Research Article
Volume 13 Issue 9 - 2022
Prevalence of Symptomatic Dry Eye and its Risk Factors in Central Region, Saudi Arabia: A Cross-Sectional Study
Abdulrahman J Alharbi1*, Amal B Alharbi2, Ayshah S Alajmah3, Aisha A Alghamdi3 and Ahmed Al-Muhaileb4
1Optometry Department, Alrass General Hospital, Qassim Health Cluster, Ministry of Health, Saudi Arabia
2College of Medicine, Qassim University, Saudi Arabia
3Optometry Department, Eye Specialist Center, King Abdulaziz Specialist Hospital, Ministry of Health, Saudi Arabia
4Department of Surgery, Unaizah College of Medicine and Medical Sciences, Qassim University, Saudi Arabia
*Corresponding Author: Abdulrahman J Alharbi, Optometry Department, Alrass General Hospital, Qassim Health Cluster, Ministry of Health, Saudi Arabia.
Received: June 12, 2022; Published: August 18, 2022


Background: Different regions indicates different prevalence levels of the dry eye syndrome. Some risk factors are common across all the regions in the world while some are specific to certain regions. Estimating the prevalence levels and determining the risk factor helps in estimating the weight of the issue by the health care providers as well as the government policies to address the health issue.

Purpose: This study aims to evaluate the prevalence and identify possible risk factors for DES in the central region of Saudi Arabia.

Methods: Methods was conducted a prospective descriptive cross-sectional study between May and July 2018. This sample consisted of 604 Saudi including 104 control group. The participants were selected by the criteria of staying in Saudi Arabia for more than 3 years while those from the control group had lived in region for less than six months. All participants answered an electronic self-administered questionnaire which asked about the consent at the beginning, some sociodemographic details, symptoms and risk factors related to DES. To assess ocular symptoms, the Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI) score was used. Data were presented as frequency, mean, median, and standard deviation. A t-test was used to compare between different age groups. Multivariate regression was used to identify possible predictors of DES.

Results: The prevalence level was 59.1% which is statistically high. Most affected were the old and the university students. Female students were affected than male students. The risk factors are hot climatic conditions experienced with the region, old age, refractive surgery and use of contact lenses.

Conclusion: Symptomatic DES is highly prevalent among central region population. Main predictors of DES were age, hot weather, use of contact lens and refractive surgery. The recommendation is that the concern of increasing rate of use of contact lenses among students without following health guidelines should be addressed.

Keywords: Dry Eye Disease; Dry Eye Syndrome (DES); OSDI; Dry Eye; Central Region; KSA


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Citation: Abdulrahman J Alharbi., et al. “Prevalence of Symptomatic Dry Eye and its Risk Factors in Central Region, Saudi Arabia: A Cross-Sectional Study”. EC Ophthalmology 13.9 (2022): 01-07.

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