Research Article
Volume 13 Issue 8 - 2021
Rioplatense Spanish Speaking Schoolchildren with and without Language Difficulties: Syntactic and Lexical Aspects
Horacio Dotti1,2*, Santiago Perman1, Ianina Nudelman1 and Ana Paula Matijasevich1
1Faculty of Humanities and Sciences, Universidad Nacional del Litoral, Argentina
2Faculty of Philosophy and Humanities, Universidad Católica de Santa Fe, Argentina
*Corresponding Author: Horacio Dotti, Faculty of Humanities and Sciences, Universidad Nacional del Litoral and Faculty of Philosophy and Humanities, Universidad Católica de Santa Fe, Santa Fe, Argentina.
Received: June 04, 2021; Published: July 27, 2021




Abstract

Two groups of schoolchildren, one of 6 to 8 and the other of 9 to 12 years old, participated in a comprehension test of complex syntactic structures and maintained individual interviews. It was hypothesized that the processing of high-cost syntactic structures, such as reversible passives, relatives and partial questions, is especially difficult for children with language deficits.

The aim of the study was twofold: to recognize possible comprehension difficulties with the implementation of a test battery, and to evaluate to what extent comprehension difficulties allow us to predict distinctive lexical characteristics in the oral speech production of participants.

Regarding the first goal, the implementation of the test allowed us to distinguish three groups: children without comprehension difficulties; children that overcame initial difficulties in a second test carried out two years later; and children who did not overcome the difficulties and were considered at risk of Specific Language Impairment. Regarding the second goal, the results suggest that traditional lexical diversity measures remain at similar values in children with and without difficulties regardless of age. More specific measures did allow establishing group differences. The most notable difference was found in verbs: young and old children without comprehension difficulties produced significantly more different verbs than the groups with difficulties, while there were no significant differences between groups with comprehension problems.

Taken together, the results indicate that 10.43% of the total participants had comprehension problems, of which a third were also evaluated and diagnosed by professionals outside this investigation. The remaining two-thirds went unnoticed in the family and/or school environments. Furthermore, measurements of lexical diversity support the idea that deficient syntactic comprehension predicts lexical impoverishment, in particular, at the production of verbal predicates.

Altogether, the results obtained suggest that schoolchildren with temporary or permanent comprehension problems could be making strategic use of language tending to minimize processing costs in their oral speech productions.

Keywords: Specific Language Impairment; Language Processing; Syntactic Comprehension; Lexical Diversity; Verbal Predicates

