Research Article
Volume 13 Issue 8 - 2021
Analogous Effects of Nicotine and Muscarine on the Curare-Sensitive/ Atropine-Insensitive Discharges of Identified Lymnaea Neurons
William Winlow1,2* and G Mishmast-Nehi3
1Department of Biology, University of Naples Federico II, Via Cintia 26, Naples, Italy
2Institute of Ageing and Chronic Diseases, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, United Kingdom
3Department of Physiology, Zahedan Medical, University Zahedan, Iran
*Corresponding Author: William Winlow, Department of Biology, University of Naples Federico II, Via Cintia 26, Naples, Italy and Institute of Ageing and Chronic Diseases, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, United Kingdom.
Received: June 08, 2021; Published: July 27, 2021




Abstract

The effects of acetylcholine (ACh), its orthodox agonists and antagonists were tested on identified neurons associated with respiratory behaviour in the intact brain of Lymnaea stagnalis (L.) using intracellular microelectrodes. Drugs were bath applied. With one exception, ACh caused depolarization and increased spike frequency in the cell types studied. In most cells nicotine and muscarine usually had similar effects, exciting some and inhibiting others. Further unorthodox results were also found in that succinylcholine (SCh) acted more like a nicotinic agonist rather than an antagonist, as did arecoline. The muscarinic antagonist, atropine, had little or no effect on any of the cells studied. Sensitivity to ACh, nicotine and muscarine differ for different cells, and comparison of the effects of ACh, nicotine and muscarine suggest that some of the cholinoceptors studied resemble either conjoint receptors or multiple cholinoceptors on the same cell.

Keywords: Acetylcholine; Curare; Atropine; Nicotine; Muscarine; Succinylcholine; Arecoline; Identified Neurons; Lymnaea stagnalis (L.)

