Volume 12 Issue 8 - 2021
Oedipism - The Major Form of Self-Mutilation
Dorota Kopacz*, Piotr Maciejewicz and Amelia H Kopacz
Department of Ophthalmology, Medical University of Warsaw, Warsaw, Poland
*Corresponding Author: Dorota Kopacz, Department of Ophthalmology, Medical University of Warsaw, Warsaw, Poland.
Received: June 28, 2021; Published: July 30, 2021


The term “self-mutilation” describes physical injuries inflicted by an individual to various parts of the body without any conscious intention for suicide. It occurs as a single event or as repeated incidents. Self-mutilations are classified into major (wrist-slashing, head banging, autocastration, self-enucleation), stereotypical (repetitive fixed behavior, commonly in institutionalized retards) and superficial subtypes (chewing fingers, biting lips, pulling hairs/eyelashes, burning skin) [1-4].


  1. Favazza AR. “The coming of age of self-mutilation”. The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease 5 (1998): 259-268.
  2. Patton N. “Self-inflicted eye injuries: a review”. Eye 18 (2004): 867-872.
  3. Eisenhauer GL. “Self-inflicted ocular removal by two psychiatric inpatients”. Hospital and Community Psychiatry 2 (1985): 189-191.
  4. Shore D., et al. “Prediction self-mutilation in hospitalized schizophrenics”. The American Journal of Psychiatry 11 (1978): 1406-1407.
  5. Tippeswamy H., et al. “Bilateral self-enucleation in acute transient psychotic disorder: the influence of sociocultural factors on psychopathology”. Comprehensive Psychiatry Volume 5 (2012): 576-578.
  6. Davis LE and Tripathi S. “A case of self-enucleation in an incarcerated patient: case report and review of literature”. Journal of Forensic Sciences 6 (2018).
  7. Fan AH. “Autoenucleation: a case report and literature review”. Psychiatry10 (2007): 60-62.
  8. Erie JC., et al. “Incidence of enucleation in a defined population”. American Journal of Ophthalmology 2 (1992): 138-144.
  9. Zang M., et al. “Gender and racial disparities in cases of autoenucleation”. Seminars in Ophthalmology 4 (2016): 415-425.
  10. Kennedy BL and Feldman TB. “Self-inflicted eye injuries: case presentations and literature review”. Hops Community Psychiatry 5 (1994): 470-474.
  11. Bergua A., et al. “Self-enucleation in drug-related psychosis”. Ophthalmologica4 (2002): 269-271.
  12. Oren DA and Laor N. “Self-inflicted eye injury”. The American Journal of Psychiatry 2 (1987): 248-249.
  13. Leslie J., et al. “Self-inflicted ocular injuries. A rare form of self-mutilation”. The American Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology 1 (1984): 83-88.
  14. Rosenberg PN., et al. “Ocular Munchausen ‘s syndrome”. Ophthalmology8 (1986): 1120-1123.
  15. Winchell RM and Stanley M. “Self-injurious behavior: a review of the behavior and biology of self-mutilation”. The American Journal of Psychiatry 3 (1991): 306-317.
  16. Ashkenazi I., et al. “Self-inflicted ocular mutilations in the pediatric age group”. Acta Paediatrica 8 (1992): 649-651.
  17. Robertson MM., et al. “Self-injurious behavior and the Gilles de la Tourette syndrome: a clinical study and a review of the literature”. Psychological Medicine 3 (1989): 611-625.
  18. Rosen DH and Hoffman AM. “Focal suicide: self-enucleation by two young individuals”. The American Journal of Psychiatry 8 (1972): 1009-1012.
  19. Schwerkoske JP., et al. “Self-mutilation and Biblical delusions: a review”. Psychosomatics 53 (2012): 327-333.
  20. Pompili M., et al. “Incomplete oedipism and chronic suicidality in psychotic depression with paranoid delusions related to eyes”. Annals of General Psychiatry 5 (2006): 18.
  21. Yang HK., et al. “Self-inflicted ocular mutilation”. American Journal of Ophthalmology 25 (1981): 451-453.
  22. Soebo J. “Automutilatia bulborum: a rare case of self-mutilation in an epileptic”. Acta Ophthalmologica 26 (1948): 451-453.
  23. Stannard K., et al. “Oedipism reviewed: a case of bilateral ocular self-mutilation”. British Journal of Ophthalmology4 (1984): 276-280.
  24. Field HL and Waldfogel S. “Severe ocular self-injury”. General Psychiatry3 (1995): 224-227.
  25. Krauss HR., et al. “Autoenucleation”. Survey of Ophthalmology3 (1984): 179-187.
  26. Khan JA., et al. “Medical management of self-enucleation”. Archives of Ophthalmology3 (1985): 386-389.
  27. Reicheisen D., et al. “Attempt autoenucleation in two incarcerated young man with psychosis”. Saudi Journal of Ophthalmology 29 (2015): 172-174.
Citation: Dorota Kopacz., et al. “Oedipism - The Major Form of Self-Mutilation”. EC Ophthalmology 12.8 (2021): 01-04.