References

  1. Conti-Ramsden GG and Botting N. “Emotional health in adolescents with and without a history of specific language impairment”. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry 49 (2008): 516- 525.
  2. Frizelle P., et al. “Growth in syntactic complexity between four years and adulthood: Evidence from a narrative task”. Journal of Child Language5 (2018): 1174-1197.
  3. Reed VA. “An introduction to children with language disorders (3rd edition)”. Boston, MA: Allyn and Bacon (2005).
  4. Mendoza E. “Las dificultades del lenguaje en adolescentes”. Revista de Logopedia, Foniatría y Audiología4 (2009): 221-224.
  5. Jakubowicz C. “Hipóteses psicolinguísticas sobre a natureza do Déficit Específico daLinguagem(DEL)”. En L.M.S. Corrêa (Edition.), Aquisição da Linguagem e Problemas do Desenvolvimento Linguistico. São Paulo: Edições Loyola/Editora da PUC-Rio (2006).
  6. Leonard LB. “Children with specific language impairment”. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press (1998).
  7. Bishop DVM., et al. “A Multinational and multidisciplinary Delphi consensus study. Identifying language impairments in children”. Plos ONE 7 ( 2016): e0158753.
  8. Conti-Ramsden G and Durkin K. “What factor influence language impairment? Considering resilience as well as risk”. Folia Phoniatrica et Logopaedica 67 (2015): 293-299.
  9. Pace A., et al. “Identifying pathways between socioeconomic status and language development”. Annual Review of Linguistics 3 (2017): 285-308.
  10. Stuart NJ and Van Der Lely H. “Role of aspect in understanding tense: An investigation with adolescents with LI”. International Journal of Language and Communication Disorders2 (2015): 187-201.
  11. McGregor KK., et al. “Children with developmental language impairment have vocabulary deficits characterized by limited breadth and depth”. International Journal of Language and Communication Disorders 48 (2013): 307-319.
  12. Tuller L., et al. “Specific language impairment at adolescence: Avoiding complexity”. Applied Psycholinguistics 33 (2012): 161-184.
  13. Rescorla L. “Age 13 language and reading outcomes in late‐talking toddlers”. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research 48 (2005): 459-472.
  14. Chomsky N. “The Minimalist Program”. MIT Press, Cambridge, MA (1995).
  15. Chomsky N. “On minds and language”. Biolinguistics 1 (2007).
  16. Van Der Lely H., et al. “Who did Buzz see someone? Grammaticality judgement of wh-questions in typically developing children and children with Grammatical-SLI”. Lingua3 (2011): 408-422.
  17. Corrêa LMS and Augusto MRA. “Computação lingüística no processamento on-line: soluções formais para a incorporação de uma derivação minimalista em modelos de processamento”. Cadernos de Estudo Lingüísticos 2 (2007): 167-183.
  18. Corrêa LMS and Augusto MRA. “ Possible loci of SLI from a both linguistic and psycholinguistic perspective”. Lingua 3 (2011): 476-486.
  19. Friedmann N and Novogrodsky R. “The acquisition of relative clause comprehension in Hebrew: A study of SLI and normal development”. Journal of Child language3 (2004) 661-681.
  20. Nippold, M. A. “Later language development: School-age children, adolescents, and young adults (4th ed.)”. Austin, TX: Pro-Edition (2016).
  21. Friedmann N., et al. “Relativized relatives: Types of intervention in the acquisition of A-bar dependencies”. Lingua1 (2009): 67-88.
  22. Grimshaw J. “Semantic structure and semantic content in lexical representation”, in Words and Structure, edition. J. Grimshaw (Standford: CSLI Publications) (2005): 75-89.
  23. Grillo N. “Generalized Minimality: Feature impoverishment and comprehension deficits in agrammatism”. Lingua 10 (2009): 1426-1443.
  24. Corrêa LMS. “MABILIN - Módulos de Avaliação de Habilidades Lingüísticas”. Rio deJaneiro: Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado do Rio de Janeiro - FAPERJ (2000).
  25. Dotti HM., et al. “Una evaluación de la comprensión de estructuras sintácticas con alto costo de procesamiento en niños en edad escolar”. Revista Argentina de Ciencias del Comportamiento 2 (2018): 37-57.
  26. Silveira M. “Specific Language Impairment (SLI) revisited: evidence from a psycholinguistic investigation of grammatical gender abilities in Brazilian Portuguese- speaking children (doctoral thesis). University College, London (2010).
  27. MacWhinney B. “The CHILDES Project: Tools for Analyzing Talk”. 3rd Edition. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates (2000).
  28. Wong AMY., et al. “Three measures of language production for Cantonese- speaking school-age children in a story-retelling task”. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research5 (2004) 1164-1178.
  29. Watkins RV., et al. “Measuring children's lexical diversity: Differentiating typical and impaired language learners”. Journal of Speech and Hearing Research6 (1995): 1349-1355.
  30. Read J. “Assessing vocabulary”. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press (2000).
  31. Miller JF. “Quantifying productive language disorders”. In J. F. Miller (Edition.), Research on child language disorders: A decade of progress (1991a): 211-220.
  32. Rice ML and Bode JV. “GAPS in the verb lexicons of children with specific language impairment”. First Language 13 (1993): 113-131.
  33. Richards B. “Type-token ratios: What do they really tell us?” Journal of Child Language 14 (1987): 201-209.
  34. Biber D. “Dimensions of register variation: a cross linguistic comparison. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press (1995).
  35. Richards and Malvern. “A new measure of lexical diversity”. In Ryan, A. and Wray, A., editors, Evolving models of language. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters (1997): 58-71.
  36. Rice ML., et al. “Mean length of utterance levels in 6-month intervals for children 3 to 9 years with and without language impairments”. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research 53 (2010): 333-349.
  37. Kemper S and Sumner A. “The structure of verbal abilities in young and older adults”. Psychology Aging 16 (2001): 312.
  38. Gutiérrez-Clellen V., et al. “Language sample analysis in Spanish-speaking children: Methodological considerations”. Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools1 (2000): 88-98.