References

  1. Dale HH. “The action of certain esters and esters of choline and their relation to muscarine”. Indian Journal of Pharmacology 6 (1914): 147-196.
  2. Carlson AB and Kraus GP. “Physiology, cholinergic receptors”. In: StatPearls. Treasure Island (FL); StatPearls Publishing (2021).
  3. Dani JA. “Neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor structure and function and response to nicotine”. International Review of Neurobiology 124 (2015): 3-19.
  4. Sakharov DA. “Integration of high threshold whole-body withdrawal in the pond snail”. In: Signal Molecules and Behaviour, editions Winlow W, Vinogradova OV and Sakharov DA (1991): 124-130.
  5. Elliott CJH., et al. “Cholinergic interneurones in the feeding system of the pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis. I. Cholinergic receptors on feeding neurons”. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B 336 (1992): 157-166.
  6. Elliott CJH and Kemenes G. “Cholinergic interneurones in the feeding system of the pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis “NI interneurones make Cholinergic synapse with feeding motoneurones”. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B 336 (1992): 167-180.
  7. Elliott CJH. “Cholinergic interneurones in the feeding system of the pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis. III. Pharmacological dissection of the feeding rhythm”. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B 336 (1992): 181-189.
  8. Kehoe JS. “Three acetylcholine receptors in Aplysia neurons”. The Journal of Physiology 225 (1972): 115-146.
  9. Gorbacheva EV., et al. “Two subtypes of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in Lymnaea stagnalis control chloride conductance”. Biochemistry (Moscow), supplement series A: Membrane and cell Biology 12 (2018): 261-267.
  10. Vulfius CA., et al. “Nicotinic receptors in Lymnaea stagnalis neurons are blocked by α-neurotoxins from cobra venoms”. Neuroscience Letters 309 (2001): 189-192.
  11. Van Nierop P., et al. “Identification of molluscan nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) subunits involved in formation of cation- and anion-selective nAChRs”. The Journal of Neuroscience 25 (2005): 10617-10626.
  12. Van Nierop P., et al. “Identification and functional expression of a family of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunits in the central nervous system of the mollusc Lymnaea stagnalis”. Journal of Biological Chemistry 281 (2006): 1680-1691.
  13. Syed NI and Winlow W. “Respiratory behaviour in the pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis. II. Neural elements of the central pattern generator”. Journal of Comparative Physiology A 169 (1991): 557-568.
  14. Syed NI., et al. “In vitro reconstruction of the respiratory central pattern generator of the mollusk Lymnaea”. Science 250 (1990): 282-285.
  15. Benjamin PR. “Interneuronal network acting on snail neurosecretory neurones (yellow cells and yellow-green cells) of Lymnaea”. The Journal of Experimental Biology 113 (1984): 165-185.
  16. Skingsley DR., et al. “A molecularly defined cardiorespiratory interneuron expressing SDPFLRFamide/GDPFLRFamide in the snail Lymnaea: monosynaptic connections and pharmacology”. Journal of Neurophysiology 69 (1993): 915-927.
  17. Getz AM., et al. “Neurotrophic factors and target -specific retrograde signaling interactions define the specificity of classical and neuropeptide cotransmitter release at identified Lymnaea synapses”. Scientific Reports 10 (2020): 13526.
  18. Walker RJ and Hedges A. “The effect of cholinergic agonists on the spontaneous activity of neurones of Helix aspersa”. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology B 24 (1968): 355-376.
  19. Fossier P., et al. “Both presynaptic and muscarinic-like autoreceptors regulate acetylcholine release at an identified neuro-neuronal synapse of Aplysia”. Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology 411 (1988): 345-352.
  20. Murray TF and Mpitsos GJ. “Evidence for heterogeneity of muscarinic receptors in the mollusc Pleurobranchaea”. Brain Research Bulletin 21 (1988): 181-190.
  21. Mishmast-Nehi G and Winlow W. “Unorthodox effects of a cholinergic agonist and antagonist on respiratory neurons of Lymnaea stagnalis”. The Journal of Physiology 495 (1996): 36P-37P.
  22. Papke RL., et al. “Nicotinic activity of arecoline, the psychoactive element of “Betel nuts” suggests a basis for habitual use and anti-inflammatory activity”. Plos One (2015): e014097.
  23. Ghelardini C., et al. “M1 receptor activation is a requirement for arecoline analgesia”. I Farmaco 56 (2001): 383-385.
  24. Yang YR., et al. “Arecoline excites rat locus coeruleus neurons by activating the M2-muscarinic receptor”. Chinese Journal of Physiology 43 (2000): 23-28.
  25. Xie D-P., et al. “Arecoline excites the colonic smooth muscle motility via M3 receptor ion rabbits”. Chinese Journal of Physiology 47 (2004): 89-94.
  26. McKinney M., et al. “Interactions of agonists with M2 and M4 muscarinic receptor types mediating cyclic AMP inhibition”. Molecular Pharmacology 40 (1991): 1014-1022.
  27. Syed NI. “The neural control of locomotion in Lymnaea”. PhD Thesis, University of Leeds, UK (1988).
  28. Winlow W., et al. “Mechanisms of behavioural selection in Lymnaea stagnalis”. In: Neurobiology of Motor Programme Selection: New Approaches to Mechanisms of Behavioural Choice, editions. Kien J, McCrohan CR and Winlow, W (1992): 52-87.
  29. Hamakawa T., et al. “Excitatory synaptogenesis between identified Lymnaea neurons requires extrinsic trophic factors and is mediated by receptor tyrosine kinases”. The Journal of Neuroscience 19 (1999): 9306-9312.
  30. Janse C., et al. “Central and peripheral neurones involved in oxygen perception in the pulmonate snail Lymnaea stagnalis”. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology B 82A (1985): 459-469.
  31. Winlow W and Polese G. “A Neuroplastic Network Underlying Behaviour and Seasonal Change in Lymnaea stagnalis: A Neuroecological Standpoint”. In Neuroecology and Neuroethology in Molluscs: the interface between behaviour and environment, Editions: Anna Di Cosmo and William Winlow. Nova Science Publishers, Inc, New York (2014): 145-176.
  32. Janes TA and Syed NI. “Evolutionary sophistication of aerial respiratory behavior in the freshwater mollusc Lymnaea stagnalis”. In: Neuroecology and neuroethology of molluscs, eds: Anna Di Cosmo and William Winlow. Nova Science Publishers, Inc., New York (2014): 177-210.
  33. Benjamin PR and Winlow W. “The distribution of three wide-acting synaptic inputs to identified neurones in the isolated brain of Lymnaea stagnalis (L)”. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology B 70A (1981): 293-307.
  34. Blankenship JE., et al. “Ionic mechanisms of excitatory, inhibitory, and dual synaptic actions mediated by an identified interneuron in abdominal ganglion of Aplysia”. Journal of Neurophysiology 34 (1971): 76-92.
  35. Rang HP., et al. “Rang and Dale’s Pharmacology 6e”. Churchill Livingstone Elsevier, Philadelphia, PA (2007).
  36. Baux G and Tauc L. “Presynaptic actions of curare and atropine on quantal acetylcholine release at a central synapse of Aplysia”. The Journal of Physiology 388 (1987): 665-680.
  37. Logunov DB and Balaban PM. “Monosynaptic connection between identified grape snail neurons (in Russian)”. Proceedings of the USSR Academy of Sciences 240 (1978): 237-240.
  38. Ter Markaryan AG., et al. “Effect of atropine and d tubocurarine on the monosynaptic connections between identified neurons in the central nervous system of the edible snail”. Neuroscience and Behavioral Physiology 21 (1991): 37-38.
  39. Pivovarov AS and Saganelidze GN. “Identification of the nicotinic and muscarinic cholinoreceptors of the soma of the RPa4 neuron in the edible snail (in Russian)”. Neirofiziologiia 20 (1988): 203-212.
  40. Pivovarov AS., et al. “Atypical acetylcholine receptors on the neurons of the Turkish snail”. Doklady Biochemistry and Biophysics 491 (2020): 81-84.
  41. Jiao Y., et al. “Massive expansion and diversity of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in lophotrochozoans”. BMC Genomics 20 (2019): 937.
  42. Winlow W and Benjamin PR. “Postsynaptic effects of a multi-action giant interneurone on identified snail neurons”. Nature 268 (1977): 263-265.
  43. Winlow W., et al. “Multiple postsynaptic actions of the giant dopamine-containing neurone R.Pe.D.1 of Lymnaea stagnalis (L)”. The Journal of Experimental Biology 4 (1981): 137-148.
  44. Yar T and Winlow W. “Isolation and characterization of whole-cell calcium channel currents in cultured, identified neurones of Lymnaea”. EC Neurology 3 (2016): 449-458.
Citation: William Winlow and G Mishmast-Nehi. “Analogous Effects of Nicotine and Muscarine on the Curare-Sensitive/Atropine-Insensitive Discharges of Identified Lymnaea Neurons”. EC Neurology 13.8 (2021): 44-55.

