Research Article
Volume 16 Issue 12 - 2021
Effect of PH, Salt Saturation, Solvent Ratio, Temperature and Incubation Duration on the Oil Yield in Three-Phase Partitioning Extraction Method from Fig-Leaf Gourd Seeds (Cucurbita ficifolia)

Tuan Q Dang* and Khoi P B Van

Department of Food Technology, International University-VNU-HoChiMinh City, Vietnam
*Corresponding Author: Tuan Q Dang, Department of Food Technology, International University-VNU-HoChiMinh City, Vietnam.
Received: October 10, 2021; Published: November 29, 2021


The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of pH, salt saturation, solvent ratio, incubation duration and temperature in three-phase partitioning method on the yield of oil extracted from fig-leaf gourd seeds (Cucurbita ficifolia). The selected range of parameters for study was as followed: pH 4 - 7; 20 - 50% (w/v aqueous) of salt concentration; 0.5: 1 - 2:1 (v/v solvent/aqueous) ratio, incubation duration 30 - 75 minutes and temperature 30 - 60°C. As the results, the highest oil yield of 36.88% was obtained by processing conditions at pH 6, 40% salt concentration, 1.5:1 ratio of solvent/aqueous in room temperature (30°C) within 60 minutes of incubation. For comparison, the yield of oil extracted by Soxhlet method was 45.67%, significantly higher than the yield by three-phase partitioning method. However, the two types of oil were significantly different in several physiochemical properties. In details, total phenolic content and total flavonoid content in the oil extracted by TPP (24.53 mgGAE/100g and 4.91 mgGAE/100g, respectively) was higher than those presented in the oil obtained by Soxhlet method. Likewise, the antioxidant capacity, expressed as DDPH scavenging capacity in the oil by TPP was higher than that in the oil by Soxhlet method.

Keywords: Cucurbita ficifolia; Oil Yield; Physiochemical Properties; Three Phase Partitioning


