Review Article
Volume 16 Issue 11 - 2021
A Randomized Double-Blind Evaluation of the Gastrointestinal, Body Composition, Stress Response and Cognitive Function Impacts of Creatine Supplementation in Healthy Adults
Douglas S Kalman1,2*, Corbin Hohl3, Brent Petersen3, Sarah Flynn4, Cassandra Evans2, Jose Antonio5 and Jaime Tartar6
1Scientific Affairs, Nutrasource Pharmaceutical and Nutraceutical Services, Guelph, Ontario, Canada
2Nutrition Department, Dr. Kiran C Patel College of Osteopathic Medicine, Nova Southeastern University, Fort Lauderdale, Florida, USA
3Glanbia Nutritionals, Twin Falls, Idaho, USA
4Glanbia Nutritionals, Carlsbad, California, USA
5Exercise Sciences, College of Healthcare Sciences, Nova Southeastern University, Fort Lauderdale, Florida, USA
5Professor/Research Director, Department of Psychology and Neuroscience, Nova Southeastern University, Davie, Florida, USA
*Corresponding Author: Douglas S Kalman, Scientific Affairs, Nutrasource Pharmaceutical and Nutraceutical Services, Guelph, Ontario, Canada.
Received: September 30, 2021; Published: October 28, 2021


Creatine monohydrate is a popular ergogenic aid used by athletes, adolescents and older individuals. There are various forms of creatine supplements that are on the market, however, creatine monohydrate is the most popular. Creatine itself is considered as less stable in solution when left in solution over time. Advances in product development and science may allow for a more stable aqueous solution of creatine. One major concern of ready-to-drink creatine supplements is the potential adverse gastrointestinal effects. In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled design, the potential gastrointestinal effects of stabilized creatine (CreaBev®) as compared to standard creatine monohydrate versus control was tested. Subjects were randomly assigned to receive the CreaBev® supplement, creatine monohydrate supplement or no supplement (control). Subjects were instructed to consume one serving of the supplement (delivering 5 gm creatine) on a daily basis for 28 days. Subjects underwent baseline testing and end of study testing. The Severity of Dyspepsia Analysis (SODA) questionnaire and National Institutes of Health (NIH) Cognitive Test Toolbox were used to evaluate GI effects and cognition. Additional testing included body composition analysis (including fluid balance), and exploratory measurement of the stress biomarkers, salivary alpha amylase and cortisol. Following the consumption of CreaBev, no adverse gastrointestinal side effects were reported. Cognition via the Dimension Change Test significantly improved (pre: 104 ± 14 to post: 116 ± 14; p = 0.0017) in the CreaBev group. There was no observed differences in total body fluid status over the 28 days between the groups (p > 0.05) No significant differences in levels of salivary alpha amylase, cortisol and anthropometrics were observed. The use of CreaBev did not cause any adverse GI effects and improved cognitive performance on the Dimension Change Test.

Keywords: Creatine; Gastrointestinal; Bloating; Cognition; Dietary Supplement


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Citation: Douglas S Kalman., et al.“ A Randomized Double-Blind Evaluation of the Gastrointestinal, Body Composition, Stress Response and Cognitive Function Impacts of Creatine Supplementation in Healthy Adults”. EC Nutrition 16.11 (2021): 19-28.

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