Review Article
Volume 14 Issue 9 - 2022
Dissociative Identity Disorder- A Forgotten Tale in Neuropsychiatry
Anushka Vashishth, Garima Sharma, Monika Kadian, Manish Jain and Anil Kumar*
Pharmacology Division, University Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences (UIPS), UGC- Centre of Advanced Study (UGC-CAS), Panjab University, Chandigarh, India
*Corresponding Author: Anil Kumar, Professor of Pharmacology, Pharmacology Division, University Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences (UIPS), Panjab University, Chandigarh, India.
Received: August 02, 2022; Published: August 29, 2022




Abstract

Dissociative Identity Disorder is highly prevalent in clinical settings, generally undetected, with prevalence in the community as high as 1%. However, throughout the past few decades, progress in treating this condition has lagged behind than that in other psychiatric conditions. Individuals with dissociative disorders are one who had experienced childhood trauma and/or maltreatment more frequently than ones in any other psychiatric condition, and their dissociation is the pinnacle of human response to persistent developmental stress. An interruption in one or more mental functions is the essential component of dissociation. It also acts as a determinant in general psychiatry, including neurobiological and psycho-pharmacological studies. Despite the fact that dissociation may accompany nearly all mental disorders in addition to forming disorders in and of themselves, research on the topic has not been significant. Hence, this review aims to pour some light on the neglected area of DID, its prevalence, etiology, neurobiology, clinical appearance, diagnosis and clinical aspects.

Keywords: Dissociative Identity Disorder; Neurobiology; Post Traumatic Stress Disorder; Psychotherapy; Hypnotherapy; Pharmacological Intervention

References

  1. Şar Vedat., et al. “Revisiting the etiological aspects of dissociative identity disorder: a biopsychosocial perspective”. Psychology Research and Behavior Management 10 (2017): 137-146.
  2. International Society for the Study of Trauma and Dissociation. “Guidelines for treating dissociative identity disorder in adults, third revision”. Journal of Trauma and Dissociation: The Official Journal of the International Society for the Study of Dissociation (ISSD)2 (2011): 115-187.
  3. Sar Vedat. "Epidemiology of dissociative disorders: An overview”. Epidemiology Research International 2011 (2011).
  4. Paris Joel. “The rise and fall of dissociative identity disorder”. The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease12 (2012): 1076-1079.
  5. “Dissociative Identity Disorder (Multiple Personality Disorder): Signs, Symptoms, Treatment”.
  6. Dorahy Martin J., et al. “Dissociative identity disorder: An empirical overview”. The Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry5 (2014): 402-417.
  7. Forrest KA. “Toward an etiology of dissociative identity disorder: a neurodevelopmental approach”. Consciousness and Cognition3 (2001): 259-293.
  8. Shore Allan N. "Affect dysregulation and disorders of the self”. New York: WW (2003).
  9. Sar Vedat., et al. "Frontal and occipital perfusion changes in dissociative identity disorder”. Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging3 (2007): 217-223.
  10. Sar Vedat., et al. "HMPAO SPECT study of regional cerebral blood flow in dissociative identity disorder”. Journal of Trauma and Dissociation2 (2001): 5-25.
  11. Lapointe AR., et al. "Similar or disparate brain patterns? The intra-personal EEG variability of three women with multiple personality disorder”. Clinical EEG and Neuroscience3 (2006): 235-242.
  12. Hughes John R., et al. "Brain mapping in a case of multiple personality”. Clinical Electroencephalography4 (1990): 200-209.
  13. Hopper Annedore., et al. "EEG coherence and dissociative identity disorder: Comparing EEG coherence in DID hosts, alters, controls and acted alters”. Journal of Trauma and Dissociation1 (2002): 75-88.
  14. Rutkofsky IH., et al. "The neuropsychiatry of dissociative identity disorder: why split personality patients switch personalities intermittently”. Journal of Cell Science and Therapy 2 (2017): 1-8.
  15. Van Der Hart., et al. "Memory fragmentation in dissociative identity disorder”. Journal of Trauma and Dissociation1 (2005): 55-70.
  16. Vermetten Eric., et al. "Hippocampal and amygdalar volumes in dissociative identity disorder”. American Journal of Psychiatry4 (2006): 630-636.
  17. Reinders Antje ATS and Dick J Veltman. "Dissociative identity disorder: out of the shadows at last?” The British Journal of Psychiatry2 (2021): 413-414.
  18. Brand Bethany L., et al. "Separating fact from fiction: An empirical examination of six myths about dissociative identity disorder”. Harvard Review of Psychiatry (2016).
  19. Kluft Richard P. "An overview of the psychotherapy of dissociative identity disorder”. American Journal of Psychotherapy3 (1999): 289-319.
  20. Spiegel David. "Hypnosis in the treatment of victims of sexual abuse”. Psychiatric Clinics of North America2 (1989): 295-305.
  21. Loewenstein Richard J. "Rational psychopharmacology in the treatment of multiple personality disorder”. Psychiatric Clinics of North America (1991).
  22. Braun Bennett G. "Multiple personality disorder and posttraumatic stress disorder”. International Handbook of Traumatic Stress Syndromes. Springer, Boston, MA (1993): 35-47.
  23. Braun Bennett G. "Unusual medication regimens in the treatment of dissociative disorder patients: I. Noradrenergic agents”. Dissociation: Progress in the Dissociative Disorders (1990).
  24. Putnam Frank W. “Diagnosis and treatment of multiple personality disorder”. Guilford Press (1989).
  25. Torem Moshe S. “Psychopharmacology”. Handbook of Dissociation (1996): 545-566.
Citation: Anil Kumar., et al. “Dissociative Identity Disorder- A Forgotten Tale in Neuropsychiatry”. EC Neurology 14.9 (2022): 15-24.