PubMed Indexed Article

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
LC-UV-MS and MS/MS Characterize Glutathione Reactivity with Different Isomers (2,2' and 2,4' vs. 4,4') of Methylene Diphenyl-Diisocyanate.

PMID: 31143884 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6536005

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Alzheimer's Pathogenesis, Metal-Mediated Redox Stress, and Potential Nanotheranostics.

PMID: 31565701 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6764777

EC Neurology
Differences in Rate of Cognitive Decline and Caregiver Burden between Alzheimer's Disease and Vascular Dementia: a Retrospective Study.

PMID: 27747317 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5065347

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Will Blockchain Technology Transform Healthcare and Biomedical Sciences?

PMID: 31460519 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6711478

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Is it a Prime Time for AI-powered Virtual Drug Screening?

PMID: 30215059 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133253

EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Analysis of Evidence for the Combination of Pro-dopamine Regulator (KB220PAM) and Naltrexone to Prevent Opioid Use Disorder Relapse.

PMID: 30417173 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6226033

EC Anaesthesia
Arrest Under Anesthesia - What was the Culprit? A Case Report.

PMID: 30264037 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6155992

EC Orthopaedics
Distraction Implantation. A New Technique in Total Joint Arthroplasty and Direct Skeletal Attachment.

PMID: 30198026 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6124505

EC Pulmonology and Respiratory Medicine
Prevalence and factors associated with self-reported chronic obstructive pulmonary disease among adults aged 40-79: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2012.

PMID: 30294723 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6169793

EC Dental Science
Important Dental Fiber-Reinforced Composite Molding Compound Breakthroughs

PMID: 29285526 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5743211

EC Microbiology
Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites Among HIV Infected and HIV Uninfected Patients Treated at the 1o De Maio Health Centre in Maputo, Mozambique

PMID: 29911204 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5999047

EC Microbiology
Macrophages and the Viral Dissemination Super Highway

PMID: 26949751 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4774560

EC Microbiology
The Microbiome, Antibiotics, and Health of the Pediatric Population.

PMID: 27390782 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4933318

EC Microbiology
Reactive Oxygen Species in HIV Infection

PMID: 28580453 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5450819

EC Microbiology
A Review of the CD4 T Cell Contribution to Lung Infection, Inflammation and Repair with a Focus on Wheeze and Asthma in the Pediatric Population

PMID: 26280024 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4533840

EC Neurology
Identifying Key Symptoms Differentiating Myalgic Encephalomyelitis and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome from Multiple Sclerosis

PMID: 28066845 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5214344

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Paradigm Shift is the Normal State of Pharmacology

PMID: 28936490 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5604476

EC Neurology
Examining those Meeting IOM Criteria Versus IOM Plus Fibromyalgia

PMID: 28713879 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5510658

EC Neurology
Unilateral Frontosphenoid Craniosynostosis: Case Report and a Review of the Literature

PMID: 28133641 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5267489

EC Ophthalmology
OCT-Angiography for Non-Invasive Monitoring of Neuronal and Vascular Structure in Mouse Retina: Implication for Characterization of Retinal Neurovascular Coupling

PMID: 29333536 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5766278

EC Neurology
Longer Duration of Downslope Treadmill Walking Induces Depression of H-Reflexes Measured during Standing and Walking.