  1. Rodríguez-Miranda J., et al. “Physical properties of Cucurbita ficifolia seed and functional properties of whole and defatted meal”. International Journal of Food Processing Technology1 (2016): 27-35.
  2. Ntui VO., et al. “Response of pumpkin (Cucurbita ficifolia L.) to some growth regulators”. Journal of Food Agriculture and Environment2 (2007): 211-214.
  3. Sohail RAA and Masud T. “Characterization and antibacterial study of pumpkin seed oil (Cucurbita pepo)”. Life Sciences Leaflets 49 (2014): 53-64.
  4. Alfawaz MA. “Chemical composition and oil characteristics of pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima) seed kernels”. Food Science and Agriculture1 (2004): 5-18.
  5. Akin G., et al. “Cold-pressed pumpkin seed (Cucurbita pepo L.) oils from the central Anatolia region of Turkey: Characterization of phytosterols, squalene, tocols, phenolic acids, carotenoids and fatty acid bioactive compounds”. Grasas y Aceites1 (2018): 232.
  6. Bernardo-Gil MG., et al. “Supercritical fluid extraction of fig leaf gourd seeds oil: Fatty acids composition and extraction kinetics”. The Journal of Supercritical Fluids1 (2009): 32-36.
  7. Veronezi CM and Jorge N. “Bioactive compounds in lipid fractions of pumpkin (Cucurbita sp) seeds for use in food”. Journal of Food Science6 (2012): C653-C657.
  8. Caili FU., et al. “A review on pharmacological activities and utilization technologies of pumpkin”. Plant Foods for Human Nutrition2 (2006): 70-77.
  9. Yadav M., et al. “Medicinal and biological potential of pumpkin: an updated review”. Nutrition Research Reviews2 (2010): 184-190.
  10. Muntean E., et al. “Cucurbita maxima Duch. as a medicinal plant. Hop and medicinal plants, Year XXI 1-2 (2013): 41-42.
  11. Tan ZJ., et al. “Extraction of oil from flaxseed (Linum usitatissimum L.) using enzyme-assisted three-phase partitioning”. Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology8 (2016): 1325-1335.
  12. Rosenthal A., et al. “Aqueous and enzymatic processes for edible oil extraction”. Enzyme and Microbial Technology6 (1996): 402-420.
  13. Sharma A and Gupta MN. “Oil extraction from almond, apricot and rice bran by three‐phase partitioning after ultrasonication”. European Journal of Lipid Science and Technology3 (2004): 183-186.
  14. Kurmudle NN., et al. “Enzyme-assisted three phase partitioning: a novel approach for extraction of turmeric oleoresin”. Process Biochemistry1 (2011): 423-426.
  15. Gaur R., et al. “A novel process for extraction of edible oils. Enzyme assisted three phase partitioning (EATPP)”. Bioresource Technology3 (2007): 696-699.
  16. Vidhate GS and Singhal RS. “Extraction of cocoa butter alternative from kokum (Garcinia indica) kernel by three phase partitioning”. Journal of Food Engineering 117 (2013): 464-466.
  17. Panadare DC and Rathod VK. “Three phase partitioning for extraction of oil: A review”. Trends in Food Science and Technology 68 (2017): 145-151.
  18. McGregor D. “Tertiary-Butanol: a toxicological review”. Critical Reviews in Toxicology8 (2010): 697-727.
  19. Mulchandani K., et al. “Extraction of lipids from Chlorella saccharophila using high-pressure homogenization followed by three phase partitioning”. Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology6 (2015): 1613-1626.
  20. Li Z., et al. “Lipid extraction from non-broken and high water content microalgae Chlorella spp. by three-phase partitioning”. Algal Research 10 (2015): 218-223.
  21. Sharma A., et al. “Three phase partitioning for extraction of oil from soybean”. Bioresource Technology3 (2002): 327-329.
  22. Dutta R., et al. “Process optimization for the extraction of oil from Crotalaria juncea using three phase partitioning”. Industrial Crops and Products 71 (2015): 89-96.
  23. Parry J., et al. “Chemical compositions, antioxidant capacities, and antiproliferative activities of selected fruit seed flours”. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry11 (2006): 3773-3778.
  24. Chang CC., et al. “Estimation of total flavonoid content in propolis by two complementary colorimetric methods”. Journal of Food and Drug Analysis3 (2002): 178-182.
  25. Tzen JT., et al. “Lipids, proteins, and structure of seed oil bodies from diverse species”. Plant Physiology1 (1993): 267-276.
  26. Shah S., et al. “Extraction of oil from Jatropha curcas L. seed kernels by enzyme assisted three phase partitioning”. Industrial Crops and Product3 (2004): 275-279.
  27. Vujasinovic V., et al. “The effect of roasting on the chemical composition and oxidative stability of pumpkin oil”. European Journal of Lipid Science and Technology5 (2012): 568-574.
  28. The SS and Birch J. “Physicochemical and quality characteristics of cold-pressed hemp, flax and canola seed oils”. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis1 (2013): 26-31.
  29. Ebrahimi N., et al. “Spectrophotometric method for quantification of flavonoids in olive oil supplied from Tehran market of Iran”. Journal of Food Safety and Hygiene2 (2015): 59-62.
  30. Dang TQ and Nguyen TK. “Impact of extraction method on the oil yield, physicochemical properties, fatty acid composition and stability of cashew nut (Anacardium occidentale L.) oil”. EC Nutrition 14 (2019): 165-171.
  31. Rezig L., et al. “Cucurbita maxima pumpkin seed oil: From the chemical properties to the different extracting techniques”. Notulae Botanicae Horti Agrobotanici Cluj-Napoca2 (2018): 663-669.
  32. Siger A., et al. “The content and antioxidant activity of phenolic compounds in cold‐pressed plant oils”. Journal of Food Lipids2 (2008): 137-149.
  33. Ahmed IAM., et al. “Effects of Cold-Press and Soxhlet Extraction Systems on Antioxidant Activity, Total Phenol Contents, Fatty Acids, and Tocopherol Contents of Walnut Kernel Oils”. Journal of Oleo Science (2019): ess18141.
Citation: Tuan Q Dang and Khoi P B Van. “Effect of PH, Salt Saturation, Solvent Ratio, Temperature and Incubation Duration on the Oil Yield in Three-Phase Partitioning Extraction Method from Fig-Leaf Gourd Seeds (Cucurbita ficifolia)”. EC Nutrition 16.12 (2021): 07-16.

PubMed Indexed Article

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
LC-UV-MS and MS/MS Characterize Glutathione Reactivity with Different Isomers (2,2' and 2,4' vs. 4,4') of Methylene Diphenyl-Diisocyanate.

PMID: 31143884 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6536005

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Alzheimer's Pathogenesis, Metal-Mediated Redox Stress, and Potential Nanotheranostics.

PMID: 31565701 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6764777

EC Neurology
Differences in Rate of Cognitive Decline and Caregiver Burden between Alzheimer's Disease and Vascular Dementia: a Retrospective Study.

PMID: 27747317 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5065347

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Will Blockchain Technology Transform Healthcare and Biomedical Sciences?

PMID: 31460519 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6711478

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Is it a Prime Time for AI-powered Virtual Drug Screening?

PMID: 30215059 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133253

EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Analysis of Evidence for the Combination of Pro-dopamine Regulator (KB220PAM) and Naltrexone to Prevent Opioid Use Disorder Relapse.

PMID: 30417173 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6226033

EC Anaesthesia
Arrest Under Anesthesia - What was the Culprit? A Case Report.

PMID: 30264037 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6155992

EC Orthopaedics
Distraction Implantation. A New Technique in Total Joint Arthroplasty and Direct Skeletal Attachment.

PMID: 30198026 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6124505

EC Pulmonology and Respiratory Medicine
Prevalence and factors associated with self-reported chronic obstructive pulmonary disease among adults aged 40-79: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2012.