PubMed Indexed Article


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
LC-UV-MS and MS/MS Characterize Glutathione Reactivity with Different Isomers (2,2' and 2,4' vs. 4,4') of Methylene Diphenyl-Diisocyanate.

PMID: 31143884 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6536005


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Alzheimer's Pathogenesis, Metal-Mediated Redox Stress, and Potential Nanotheranostics.

PMID: 31565701 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6764777


EC Neurology
Differences in Rate of Cognitive Decline and Caregiver Burden between Alzheimer's Disease and Vascular Dementia: a Retrospective Study.

PMID: 27747317 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5065347


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Will Blockchain Technology Transform Healthcare and Biomedical Sciences?

PMID: 31460519 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6711478


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Is it a Prime Time for AI-powered Virtual Drug Screening?

PMID: 30215059 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133253


EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Analysis of Evidence for the Combination of Pro-dopamine Regulator (KB220PAM) and Naltrexone to Prevent Opioid Use Disorder Relapse.

PMID: 30417173 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6226033


EC Anaesthesia
Arrest Under Anesthesia - What was the Culprit? A Case Report.

PMID: 30264037 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6155992


EC Orthopaedics
Distraction Implantation. A New Technique in Total Joint Arthroplasty and Direct Skeletal Attachment.

PMID: 30198026 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6124505


EC Pulmonology and Respiratory Medicine
Prevalence and factors associated with self-reported chronic obstructive pulmonary disease among adults aged 40-79: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2012.

PMID: 30294723 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6169793


EC Dental Science
Important Dental Fiber-Reinforced Composite Molding Compound Breakthroughs

PMID: 29285526 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5743211


EC Microbiology
Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites Among HIV Infected and HIV Uninfected Patients Treated at the 1o De Maio Health Centre in Maputo, Mozambique

PMID: 29911204 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5999047


EC Microbiology
Macrophages and the Viral Dissemination Super Highway

PMID: 26949751 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4774560


EC Microbiology
The Microbiome, Antibiotics, and Health of the Pediatric Population.