  39. Kelly D and Habers H. “Measuring children's lexical diversity: Differentiating typical and impaired language learners”. Journal of Speech and Hearing Research6 (1996): 1349-1355.
  40. Balzarini M., et al. “Info Stat, versión. Manual del Usuario”. Córdoba. Argentina: Editorial brujas (2008).
  41. Silveira M. “O déficit especificamente linguístico (DEL) e uma avaliação preliminar de sua manifestação em crianças falantes de português (tesis de maestria)”. Pontificia Universidad Católica de Rio de Janeiro, Brasil (2002).
  42. Stavrakaki S. “Comprehension of reversible relative clauses in specifically language impaired and normally developing Greek children”. Brain and Language 77 (2001): 419-431.
  43. Novogrodsky R and Friedmann N. “The production of relative clauses in SLI: A window to the nature of the impairment”. Advances in Speech-Language Pathology4 (2006). 364-375.
  44. Slobin DI. “Grammatical transformations and sentence comprehension in childhood and adulthood”. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior3 (1966): 219-227.
  45. Grodzinsky Y. “A blueprint for a brain map of syntax” En Y. Grodzinsky and K. Amunts (Editions.) Broca’s Region. Oxford University Press, New York (2006).
  46. Bickel C., et al. “Syntactic comprehension deficits in Alzheimer’s disease”. Brain and Language3 (2000): 432-448.
  47. Gibson E. “The dependency locality theory: a distance-based theory of linguistic complexity”. In Y. Miyashita, A. P. Marantz and W. O’Neil (Editions.), Image, language, brain (2000): 95-126.
  48. Warren T and Gibson E. “The influence of referential processing on sentence complexity”. Cognition1 (2002): 79-112.
  49. Gervain J., et al. “Bootstrapping word order in prelexical infants: A Japanese–Italian cross-linguistic study”. Cognitive Psychology1 (2008): 56-74.
  50. Yang CD. “Universal Grammar, statistics or both?” Trends in Cognitive Sciences10 (2004): 451-456.
  51. Kidd E., et al. “Object relatives made easy: a cross linguistic comparison of the constraints influencing young children's processing of relative clauses”. Language and Cognitive Processes6 (2007): 860-897.
  52. Reali F and Christiansen MH. “Processing of relative clauses is made easier by frequency of occurrence”. Journal of Memory and Language1 (2007): 1-23.
  53. Fox B and Thompson S. “A discourse explanation of the grammar of relative clauses in English conversation”. Language2 (1990): 297-316.
  54. Chomsky N. “Beyond Explanatory Adequacy. MIT Occasional Papers in Linguistics, 20 (2001).
  55. Blasiman RN and Was CA. “Why Is Working Memory Performance Unstable? A Review of 21 Factors”. Europe's Journal of Psychology1 (2017): 188-231.
  56. Lieberman MD. “Introversion and working memory: Central executive differences”. Personality and Individual Differences 28 (2000): 479-486.
  57. Lieberman MD and Rosenthal R. “Why introverts can’t always tell who likes them: Multitasking and nonverbal decoding”. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 80 (2001): 294-310.
  58. Studer-Luethi B., et al. “Influence of neuroticism and conscientiousness on working memory training outcome”. Personality and Individual Differences1 (2012): 44-49.
  59. Visu-Petra L., et al. “Effects of anxiety on memory storage and updating in young children”. International Journal of Behavioral Development 35 (2011): 38-47.
  60. Green M., et al. “Impairments in working memory associated with naturalistic dieting in women: No relationship between task performance and urinary 5-HIAA levels”. Appetite 40 (2003): 145-153.
  61. Gevins A., et al. “Long-term and within-day variability of working memory performance and EEG in individuals”. Clinical Neurophysiology 123 (2012): 1291-1299.
  62. Ilan AB., et al. “Effects of marijuana on neurophysiological signals of working and episodic memory”. Psychopharmacology 176 (2004): 214-222.
  63. Owens R. “Language disorders: A functional approach to assessment and intervention”. New York: Merrill/Macmillan. E (1991).
  64. Berman RA and Verhoeven L. “Cross-linguistic perspectives on the development of text production abilities: speech and writing”. Written Language and Literacy 5 (2002): 1-44.
  65. Strömqvist S., et al. “Toward a cross-linguistic comparison of lexical quanta in speech and writing”. Written Language and Literacy 1 (2002): 45-67.
  66. Johansson V. “Developmental aspects of text production in writing and speech. Lund: Lund University (2009).
  67. Malvern DD., et al. “Lexical diversity and language development: quantification and assessment”. Nova Iorque: Palgrave Macmillan (2004).
  68. Owen A and Leonard L. “Lexical diversity in the spontaneous speech of children with specific language impairment: application of D 45.5 (2002): 927-937.
  69. Goffman L and Leonard J. “Growth of language skills in preschool children with specific language impairment: Implications for assessment and intervention”. American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology 9 (2000): 151-161.
  70. Kemper S., et al. “Complexity metrics and growth curves for measuring grammatical development from five to ten”. First Language44 (1995): 151-166.
  71. Watkins RV., et al. “Verb use by language-impaired and normally developing children”. First Language 13 (1993): 133-143.
  72. Riches NG., et al. “Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research”. American Speech-Language-Hearing Association 48 (2005): 1397-1411.
  73. Sanz-Torrent M., et al. “Verb morphology in Catalan and Spanish in children with specific language impairment: A developmental study”. Clinical Linguistics and Phonetics 6 (2008): 459-474.
  74. Dotti H and Formichelli C. “Omisión de argumentos verbales en niños con trastorno específico del lenguaje: estudio piloto”. En Brandani, L., Califa, M. y Magno, C. (editions.) La adquisición y la enseñanza de lenguas: reflexiones teóricas y propuestas didácticas.1a edition. Los Polvorines:Universidad Nacional de General Sarmiento (2020).
  75. Corrêa L., et al. “Estratégias de minimização de custo na produção de estruturas de movimento e possíveis manifestações do DEL”. En: D. da Hora, J. Pedrosa, and R. Lucena (Editions.). ALFAL 50 anos: contribuições para os estudos linguísticos e filológicos”. Brasil: Ideia Editora (2015): 1683-1709.
Citation: Horacio Dotti., et al. “Rioplatense Spanish Speaking Schoolchildren with and without Language Difficulties: Syntactic and Lexical Aspects”. EC Neurology 13.8 (2021): 56-74.

