Research Article
Volume 2 Issue 6 - 2020
Underweight as a Risk Factor for Miscarriage (Population Study)
Gundarov IA1* and Boyko NN2
1Research Institute of Public Health and Health Management of the First Moscow State Medical University After I. M. Sechenov, Moscow, Russia
2Practical Gynecologist - Regional Policlinic, Moscow, Russia
*Corresponding Author: Gundarov IA, Professor, Research Institute of Public Health and Health Management of the First Moscow State Medical University After I. M. Sechenov, Moscow, Russia.
Received: March 24, 2020; Published: May 06, 2020


A retrospective cohort study was carried out to investigate the influence of body mass index (BMI, kg/m2) on miscarriage in a population of 860 pregnant women aged 17 - 36 years, residents of a small city in the middle of Russia. BMI varied from 16 to 32, average value - 22.8 kg/m2. The number of miscarriages is 49 (5.7% of all pregnancies). With the distribution of women by the BMI, the spontaneous abortions rate revealed U-shaped trajectory. The smallest proportion, 1.6%, had 189 women with 22-23.9 kg/m2 - optimal interval. The highest proportion, 7.8%, had 416 women with underweight. Among 248 women with overweigh there were 5.3% miscarriages. A similar nonlinear dependence with BMI had early toxicosis, pre-labor rupture of the membranes, obstetrical bleeding, weak uterus labor, defects of placenta, cesarean section, fetal hypoxia. The sum of previous pregnancies (childbirths, artificial abortions, spontaneous miscarriages) turned out to be the smallest at a low BMI and the highest at a high BMI. The idea of underweight as a global risk factor of reproductive disturbance is being formed. The nature of this relationship remains poorly understood. The population-based character of the study allows to transfer its results to the national level. The numbers of excess miscarriages in the opposite groups were calculated. The excess losses at low BMI amounted 25.2 cases, or 51.4% of 49 miscarriages. At the high BMI, excess losses amounted 9.9 cases, or 20.2% of all miscarriages. The total excess loss amounted 35.1 cases or 76.6%. This means, that three quarters of spontaneous abortions were caused by inadequate BMI for pregnant women. It is logical to assume, if all pregnant women will have BMI in the range of 22-23.9 kg/m2, the number of spontaneous abortions will reduce approximately by three quarters of the existing level. Plus, stimulation of fertility will provide the fetus conceptions growth, resulting in the birth rate elevation.

Keywords: Body Mass Index; Miscarriage; Population; Pregnancy; Spontaneous Abortions; Underweight; Overweigh; Nonlinear Dependence; Early Toxicosis; Pre-Labor Rupture of the Membranes; Obstetrical Bleeding; Weak Uterus Labor; Defects of Placenta; Cesarean Section; Fetal Hypoxia; Childbirths


  2. Oliver A and Overton C. “Diagnosis and management of miscarriages”. Practitioner1771 (2014): 25-28.
  3. Bruckner TA., et al. “Spontaneous pregnancy loss in Denmark following economic downturns”. American Journal of Epidemiology 8 (2016): 701-708.
  4. Wall KM., et al. “Miscarriage among women in the United States Women’s Interagency HIV Study, 1994-2017”. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 4 (2019): 347.e1-347.e13.
  5. Walter MI and Alvarado MS. “Clinical aspects of miscarriage”. American Journal of Maternal Child Nursing 1 (2018): 6-12.
  6. Hogue CJ. “Invited commentary: preventable loss is a public health problem”. American Journal of Epidemiology 8 (2016): 709-712.
  7. Larsen EC., et al. “New insights into mechanisms behind miscarriage”. BMC Medicine 11 (2013): 154.
  8. Valeva Z., et al. “High and low BMI increase the risk of miscarriage after IVF/ICSI and FET”. Human Reproduction 4 (2008): 878-884.
  9. Helgstrand S and Andersen A-M N. “Maternal underweight and the risk of spontaneous abortion”. Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica 12 (2005): 1197-1201.
  10. Blsells M., et al. “Systematic review and meta-analysis on the association of prepregnancy underweight and miscarriage”. European Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology and Reproductive Biology 207 (2016): 73-79.
  11. Waaler H Th. “Height, Weight and Mortality. The Norwegian Experience”. Acta Medica Scandinavica, Supplementum 679 (1984): 1-56.
  12. Gundarov IA and Polessky VA. “Preventive medicine at the turn of the century. From risk factors to health reserves and social prevention”. GEOTAR-Media. M (2016).
  13. Sandahl B. “Smoking habits and spontaneous abortion”. European Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology and Reproductive Biology 1 (1989): 23-31.


Citation: Gundarov IA and Boyko NN. “Underweight as a Risk Factor for Miscarriage (Population Study)”. EC Nursing and Healthcare 2.6 (2020): 13-18.

PubMed Indexed Article

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
LC-UV-MS and MS/MS Characterize Glutathione Reactivity with Different Isomers (2,2' and 2,4' vs. 4,4') of Methylene Diphenyl-Diisocyanate.

PMID: 31143884 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6536005

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Alzheimer's Pathogenesis, Metal-Mediated Redox Stress, and Potential Nanotheranostics.

PMID: 31565701 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6764777

EC Neurology
Differences in Rate of Cognitive Decline and Caregiver Burden between Alzheimer's Disease and Vascular Dementia: a Retrospective Study.

PMID: 27747317 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5065347

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Will Blockchain Technology Transform Healthcare and Biomedical Sciences?

PMID: 31460519 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6711478

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Is it a Prime Time for AI-powered Virtual Drug Screening?