PMID: 27390782 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4933318


EC Microbiology
Reactive Oxygen Species in HIV Infection

PMID: 28580453 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5450819


EC Microbiology
A Review of the CD4 T Cell Contribution to Lung Infection, Inflammation and Repair with a Focus on Wheeze and Asthma in the Pediatric Population

PMID: 26280024 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4533840


EC Neurology
Identifying Key Symptoms Differentiating Myalgic Encephalomyelitis and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome from Multiple Sclerosis

PMID: 28066845 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5214344


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Paradigm Shift is the Normal State of Pharmacology

PMID: 28936490 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5604476


EC Neurology
Examining those Meeting IOM Criteria Versus IOM Plus Fibromyalgia

PMID: 28713879 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5510658


EC Neurology
Unilateral Frontosphenoid Craniosynostosis: Case Report and a Review of the Literature

PMID: 28133641 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5267489


EC Ophthalmology
OCT-Angiography for Non-Invasive Monitoring of Neuronal and Vascular Structure in Mouse Retina: Implication for Characterization of Retinal Neurovascular Coupling

PMID: 29333536 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5766278


EC Neurology
Longer Duration of Downslope Treadmill Walking Induces Depression of H-Reflexes Measured during Standing and Walking.

PMID: 31032493 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6483108


EC Microbiology
Onchocerciasis in Mozambique: An Unknown Condition for Health Professionals.

PMID: 30957099 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6448571


EC Nutrition
Food Insecurity among Households with and without Podoconiosis in East and West Gojjam, Ethiopia.

PMID: 30101228 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6086333


EC Ophthalmology
REVIEW. +2 to +3 D. Reading Glasses to Prevent Myopia.

PMID: 31080964 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6508883


EC Gynaecology
Biomechanical Mapping of the Female Pelvic Floor: Uterine Prolapse Versus Normal Conditions.

PMID: 31093608 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6513001


EC Dental Science
Fiber-Reinforced Composites: A Breakthrough in Practical Clinical Applications with Advanced Wear Resistance for Dental Materials.

PMID: 31552397 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6758937


EC Microbiology
Neurocysticercosis in Child Bearing Women: An Overlooked Condition in Mozambique and a Potentially Missed Diagnosis in Women Presenting with Eclampsia.

PMID: 31681909 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824723


EC Microbiology
Molecular Detection of Leptospira spp. in Rodents Trapped in the Mozambique Island City, Nampula Province, Mozambique.

PMID: 31681910 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824726


EC Neurology
Endoplasmic Reticulum-Mitochondrial Cross-Talk in Neurodegenerative and Eye Diseases.

PMID: 31528859 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6746603


EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Can Chronic Consumption of Caffeine by Increasing D2/D3 Receptors Offer Benefit to Carriers of the DRD2 A1 Allele in Cocaine Abuse?

PMID: 31276119 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6604646


EC Anaesthesia
Real Time Locating Systems and sustainability of Perioperative Efficiency of Anesthesiologists.

PMID: 31406965 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6690616


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
A Pilot STEM Curriculum Designed to Teach High School Students Concepts in Biochemical Engineering and Pharmacology.

PMID: 31517314 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6741290


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Toxic Mechanisms Underlying Motor Activity Changes Induced by a Mixture of Lead, Arsenic and Manganese.

PMID: 31633124 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6800226


EC Neurology
Research Volunteers' Attitudes Toward Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and Myalgic Encephalomyelitis.

PMID: 29662969 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5898812


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy for Alzheimer's Disease.

PMID: 30215058 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133268


News and Events


September Issue Release

We always feel pleasure to share our updates with you all. Here, notifying you that we have successfully released the September issue of respective journals and the latest articles can be viewed on the current issue pages.

Submission Deadline for upcoming Issue

Ecronicon delightfully welcomes all the authors around the globe for effective collaboration with an article submission for the upcoming issue of respective journals. Submissions are accepted on/before September 28, 2021.

Certificate of Publication

Ecronicon honors with a "Publication Certificate" to the corresponding author by including the names of co-authors as a token of appreciation for publishing the work with our respective journals.

Best Article of the Issue

Editors of respective journals will always be very much interested in electing one Best Article after each issue release. The authors of the selected article will be honored with a "Best Article of the Issue" certificate.

Certifying for Review

Ecronicon certifies the Editors for their first review done towards the assigned article of the respective journals.

Latest Articles

The latest articles will be updated immediately on the articles in press page of the respective journals.

Immediate Assistance

The prime motto of this team is to clarify all the queries without any delay or hesitation to avoid the inconvenience. For immediate assistance on your queries please don't hesitate to drop an email to editor@ecronicon.uk