Review Article
Volume 14 Issue 1 - 2022
The Anomalous DNA Methylation Patterns in Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), Prader Willi Syndrome, Fragile X Syndrome, and Angelman’s Syndrome
MV Raghavendra Rao1*, Mubasheer Ali2, Siva Anoop Yella3, Kumar Ponnusamy4, Nikita Chitrapu5, Ritika Chitrapu5, Gil C Apacible II6, Vijaya Raj Bollapalli7, Dilip Mathai8, Mahendra Kumar Verma9 and Srikanth Bhandari10
1Scientist-emeritus and Director, Central Research Laboratory, Apollo Institute of Medical Sciences and Research, Jubilee Hills, Hyderabad, Telangana, India
2Consultant, MD Internal Medicine, Apollo Hospitals and Apollo Tele Health Services, Associate Professor Department of General Medicine, Shadan Medical College, India
3Assistant Professor, Department of Psychiatry, ESIC Medical College, Sanathnagar, Hyderabad, Telangana, India
4Professor, Department of Biochemistry, Avalon University School of Medicine, Curacao, Caribbean Islands
5Department of Genetics, Shadan Degree and P G College for Women, Khairatabad, Hyderabad, TS, India
6Associate Professor, Anatomical and Amp; Developmental Sciences and Behavioral Science, American University School of Medicine Aruba, Caribbean Islands
7Auditory Verbal Therapist, Department of Empowerment of Persons with Disabilities, Government of India, Davanagare, Karnataka, India
8Professor, Department of Medicine, Dean, Apollo Institute of Medical Sciences and Research, Jubilee Hills, Hyderabad, Telangana, India
9Assistant Professor, American University School of Medicine, Aruba, Caribbean Islands
10Department of Neurology, Asha Institute of Medical Psychology Counseling and Psychotherapy, Banjara Hills, Hyderabad,TS, India
*Corresponding Author: MV Raghavendra Rao, Scientist-emeritus and Director, Central Research Laboratory, Apollo Institute of Medical Sciences and Research, Jubilee Hills, Hyderabad, Telangana, India.
Received: November 08, 2021; Published: December 30, 2021




Abstract

DNA methylation is a usual epigenetic signaling tool used to control gene expression in eukaryotic cells. Cells use this tool to lock genes and disarrange them. DNA methylation has been observed to play an essential role in cell differentiation, the origin, growth and development of an embryo and last but not the least gene expression. Depending on the cell type DNA methylation near the specific promoters differs substantially. In an interestingly coordinated process, proteins that bind to methylated DNA also form complexes with the proteins involved in deacetylation of histones. Therefore, when DNA is methylated, nearby histones are deacetylated, leading to magnified inhibitory effects on transcription. Likewise, demethylated DNA does not attract deacetylating enzymes to the histones, permitting them to stay acetylated and more ambulatory, thus promoting transcription. Errors in this DNA methylation process which plays a critical role in cell differentiation and gene expression can bring about catastrophic outcomes, including various diseases such as autism spectrum disorder (ASD), Fragile X syndrome, Praderwilli syndrome and engelmann’s syndrome.

Keywords: Epigenetic; DNA Methylation; Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD); Prader Willi Syndrome; DNA Methylated Regions (DMRs); Silver-russell Syndrome (SRS); Fragile X Syndrome; Camurati Engelmann’s Syndrome

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Citation: MV Raghavendra Rao., et al. “The Anomalous DNA Methylation Patterns in Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), Prader Willi Syndrome, Fragile X Syndrome, and Angelman’s Syndrome”. EC Neurology 14.1 (2022): 01-09.

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