMID: 27390782 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4933318


EC Microbiology
Reactive Oxygen Species in HIV Infection

PMID: 28580453 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5450819


EC Microbiology
A Review of the CD4 T Cell Contribution to Lung Infection, Inflammation and Repair with a Focus on Wheeze and Asthma in the Pediatric Population

PMID: 26280024 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4533840


EC Neurology
Identifying Key Symptoms Differentiating Myalgic Encephalomyelitis and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome from Multiple Sclerosis

PMID: 28066845 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5214344


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Paradigm Shift is the Normal State of Pharmacology

PMID: 28936490 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5604476


EC Neurology
Examining those Meeting IOM Criteria Versus IOM Plus Fibromyalgia

PMID: 28713879 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5510658


EC Neurology
Unilateral Frontosphenoid Craniosynostosis: Case Report and a Review of the Literature

PMID: 28133641 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5267489


EC Ophthalmology
OCT-Angiography for Non-Invasive Monitoring of Neuronal and Vascular Structure in Mouse Retina: Implication for Characterization of Retinal Neurovascular Coupling

PMID: 29333536 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5766278


EC Neurology
Longer Duration of Downslope Treadmill Walking Induces Depression of H-Reflexes Measured during Standing and Walking.

PMID: 31032493 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6483108


EC Microbiology
Onchocerciasis in Mozambique: An Unknown Condition for Health Professionals.

PMID: 30957099 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6448571


EC Nutrition
Food Insecurity among Households with and without Podoconiosis in East and West Gojjam, Ethiopia.

PMID: 30101228 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6086333


EC Ophthalmology
REVIEW. +2 to +3 D. Reading Glasses to Prevent Myopia.

PMID: 31080964 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6508883


EC Gynaecology
Biomechanical Mapping of the Female Pelvic Floor: Uterine Prolapse Versus Normal Conditions.

PMID: 31093608 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6513001


EC Dental Science
Fiber-Reinforced Composites: A Breakthrough in Practical Clinical Applications with Advanced Wear Resistance for Dental Materials.

PMID: 31552397 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6758937


EC Microbiology
Neurocysticercosis in Child Bearing Women: An Overlooked Condition in Mozambique and a Potentially Missed Diagnosis in Women Presenting with Eclampsia.

PMID: 31681909 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824723


EC Microbiology
Molecular Detection of Leptospira spp. in Rodents Trapped in the Mozambique Island City, Nampula Province, Mozambique.

PMID: 31681910 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824726


EC Neurology
Endoplasmic Reticulum-Mitochondrial Cross-Talk in Neurodegenerative and Eye Diseases.

PMID: 31528859 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6746603


EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Can Chronic Consumption of Caffeine by Increasing D2/D3 Receptors Offer Benefit to Carriers of the DRD2 A1 Allele in Cocaine Abuse?

PMID: 31276119 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6604646


EC Anaesthesia
Real Time Locating Systems and sustainability of Perioperative Efficiency of Anesthesiologists.

PMID: 31406965 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6690616


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
A Pilot STEM Curriculum Designed to Teach High School Students Concepts in Biochemical Engineering and Pharmacology.

PMID: 31517314 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6741290


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Toxic Mechanisms Underlying Motor Activity Changes Induced by a Mixture of Lead, Arsenic and Manganese.

PMID: 31633124 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6800226


EC Neurology
Research Volunteers' Attitudes Toward Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and Myalgic Encephalomyelitis.

PMID: 29662969 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5898812


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy for Alzheimer's Disease.

PMID: 30215058 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133268


News and Events


November Issue Release

We always feel pleasure to share our updates with you all. Here, notifying you that we have successfully released the November issue of respective journals and the latest articles can be viewed on the current issue pages.

Submission Deadline for Upcoming Issue

ECronicon delightfully welcomes all the authors around the globe for effective collaboration with an article submission for the upcoming issue of respective journals. Submissions are accepted on/before December 14, 2021.

Certificate of Publication

ECronicon honors with a "Publication Certificate" to the corresponding author by including the names of co-authors as a token of appreciation for publishing the work with our respective journals.

Best Article of the Issue

Editors of respective journals will always be very much interested in electing one Best Article after each issue release. The authors of the selected article will be honored with a "Best Article of the Issue" certificate.

Certifying for Review

ECronicon certifies the Editors for their first review done towards the assigned article of the respective journals.

Latest Articles

The latest articles will be updated immediately on the articles in press page of the respective journals.

Immediate Assistance

The prime motto of this team is to clarify all the queries without any delay or hesitation to avoid the inconvenience. For immediate assistance on your queries please don't hesitate to drop an email to editor@ecronicon.uk