Review Article
Volume 17 Issue 1 - 2022
Establishment, Expansion and Modulation of Gut Microbiome: Birth to First 100 Days to Early Childhood and Later
Vinod Nikhra MD*
Senior Chief Medical Officer and Consultant, Department of Medicine, Hindu Rao Hospital and NDMC Medical College, New Delhi, India
*Corresponding Author: Vinod Nikhra MD, Senior Chief Medical Officer and Consultant, Department of Medicine, Hindu Rao Hospital and NDMC Medical College, New Delhi, India.
Received: March 22, 2021; Published: December 30, 2021




Abstract

Establishment of infant microbiome-first 100 days: The intestinal bacterial colonization begins when the fetus lies in the lower uterus and following birth the gut microbiota is transiently dominated by Enterobacteriaceae and Staphylococcus. The infant microbiota undergoes first transition during lactation, resulting in dominance of the gut microbiota by Bifidobacterium and some lactic acid bacteria. The second transition occurs during the weaning period with introduction of solid foods, leading to establishment of an adult-type of complex microbiota dominated by Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes. The dynamic gut microbial ecology is gradually altered and stabilized during early childhood.

Expansion of gut microbiome-the early childhood: The third transition occurs during the early childhood as various alterations influenced by dietary, host, and environmental factors. There occur interactions with the developing immune system in the gut and by about 3 years of age, a fully functional, adult-like gut microbiota is established. Compared with infants, the gut microbiome during childhood, is more stable with less variability. Further, the gut microbiota is affected by geographical region and food culture. There are several factors, which through altering gut microbiota early in life influence the development of immune system and immune health and have an impact on the overall health during later life.

The normal and altered host-microbiota symbiosis: The host genetic and epigenetic factors such as gestational age, maternal nutrition, delivery mode, diet, pre- and probiotics, and antibiotics influence the gut microbial development during early childhood up to 3 years of life. The bacterial composition and diversity differ between breast-fed and formula-fed infants, and solid food introduction is associated with alterations in the gut microbiota. Post-weaning, the diet is one of the major determinants of GI microbial colonization and diversity. The microbiota acquired in early life have long-term implications for host metabolism and immunological, gastrointestinal, dermatological, and neurological functions.

Fallouts of the altered co-existence and dysbiosis: The recent research suggests that the gut microbiome plays a significant role in age-associated physical frailty in older adults. Simultaneously, the advanced age associated deterioration in nutrient intake and absorption including dentition, changes in taste and smell, salivary function, digestion, and intestinal transit time are associated factors. The host factors like unhealthy diet and use of medications, especially antibiotics, have impact on the gut microbiota composition and function and contribute to gut dysbiosis, a state of disrupted gut microbial homeostasis, leading to increased IR and adiposity manifesting as metabolic syndrome, obesity, and type 2 diabetes.

Conclusion: Modulation of the gut microbiome: The health and healthy aging as a composite encompass not only on genetics, lifestyle choices and a positive attitude, but also the gut microbiome. The disturbed and disbalanced microbiome has been related to various harmful effects on health and accelerated aging. In fact, various studies reinforce that the view that unavoidable consequences of aging, in part, may represent the reversible effects of a sublime microbial dysbiosis. It may be possible to overcome dysbiosis and reset and restore normal microbiome through dietary and lifestyle modifications, probiotics and prebiotics, logical antibiotic therapy and bariatric surgery, and fecal microbial transplantation.

Keywords: Gut Microbiome; First 100 Days; Early Childhood Microbiota; Adult Microbiota; Symbiotic Existence; Microbiota Aberrations; Gut Dysbiosis; Prebiotic; Probiotic; Synbiotics

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Citation: Vinod Nikhra MD. “Establishment, Expansion and Modulation of Gut Microbiome: Birth to First 100 Days to Early Childhood and Later”. EC Nutrition 16.12 (2021): 01-19.

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