Research Article
Volume 3 Issue 4 - 2021
A Critical Analysis of Key Strategies for Management of Pregnancy during COVID19 Infection in Developing Nations
Rajesh Jain, Sanjeev Davey*, Seshiah V, Davey Anuradha and Jain Rachna
Department of Community Medicine, ASMC, Shahjahanpur, Uttar Pradesh, India
*Corresponding Author: Sanjeev Davey, Department of Community Medicine, ASMC, Shahjahanpur, Uttar Pradesh, India.
Received: July 28, 2020; Published: March 31, 2021


Background: At the present time, limited data are available on pregnant women with COVID-19 on which to base recommendations for pregnancy-specific care; however, early reports and lessons from SARS, MERS and other respiratory infections suggest that pregnant women could have a severe clinical course after COVID 2019 infection.

Objective: To critically analyse the Strategies for Pregnancy care in patients with COVID 2019 Infections with Pregnancy.

Materials and Methods: As per latest Literature available from last 20 years, search of various studies in any form; using four key search words: “Pregnancy Care” “COVID 2019 Infection, Developing Nations, Low Resource Setting” was done from all important websites such as Google, PubMed, EMBASE, MEDLINE, Global Health, Biomed Central, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, world library World Cat, from 1st May 2000 to 31st May 2020. Any kind of Pregnancy care Guidelines specially developed during SARS, MERS and ZIKA Virus Infection were reviewed and research guidelines from WHO and any other region wise Pregnancy care guidelines for COVID 2019 for Developing Nations were also Included in this Study by Mini-Review Approach.

Results: Review of 22 latest articles reveals that there is a need to take all preventive measures in pregnant women, to control and prevent further spread of COVID-19. The focus must be on symptom based treatment, Promoting effective Information, Education, communication (IEC) between healthcare professionals (HCPs) to detect suspected COVID-19 in pregnancy.

Conclusion: Providing priority based health care for pregnant women is crucial for preventing further risk of the infection in neonates.


Keywords: Pregnancy Care; COVID 2019 Infection; Developing Nations; Hyperglycaemia in Pregnancy (HIP)


    1. Rasmussen SA and Hayes EB. “Public health approach to emerging infections among pregnant women”. American Journal of Public Health 95 (2005): 1942-1944.
    2. Siston AM., et al. “Pandemic 2009 influenza A (H1N1) virus illness among pregnant women in the United States”. The Journal of the American Medical Association 303 (2010): 1517-1525.
    3. Moore CA., et al. “Characterizing the pattern of anomalies in congenital Zika syndrome for pediatric clinicians”. JAMA Pediatrics 171 (2017): 288-295.
    4. Rasmussen S.A., et al. “Zika virus and birth defects-reviewing the evidence for causality”. The New England Journal of Medicine 374 (2016): 1981-1987.
    5. Yan J., et al. “Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in pregnant women: A report based on 116 cases”. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology (2020).
    6. Rasmussen SA., et al. “Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and pregnancy: what obstetricians need to know”. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology (2020).
    7. Kerr SM., et al. “Periconceptional maternal fever, folic acid intake, and the risk of neural tube defects”. Annals of Epidemiology 27 (2017): 777-782.
    8. Dong L., et al. “Possible vertical transmission of SARS-CoV-2 from an infected mother to her newborn”. The Journal of the American Medical Association (2020).
    9. Centre for disease control and prevention. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) situation summary (2020).
    10. National Health Commission of the People's Republic of China. Notice on strengthening maternal disease treatment and safe midwifery during the prevention and control of new coronavirus pneumonia (2020).
    11. Poon LC., et al. “Global interim guidance on coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) during pregnancy and puerperium from FIGO and allied partners: information for healthcare professionals” (2020).
    12. Liang H and Acharya G. “Novel corona virus disease (COVID-19) in pregnancy: What clinical recommendations to follow?” Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica 4 (2020): 439-442.
    13. Zaigham M and Andersson O. “Maternal and perinatal outcomes with COVID‐19: A systematic review of 108 pregnancies. Acta “The crucial information obtained from key surveillance and research studies will help to inform clinical recommendations and public health guidance and messages tailored to local contexts. Pregnant women and their neonates should not be ignored,” the researchers wrote on the paper (2020).
    14. Stephen Colagiuri., et al. “Strategies for Implementing the WHO Diagnostic Criteria and Classification of Hyperglycaemia First Detected in Pregnancy”. Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice 103 (2014): 364-372.
    15. Tripathi R., et al. “Evaluation of 75 g glucose load in non-fasting state [Diabetes in Pregnancy Study Group of India (DIPSI) criteria] as a diagnostic test for gestational diabetes mellitus”. Indian Journal of Medical Research 2 (2017): 209-214.
    16. National Guidelines for Diagnosis and Management of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus, Maternal Health Division, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India (2014).
    17. Government of India, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Directorate General of Health Services (EMR Division)”. Revised Guidelines on Clinical Management of COVID-19 (2020).
    18. Favre G., et al. “Guidelines for pregnant women with suspected SARS-CoV-2 infection”. Lancet Infectious Diseases (2020).
    19. Qiancheng Xu., et al. “Coronavirus disease 2019 in pregnancy International”.
    20. WHO guidelines on Management of COVID 2019 Infection In pregnancy”. Q and A: Pregnancy, childbirth and COVID-19.
    21. Novel Coronavirus 2019 (COVID -2019).
    22. Omer S., et al. “Preventive measures and management of COVID-19 in pregnancy”. Drugs and Therapy Perspectives 9 (2020): 1-4.
Citation: Sanjeev Davey., et al. “A Critical Analysis of Key Strategies for Management of Pregnancy during COVID19 Infection in Developing Nation". EC Nursing and Healthcare 3.4 (2021): 47-55.