PMID: 30215059 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133253

EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Analysis of Evidence for the Combination of Pro-dopamine Regulator (KB220PAM) and Naltrexone to Prevent Opioid Use Disorder Relapse.

PMID: 30417173 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6226033

EC Anaesthesia
Arrest Under Anesthesia - What was the Culprit? A Case Report.

PMID: 30264037 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6155992

EC Orthopaedics
Distraction Implantation. A New Technique in Total Joint Arthroplasty and Direct Skeletal Attachment.

PMID: 30198026 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6124505

EC Pulmonology and Respiratory Medicine
Prevalence and factors associated with self-reported chronic obstructive pulmonary disease among adults aged 40-79: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2012.

PMID: 30294723 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6169793

EC Dental Science
Important Dental Fiber-Reinforced Composite Molding Compound Breakthroughs

PMID: 29285526 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5743211

EC Microbiology
Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites Among HIV Infected and HIV Uninfected Patients Treated at the 1o De Maio Health Centre in Maputo, Mozambique

PMID: 29911204 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5999047

EC Microbiology
Macrophages and the Viral Dissemination Super Highway

PMID: 26949751 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4774560

EC Microbiology
The Microbiome, Antibiotics, and Health of the Pediatric Population.

PMID: 27390782 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4933318

EC Microbiology
Reactive Oxygen Species in HIV Infection

PMID: 28580453 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5450819

EC Microbiology
A Review of the CD4 T Cell Contribution to Lung Infection, Inflammation and Repair with a Focus on Wheeze and Asthma in the Pediatric Population

PMID: 26280024 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4533840

EC Neurology
Identifying Key Symptoms Differentiating Myalgic Encephalomyelitis and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome from Multiple Sclerosis

PMID: 28066845 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5214344

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Paradigm Shift is the Normal State of Pharmacology

PMID: 28936490 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5604476

EC Neurology
Examining those Meeting IOM Criteria Versus IOM Plus Fibromyalgia

PMID: 28713879 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5510658

EC Neurology
Unilateral Frontosphenoid Craniosynostosis: Case Report and a Review of the Literature

PMID: 28133641 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5267489

EC Ophthalmology
OCT-Angiography for Non-Invasive Monitoring of Neuronal and Vascular Structure in Mouse Retina: Implication for Characterization of Retinal Neurovascular Coupling

PMID: 29333536 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5766278

EC Neurology
Longer Duration of Downslope Treadmill Walking Induces Depression of H-Reflexes Measured during Standing and Walking.

PMID: 31032493 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6483108

EC Microbiology
Onchocerciasis in Mozambique: An Unknown Condition for Health Professionals.

PMID: 30957099 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6448571

EC Nutrition
Food Insecurity among Households with and without Podoconiosis in East and West Gojjam, Ethiopia.

PMID: 30101228 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6086333

EC Ophthalmology
REVIEW. +2 to +3 D. Reading Glasses to Prevent Myopia.

PMID: 31080964 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6508883

EC Gynaecology
Biomechanical Mapping of the Female Pelvic Floor: Uterine Prolapse Versus Normal Conditions.

PMID: 31093608 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6513001

EC Dental Science
Fiber-Reinforced Composites: A Breakthrough in Practical Clinical Applications with Advanced Wear Resistance for Dental Materials.

PMID: 31552397 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6758937

EC Microbiology
Neurocysticercosis in Child Bearing Women: An Overlooked Condition in Mozambique and a Potentially Missed Diagnosis in Women Presenting with Eclampsia.

PMID: 31681909 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824723

EC Microbiology
Molecular Detection of Leptospira spp. in Rodents Trapped in the Mozambique Island City, Nampula Province, Mozambique.

PMID: 31681910 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824726

EC Neurology
Endoplasmic Reticulum-Mitochondrial Cross-Talk in Neurodegenerative and Eye Diseases.

PMID: 31528859 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6746603

EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Can Chronic Consumption of Caffeine by Increasing D2/D3 Receptors Offer Benefit to Carriers of the DRD2 A1 Allele in Cocaine Abuse?

PMID: 31276119 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6604646

EC Anaesthesia
Real Time Locating Systems and sustainability of Perioperative Efficiency of Anesthesiologists.

PMID: 31406965 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6690616

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
A Pilot STEM Curriculum Designed to Teach High School Students Concepts in Biochemical Engineering and Pharmacology.

PMID: 31517314 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6741290

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Toxic Mechanisms Underlying Motor Activity Changes Induced by a Mixture of Lead, Arsenic and Manganese.

PMID: 31633124 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6800226

EC Neurology
Research Volunteers' Attitudes Toward Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and Myalgic Encephalomyelitis.

PMID: 29662969 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5898812

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy for Alzheimer's Disease.

PMID: 30215058 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133268

News and Events

May Issue Release

We always feel pleasure to share our updates with you all. Here, notifying you that we have successfully released the May issue of respective journals and the latest articles can be viewed on the current issue pages.

Submission Deadline for Upcoming Issue

ECronicon delightfully welcomes all the authors around the globe for effective collaboration with an article submission for the upcoming issue of respective journals. Submissions are accepted on/before May 25, 2022.

Certificate of Publication

ECronicon honors with a "Publication Certificate" to the corresponding author by including the names of co-authors as a token of appreciation for publishing the work with our respective journals.

Best Article of the Issue

Editors of respective journals will always be very much interested in electing one Best Article after each issue release. The authors of the selected article will be honored with a "Best Article of the Issue" certificate.

Certifying for Review

ECronicon certifies the Editors for their first review done towards the assigned article of the respective journals.

Latest Articles

The latest articles will be updated immediately on the articles in press page of the respective journals.