PMID: 30294723 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6169793

EC Dental Science
Important Dental Fiber-Reinforced Composite Molding Compound Breakthroughs

PMID: 29285526 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5743211

EC Microbiology
Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites Among HIV Infected and HIV Uninfected Patients Treated at the 1o De Maio Health Centre in Maputo, Mozambique

PMID: 29911204 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5999047

EC Microbiology
Macrophages and the Viral Dissemination Super Highway

PMID: 26949751 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4774560

EC Microbiology
The Microbiome, Antibiotics, and Health of the Pediatric Population.

PMID: 27390782 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4933318

EC Microbiology
Reactive Oxygen Species in HIV Infection

PMID: 28580453 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5450819

EC Microbiology
A Review of the CD4 T Cell Contribution to Lung Infection, Inflammation and Repair with a Focus on Wheeze and Asthma in the Pediatric Population

PMID: 26280024 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4533840

EC Neurology
Identifying Key Symptoms Differentiating Myalgic Encephalomyelitis and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome from Multiple Sclerosis

PMID: 28066845 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5214344

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Paradigm Shift is the Normal State of Pharmacology

PMID: 28936490 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5604476

EC Neurology
Examining those Meeting IOM Criteria Versus IOM Plus Fibromyalgia

PMID: 28713879 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5510658

EC Neurology
Unilateral Frontosphenoid Craniosynostosis: Case Report and a Review of the Literature

PMID: 28133641 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5267489

EC Ophthalmology
OCT-Angiography for Non-Invasive Monitoring of Neuronal and Vascular Structure in Mouse Retina: Implication for Characterization of Retinal Neurovascular Coupling

PMID: 29333536 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5766278

EC Neurology
Longer Duration of Downslope Treadmill Walking Induces Depression of H-Reflexes Measured during Standing and Walking.

PMID: 31032493 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6483108

EC Microbiology
Onchocerciasis in Mozambique: An Unknown Condition for Health Professionals.

PMID: 30957099 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6448571

EC Nutrition
Food Insecurity among Households with and without Podoconiosis in East and West Gojjam, Ethiopia.

PMID: 30101228 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6086333

EC Ophthalmology
REVIEW. +2 to +3 D. Reading Glasses to Prevent Myopia.

PMID: 31080964 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6508883

EC Gynaecology
Biomechanical Mapping of the Female Pelvic Floor: Uterine Prolapse Versus Normal Conditions.

PMID: 31093608 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6513001

EC Dental Science
Fiber-Reinforced Composites: A Breakthrough in Practical Clinical Applications with Advanced Wear Resistance for Dental Materials.

PMID: 31552397 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6758937

EC Microbiology
Neurocysticercosis in Child Bearing Women: An Overlooked Condition in Mozambique and a Potentially Missed Diagnosis in Women Presenting with Eclampsia.

PMID: 31681909 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824723

EC Microbiology
Molecular Detection of Leptospira spp. in Rodents Trapped in the Mozambique Island City, Nampula Province, Mozambique.

PMID: 31681910 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824726

EC Neurology
Endoplasmic Reticulum-Mitochondrial Cross-Talk in Neurodegenerative and Eye Diseases.

PMID: 31528859 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6746603

EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Can Chronic Consumption of Caffeine by Increasing D2/D3 Receptors Offer Benefit to Carriers of the DRD2 A1 Allele in Cocaine Abuse?

PMID: 31276119 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6604646

EC Anaesthesia
Real Time Locating Systems and sustainability of Perioperative Efficiency of Anesthesiologists.

PMID: 31406965 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6690616

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
A Pilot STEM Curriculum Designed to Teach High School Students Concepts in Biochemical Engineering and Pharmacology.

PMID: 31517314 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6741290

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Toxic Mechanisms Underlying Motor Activity Changes Induced by a Mixture of Lead, Arsenic and Manganese.

PMID: 31633124 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6800226

EC Neurology
Research Volunteers' Attitudes Toward Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and Myalgic Encephalomyelitis.

PMID: 29662969 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5898812

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy for Alzheimer's Disease.

PMID: 30215058 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133268

News and Events

September Issue Release

We always feel pleasure to share our updates with you all. Here, notifying you that we have successfully released the September issue of respective journals and the latest articles can be viewed on the current issue pages.

Submission Deadline for Upcoming Issue

ECronicon delightfully welcomes all the authors around the globe for effective collaboration with an article submission for the upcoming issue of respective journals. Submissions are accepted on/before October 14, 2022.

Certificate of Publication

ECronicon honors with a "Publication Certificate" to the corresponding author by including the names of co-authors as a token of appreciation for publishing the work with our respective journals.

Best Article of the Issue

Editors of respective journals will always be very much interested in electing one Best Article after each issue release. The authors of the selected article will be honored with a "Best Article of the Issue" certificate.

Certifying for Review

ECronicon certifies the Editors for their first review done towards the assigned article of the respective journals.

Latest Articles

The latest articles will be updated immediately on the articles in press page of the respective journals.