PubMed Indexed Article

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
LC-UV-MS and MS/MS Characterize Glutathione Reactivity with Different Isomers (2,2' and 2,4' vs. 4,4') of Methylene Diphenyl-Diisocyanate.

PMID: 31143884 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6536005

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Alzheimer's Pathogenesis, Metal-Mediated Redox Stress, and Potential Nanotheranostics.

PMID: 31565701 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6764777

EC Neurology
Differences in Rate of Cognitive Decline and Caregiver Burden between Alzheimer's Disease and Vascular Dementia: a Retrospective Study.

PMID: 27747317 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5065347

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Will Blockchain Technology Transform Healthcare and Biomedical Sciences?

PMID: 31460519 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6711478

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Is it a Prime Time for AI-powered Virtual Drug Screening?

PMID: 30215059 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133253

EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Analysis of Evidence for the Combination of Pro-dopamine Regulator (KB220PAM) and Naltrexone to Prevent Opioid Use Disorder Relapse.

PMID: 30417173 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6226033

EC Anaesthesia
Arrest Under Anesthesia - What was the Culprit? A Case Report.

PMID: 30264037 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6155992

EC Orthopaedics
Distraction Implantation. A New Technique in Total Joint Arthroplasty and Direct Skeletal Attachment.

PMID: 30198026 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6124505

EC Pulmonology and Respiratory Medicine
Prevalence and factors associated with self-reported chronic obstructive pulmonary disease among adults aged 40-79: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2012.

PMID: 30294723 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6169793

EC Dental Science
Important Dental Fiber-Reinforced Composite Molding Compound Breakthroughs

PMID: 29285526 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5743211

EC Microbiology
Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites Among HIV Infected and HIV Uninfected Patients Treated at the 1o De Maio Health Centre in Maputo, Mozambique

PMID: 29911204 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5999047

EC Microbiology
Macrophages and the Viral Dissemination Super Highway

PMID: 26949751 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4774560

EC Microbiology
The Microbiome, Antibiotics, and Health of the Pediatric Population.