PubMed Indexed Article


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
LC-UV-MS and MS/MS Characterize Glutathione Reactivity with Different Isomers (2,2' and 2,4' vs. 4,4') of Methylene Diphenyl-Diisocyanate.

PMID: 31143884 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6536005


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Alzheimer's Pathogenesis, Metal-Mediated Redox Stress, and Potential Nanotheranostics.

PMID: 31565701 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6764777


EC Neurology
Differences in Rate of Cognitive Decline and Caregiver Burden between Alzheimer's Disease and Vascular Dementia: a Retrospective Study.

PMID: 27747317 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5065347


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Will Blockchain Technology Transform Healthcare and Biomedical Sciences?

PMID: 31460519 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6711478


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Is it a Prime Time for AI-powered Virtual Drug Screening?

PMID: 30215059 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133253


EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Analysis of Evidence for the Combination of Pro-dopamine Regulator (KB220PAM) and Naltrexone to Prevent Opioid Use Disorder Relapse.

PMID: 30417173 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6226033


EC Anaesthesia
Arrest Under Anesthesia - What was the Culprit? A Case Report.

PMID: 30264037 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6155992


EC Orthopaedics
Distraction Implantation. A New Technique in Total Joint Arthroplasty and Direct Skeletal Attachment.

PMID: 30198026 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6124505


EC Pulmonology and Respiratory Medicine
Prevalence and factors associated with self-reported chronic obstructive pulmonary disease among adults aged 40-79: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2012.

PMID: 30294723 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6169793


EC Dental Science
Important Dental Fiber-Reinforced Composite Molding Compound Breakthroughs

PMID: 29285526 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5743211


EC Microbiology
Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites Among HIV Infected and HIV Uninfected Patients Treated at the 1o De Maio Health Centre in Maputo, Mozambique

PMID: 29911204 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5999047


EC Microbiology
Macrophages and the Viral Dissemination Super Highway

PMID: 26949751 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4774560


EC Microbiology
The Microbiome, Antibiotics, and Health of the Pediatric Population.