PubMed Indexed Article


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
LC-UV-MS and MS/MS Characterize Glutathione Reactivity with Different Isomers (2,2' and 2,4' vs. 4,4') of Methylene Diphenyl-Diisocyanate.

PMID: 31143884 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6536005


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Alzheimer's Pathogenesis, Metal-Mediated Redox Stress, and Potential Nanotheranostics.

PMID: 31565701 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6764777


EC Neurology
Differences in Rate of Cognitive Decline and Caregiver Burden between Alzheimer's Disease and Vascular Dementia: a Retrospective Study.

PMID: 27747317 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5065347


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Will Blockchain Technology Transform Healthcare and Biomedical Sciences?

PMID: 31460519 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6711478


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Is it a Prime Time for AI-powered Virtual Drug Screening?

PMID: 30215059 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133253


EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Analysis of Evidence for the Combination of Pro-dopamine Regulator (KB220PAM) and Naltrexone to Prevent Opioid Use Disorder Relapse.

PMID: 30417173 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6226033


EC Anaesthesia
Arrest Under Anesthesia - What was the Culprit? A Case Report.

PMID: 30264037 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6155992


EC Orthopaedics
Distraction Implantation. A New Technique in Total Joint Arthroplasty and Direct Skeletal Attachment.

PMID: 30198026 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6124505


EC Pulmonology and Respiratory Medicine
Prevalence and factors associated with self-reported chronic obstructive pulmonary disease among adults aged 40-79: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2012.

PMID: 30294723 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6169793


EC Dental Science
Important Dental Fiber-Reinforced Composite Molding Compound Breakthroughs

PMID: 29285526 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5743211


EC Microbiology
Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites Among HIV Infected and HIV Uninfected Patients Treated at the 1o De Maio Health Centre in Maputo, Mozambique

PMID: 29911204 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5999047


EC Microbiology
Macrophages and the Viral Dissemination Super Highway

PMID: 26949751 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4774560


EC Microbiology
The Microbiome, Antibiotics, and Health of the Pediatric Population.