PMID: 27390782 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4933318

EC Microbiology
Reactive Oxygen Species in HIV Infection

PMID: 28580453 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5450819

EC Microbiology
A Review of the CD4 T Cell Contribution to Lung Infection, Inflammation and Repair with a Focus on Wheeze and Asthma in the Pediatric Population

PMID: 26280024 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4533840

EC Neurology
Identifying Key Symptoms Differentiating Myalgic Encephalomyelitis and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome from Multiple Sclerosis

PMID: 28066845 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5214344

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Paradigm Shift is the Normal State of Pharmacology

PMID: 28936490 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5604476

EC Neurology
Examining those Meeting IOM Criteria Versus IOM Plus Fibromyalgia

PMID: 28713879 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5510658

EC Neurology
Unilateral Frontosphenoid Craniosynostosis: Case Report and a Review of the Literature

PMID: 28133641 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5267489

EC Ophthalmology
OCT-Angiography for Non-Invasive Monitoring of Neuronal and Vascular Structure in Mouse Retina: Implication for Characterization of Retinal Neurovascular Coupling

PMID: 29333536 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5766278

EC Neurology
Longer Duration of Downslope Treadmill Walking Induces Depression of H-Reflexes Measured during Standing and Walking.

PMID: 31032493 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6483108

EC Microbiology
Onchocerciasis in Mozambique: An Unknown Condition for Health Professionals.

PMID: 30957099 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6448571

EC Nutrition
Food Insecurity among Households with and without Podoconiosis in East and West Gojjam, Ethiopia.

PMID: 30101228 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6086333

EC Ophthalmology
REVIEW. +2 to +3 D. Reading Glasses to Prevent Myopia.

PMID: 31080964 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6508883

EC Gynaecology
Biomechanical Mapping of the Female Pelvic Floor: Uterine Prolapse Versus Normal Conditions.

PMID: 31093608 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6513001

EC Dental Science
Fiber-Reinforced Composites: A Breakthrough in Practical Clinical Applications with Advanced Wear Resistance for Dental Materials.

PMID: 31552397 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6758937

EC Microbiology
Neurocysticercosis in Child Bearing Women: An Overlooked Condition in Mozambique and a Potentially Missed Diagnosis in Women Presenting with Eclampsia.

PMID: 31681909 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824723

EC Microbiology
Molecular Detection of Leptospira spp. in Rodents Trapped in the Mozambique Island City, Nampula Province, Mozambique.

PMID: 31681910 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824726

EC Neurology
Endoplasmic Reticulum-Mitochondrial Cross-Talk in Neurodegenerative and Eye Diseases.

PMID: 31528859 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6746603

EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Can Chronic Consumption of Caffeine by Increasing D2/D3 Receptors Offer Benefit to Carriers of the DRD2 A1 Allele in Cocaine Abuse?

PMID: 31276119 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6604646

EC Anaesthesia
Real Time Locating Systems and sustainability of Perioperative Efficiency of Anesthesiologists.

PMID: 31406965 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6690616

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
A Pilot STEM Curriculum Designed to Teach High School Students Concepts in Biochemical Engineering and Pharmacology.

PMID: 31517314 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6741290

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Toxic Mechanisms Underlying Motor Activity Changes Induced by a Mixture of Lead, Arsenic and Manganese.

PMID: 31633124 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6800226

EC Neurology
Research Volunteers' Attitudes Toward Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and Myalgic Encephalomyelitis.

PMID: 29662969 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5898812

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy for Alzheimer's Disease.

PMID: 30215058 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133268

News and Events

May Issue Release

We always feel pleasure to share our updates with you all. Here, notifying you that we have successfully released the May issue of respective journals and the latest articles can be viewed on the current issue pages.

Submission Deadline for Upcoming Issue

ECronicon delightfully welcomes all the authors around the globe for effective collaboration with an article submission for the upcoming issue of respective journals. Submissions are accepted on/before May 25, 2022.

Certificate of Publication

ECronicon honors with a "Publication Certificate" to the corresponding author by including the names of co-authors as a token of appreciation for publishing the work with our respective journals.

Best Article of the Issue

Editors of respective journals will always be very much interested in electing one Best Article after each issue release. The authors of the selected article will be honored with a "Best Article of the Issue" certificate.

Certifying for Review

ECronicon certifies the Editors for their first review done towards the assigned article of the respective journals.

Latest Articles

The latest articles will be updated immediately on the articles in press page of the respective journals.