PMID: 31032493 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6483108

EC Microbiology
Onchocerciasis in Mozambique: An Unknown Condition for Health Professionals.

PMID: 30957099 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6448571

EC Nutrition
Food Insecurity among Households with and without Podoconiosis in East and West Gojjam, Ethiopia.

PMID: 30101228 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6086333

EC Ophthalmology
REVIEW. +2 to +3 D. Reading Glasses to Prevent Myopia.

PMID: 31080964 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6508883

EC Gynaecology
Biomechanical Mapping of the Female Pelvic Floor: Uterine Prolapse Versus Normal Conditions.

PMID: 31093608 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6513001

EC Dental Science
Fiber-Reinforced Composites: A Breakthrough in Practical Clinical Applications with Advanced Wear Resistance for Dental Materials.

PMID: 31552397 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6758937

EC Microbiology
Neurocysticercosis in Child Bearing Women: An Overlooked Condition in Mozambique and a Potentially Missed Diagnosis in Women Presenting with Eclampsia.

PMID: 31681909 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824723

EC Microbiology
Molecular Detection of Leptospira spp. in Rodents Trapped in the Mozambique Island City, Nampula Province, Mozambique.

PMID: 31681910 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824726

EC Neurology
Endoplasmic Reticulum-Mitochondrial Cross-Talk in Neurodegenerative and Eye Diseases.

PMID: 31528859 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6746603

EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Can Chronic Consumption of Caffeine by Increasing D2/D3 Receptors Offer Benefit to Carriers of the DRD2 A1 Allele in Cocaine Abuse?

PMID: 31276119 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6604646

EC Anaesthesia
Real Time Locating Systems and sustainability of Perioperative Efficiency of Anesthesiologists.

PMID: 31406965 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6690616

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
A Pilot STEM Curriculum Designed to Teach High School Students Concepts in Biochemical Engineering and Pharmacology.

PMID: 31517314 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6741290

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Toxic Mechanisms Underlying Motor Activity Changes Induced by a Mixture of Lead, Arsenic and Manganese.

PMID: 31633124 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6800226

EC Neurology
Research Volunteers' Attitudes Toward Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and Myalgic Encephalomyelitis.

PMID: 29662969 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5898812

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy for Alzheimer's Disease.

PMID: 30215058 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133268

News and Events

January Issue Release

We always feel pleasure to share our updates with you all. Here, notifying you that we have successfully released the January issue of respective journals and the latest articles can be viewed on the current issue pages.

Submission Deadline for Upcoming Issue

ECronicon delightfully welcomes all the authors around the globe for effective collaboration with an article submission for the upcoming issue of respective journals. Submissions are accepted on/before January 17, 2022.

Certificate of Publication

ECronicon honors with a "Publication Certificate" to the corresponding author by including the names of co-authors as a token of appreciation for publishing the work with our respective journals.

Best Article of the Issue

Editors of respective journals will always be very much interested in electing one Best Article after each issue release. The authors of the selected article will be honored with a "Best Article of the Issue" certificate.

Certifying for Review

ECronicon certifies the Editors for their first review done towards the assigned article of the respective journals.

Latest Articles

The latest articles will be updated immediately on the articles in press page of the respective journals.

Immediate Assistance

The prime motto of this team is to clarify all the queries without any delay or hesitation to avoid the inconvenience. For immediate assistance on your queries please don't hesitate to drop an email to editor@ecronicon.uk