PMID: 27390782 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4933318


EC Microbiology
Reactive Oxygen Species in HIV Infection

PMID: 28580453 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5450819


EC Microbiology
A Review of the CD4 T Cell Contribution to Lung Infection, Inflammation and Repair with a Focus on Wheeze and Asthma in the Pediatric Population

PMID: 26280024 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4533840


EC Neurology
Identifying Key Symptoms Differentiating Myalgic Encephalomyelitis and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome from Multiple Sclerosis

PMID: 28066845 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5214344


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Paradigm Shift is the Normal State of Pharmacology

PMID: 28936490 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5604476


EC Neurology
Examining those Meeting IOM Criteria Versus IOM Plus Fibromyalgia

PMID: 28713879 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5510658


EC Neurology
Unilateral Frontosphenoid Craniosynostosis: Case Report and a Review of the Literature

PMID: 28133641 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5267489


EC Ophthalmology
OCT-Angiography for Non-Invasive Monitoring of Neuronal and Vascular Structure in Mouse Retina: Implication for Characterization of Retinal Neurovascular Coupling

PMID: 29333536 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5766278


EC Neurology
Longer Duration of Downslope Treadmill Walking Induces Depression of H-Reflexes Measured during Standing and Walking.

PMID: 31032493 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6483108


EC Microbiology
Onchocerciasis in Mozambique: An Unknown Condition for Health Professionals.

PMID: 30957099 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6448571


EC Nutrition
Food Insecurity among Households with and without Podoconiosis in East and West Gojjam, Ethiopia.

PMID: 30101228 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6086333


EC Ophthalmology
REVIEW. +2 to +3 D. Reading Glasses to Prevent Myopia.

PMID: 31080964 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6508883


EC Gynaecology
Biomechanical Mapping of the Female Pelvic Floor: Uterine Prolapse Versus Normal Conditions.

PMID: 31093608 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6513001


EC Dental Science
Fiber-Reinforced Composites: A Breakthrough in Practical Clinical Applications with Advanced Wear Resistance for Dental Materials.

PMID: 31552397 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6758937


EC Microbiology
Neurocysticercosis in Child Bearing Women: An Overlooked Condition in Mozambique and a Potentially Missed Diagnosis in Women Presenting with Eclampsia.

PMID: 31681909 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824723


EC Microbiology
Molecular Detection of Leptospira spp. in Rodents Trapped in the Mozambique Island City, Nampula Province, Mozambique.

PMID: 31681910 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824726


EC Neurology
Endoplasmic Reticulum-Mitochondrial Cross-Talk in Neurodegenerative and Eye Diseases.

PMID: 31528859 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6746603


EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Can Chronic Consumption of Caffeine by Increasing D2/D3 Receptors Offer Benefit to Carriers of the DRD2 A1 Allele in Cocaine Abuse?

PMID: 31276119 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6604646


EC Anaesthesia
Real Time Locating Systems and sustainability of Perioperative Efficiency of Anesthesiologists.

PMID: 31406965 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6690616


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
A Pilot STEM Curriculum Designed to Teach High School Students Concepts in Biochemical Engineering and Pharmacology.

PMID: 31517314 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6741290


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Toxic Mechanisms Underlying Motor Activity Changes Induced by a Mixture of Lead, Arsenic and Manganese.

PMID: 31633124 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6800226


EC Neurology
Research Volunteers' Attitudes Toward Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and Myalgic Encephalomyelitis.

PMID: 29662969 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5898812


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy for Alzheimer's Disease.

PMID: 30215058 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133268


News and Events


December Issue Release

We always feel pleasure to share our updates with you all. Here, notifying you that we have successfully released the November issue of respective journals and the latest articles can be viewed on the current issue pages.

Submission Deadline for Upcoming Issue

ECronicon delightfully welcomes all the authors around the globe for effective collaboration with an article submission for the upcoming issue of respective journals. Submissions are accepted on/before December 20, 2022.

Certificate of Publication

ECronicon honors with a "Publication Certificate" to the corresponding author by including the names of co-authors as a token of appreciation for publishing the work with our respective journals.

Best Article of the Issue

Editors of respective journals will always be very much interested in electing one Best Article after each issue release. The authors of the selected article will be honored with a "Best Article of the Issue" certificate.

Certifying for Review

ECronicon certifies the Editors for their first review done towards the assigned article of the respective journals.

Latest Articles

The latest articles will be updated immediately on the articles in press page of the respective journals.