PMID: 27390782 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4933318


EC Microbiology
Reactive Oxygen Species in HIV Infection

PMID: 28580453 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5450819


EC Microbiology
A Review of the CD4 T Cell Contribution to Lung Infection, Inflammation and Repair with a Focus on Wheeze and Asthma in the Pediatric Population

PMID: 26280024 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4533840


EC Neurology
Identifying Key Symptoms Differentiating Myalgic Encephalomyelitis and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome from Multiple Sclerosis

PMID: 28066845 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5214344


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Paradigm Shift is the Normal State of Pharmacology

PMID: 28936490 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5604476


EC Neurology
Examining those Meeting IOM Criteria Versus IOM Plus Fibromyalgia

PMID: 28713879 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5510658


EC Neurology
Unilateral Frontosphenoid Craniosynostosis: Case Report and a Review of the Literature

PMID: 28133641 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5267489


EC Ophthalmology
OCT-Angiography for Non-Invasive Monitoring of Neuronal and Vascular Structure in Mouse Retina: Implication for Characterization of Retinal Neurovascular Coupling

PMID: 29333536 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5766278


EC Neurology
Longer Duration of Downslope Treadmill Walking Induces Depression of H-Reflexes Measured during Standing and Walking.

PMID: 31032493 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6483108


EC Microbiology
Onchocerciasis in Mozambique: An Unknown Condition for Health Professionals.

PMID: 30957099 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6448571


EC Nutrition
Food Insecurity among Households with and without Podoconiosis in East and West Gojjam, Ethiopia.

PMID: 30101228 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6086333


EC Ophthalmology
REVIEW. +2 to +3 D. Reading Glasses to Prevent Myopia.

PMID: 31080964 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6508883


EC Gynaecology
Biomechanical Mapping of the Female Pelvic Floor: Uterine Prolapse Versus Normal Conditions.

PMID: 31093608 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6513001


EC Dental Science
Fiber-Reinforced Composites: A Breakthrough in Practical Clinical Applications with Advanced Wear Resistance for Dental Materials.

PMID: 31552397 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6758937


EC Microbiology
Neurocysticercosis in Child Bearing Women: An Overlooked Condition in Mozambique and a Potentially Missed Diagnosis in Women Presenting with Eclampsia.

PMID: 31681909 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824723


EC Microbiology
Molecular Detection of Leptospira spp. in Rodents Trapped in the Mozambique Island City, Nampula Province, Mozambique.

PMID: 31681910 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824726


EC Neurology
Endoplasmic Reticulum-Mitochondrial Cross-Talk in Neurodegenerative and Eye Diseases.

PMID: 31528859 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6746603


EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Can Chronic Consumption of Caffeine by Increasing D2/D3 Receptors Offer Benefit to Carriers of the DRD2 A1 Allele in Cocaine Abuse?

PMID: 31276119 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6604646


EC Anaesthesia
Real Time Locating Systems and sustainability of Perioperative Efficiency of Anesthesiologists.

PMID: 31406965 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6690616


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
A Pilot STEM Curriculum Designed to Teach High School Students Concepts in Biochemical Engineering and Pharmacology.

PMID: 31517314 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6741290


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Toxic Mechanisms Underlying Motor Activity Changes Induced by a Mixture of Lead, Arsenic and Manganese.

PMID: 31633124 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6800226


EC Neurology
Research Volunteers' Attitudes Toward Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and Myalgic Encephalomyelitis.

PMID: 29662969 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5898812


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy for Alzheimer's Disease.

PMID: 30215058 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133268


News and Events


September Issue Release

We always feel pleasure to share our updates with you all. Here, notifying you that we have successfully released the September issue of respective journals and the latest articles can be viewed on the current issue pages.

Submission Deadline for upcoming Issue

Ecronicon delightfully welcomes all the authors around the globe for effective collaboration with an article submission for the upcoming issue of respective journals. Submissions are accepted on/before September 28, 2021.

Certificate of Publication

Ecronicon honors with a "Publication Certificate" to the corresponding author by including the names of co-authors as a token of appreciation for publishing the work with our respective journals.

Best Article of the Issue

Editors of respective journals will always be very much interested in electing one Best Article after each issue release. The authors of the selected article will be honored with a "Best Article of the Issue" certificate.

Certifying for Review

Ecronicon certifies the Editors for their first review done towards the assigned article of the respective journals.

Latest Articles

The latest articles will be updated immediately on the articles in press page of the respective journals.

Immediate Assistance

The prime motto of this team is to clarify all the queries without any delay or hesitation to avoid the inconvenience. For immediate assistance on your queries please don't hesitate to drop an email to editor@ecronicon.uk