Research Article
Volume 9 Issue 2 - 2020
Characterization of Children Under 15 Years Old Passive Smokers
Carlos Coronel Carvajal*
Carlos Coronel Carvajal*
*Corresponding Author: Carlos Coronel Carvajal, Profesor and Investigador Auxiliar, Department of Pediatric, Hospital General Universitario Armando Cardoso, Guáimaro, Universidad de Ciencias Médicas de Camagüey, Camagüey, Cuba.
Received: December 11, 2019; Published: January 24, 2020




Abstract

Background: Passive smoking is defined as the inhalation of smoke from tobacco product by non-smokers who are in daily contact with smokers in closed spaces. Children, especially in early years of life, are a vulnerable population to environmental tobacco smoke.

Objective: To characterize children passive smokers under 15 years old.

Methods: An observational descriptive study was carried out in Guáimaro between June of the 2017 and May of 2018. The universe was formed by with 52 children less than 15 years old exposed to tobacco smoke.

Results: It found that the majority the children passive smokers belonged at the group of the one to four year old and male sex. A third part was exposed to the tobacco smoke during intrauterine live. Two fifth parts of the father were smokers and moreover, around half of children were exposed at 10 and 20 cigarette smoke. A third part suffered of bronchial asthma.

Conclusion: I concluded that there was predominance of the passive smokers in the preschooler children of male sex who were exposed to the tobacco smoke from intrauterine live. Children were exposed with most frequency to the tobacco smoke of the father. The total amount of cigarettes smoked per day in presence of the children oscillated between 10 and 20. The most frequent disease in the children exposed was the bronchial asthma. 

Keywords: Passive Smokers; Children; Respiratory Tract Infection

References

  1. Cortés Durán PM and López Serrano B. “Tabaquismo pasivo en el hogar: una invitación a la reflexión”. Revista Clínica Médica Familiar 7.3 (2014): 234-237. 
  2. Arancibia Solari JC. “Tabaquismo de segunda mano”. Bol Hosp Viña del 71.2 (2015): 70-75.
  3. Carter BD., et al. “Smoking and Mortality - Beyond Established Causes”. The New England Journal of Medicine 372.7 (2015): 631-640. 
  4. Farber HJ., et al. “Protecting children from tobacco, nicotine, and tobacco smoke”. Pediatrics 136 (2015): e1439-e1467. 
  5. Jarvis MJ and Feyerabend C. “Recent trends in children’s exposure to second-hand smoke in England: cotinine evidence from the Health Survey for England”. Addiction 110.9 (2015): 1484-1492. 
  6. Vitória PD., et al. “Children’s exposure to second hand smoke at home: a cross-sectional study in Portugal”. Revista Portuguesa de Pneumologia 21.4 (2015): 178-184.
  7. Homa DH., et al. “Vital Signs: disparities in nonsmokers’ exposure to secondhand smoke - United States, 1999-2012”. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 64.4 (2015): 103-108. 
  8. Bonet Gorbea M and Varona Pérez P. “III Encuesta nacional de factores de riesgo y actividades preventivas de enfermedades no trasmisibles. Cuba 2010-2011”. La Habana: Editorial Ciencias Médicas (2014).
  9. Cardentey García J. “El tabaquismo: un flagelo nocivo para la humanidad”. AMC (2016) 
  10. Labbé A and Labbé JP. “Tabaquismo pasivo en el niño”. EMC - Pediatría 49.2 (2014): 1-9.
  11. Martínez Frómeta M., et al. “Labor extensionista desde la universidad médica para prevenir el tabaquismo en niños y adolescents”. Edumecentro 8.1 (2016)
  12. Siqueira Sigaud CH., et al. “Association between secondhand smoking in the home and respiratory morbidity in preschool children”. Revista da Escola de Enfermagem da USP 50.4 (2016): 562-568.
  13. Carvalho Ribeiro FA., et al. “Perception of parents about second hand smoke on the health of their children: an ethnographic study”. Revista Paulista de Pediatria 33.4 (2015): 394-399. 
  14. Valdés Naranjo SI. “Relación entre tabaquismo pasivo y caries en niños de 5 a 12 años [Tesis]”. Chile: Universidad de Talca (2015). 
  15. Sedano Cerrón MA. “Tabaquismo pasivo asociado a asma infantil en niños cuyos padres son fumadores habituales [tesis]”. Lima - Perú: Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos (2015). 
  16. Mateos-Vílchez PM., et al. “Prevalencia de tabaquismo durante el embarazo y factores asociados en Andalucía 2007-2012”. Revista Española de Salud Pública 88.3 (2014): 369-381.
  17. Nahabedian S., et al. “Estudio multicéntrico sobre prevalencia de tabaquismo en mujeres embarazadas en 15 centros de salud de Argentina”. Revista Americana de Medicina Respiratoria 15.1 (2015): 28-35. 
  18. Ciria Martín A., et al. “Tabaquismo pasivo y recurrencia de crisis en niños asmáticos de edad escolar”. Revista Cubana de Medicina General Integral 32.2 (2016): 191-201. 
  19. Galbe Sánchez-Ventura J., et al. “Prevención del tabaquismo activo y pasivo en la infancia”. Revista Pediatría de Atención Primaria 11.17 (2009). 
  20. Kandel ER and Kandel DB. “A molecular basis for nicotine as a ga¬teway drug”. The New England Journal of Medicine 371 (2015): 932-943. 
  21. André MC., et al. “Consumo de tabaco na mulher grávida: Revisão sistemática da literature”. Revista Portuguesa de Enfermagem de Saúde Mental (2015): 113-118. 
  22. Ramos-Fernández JM., et al. “Predicción de la evolución de la bronquiolitis por virus respiratorio sincitial en lactantes menores de 6 meses”. Revista Española de Salud Pública 91 (2017): 201701006. 
  23. Muñoz-Méndez J., et al. “Importancia de la educación en la prevención del tabaquismo. Prevalencia del tabaquismo en escolares de bachillerato con alto nivel académico en la Comu¬nidad de Madrid”. Revista de Patología Respiratoria 18.4 (2015): 131-138. 
  24. Concha Pérez JD and Ríos Parra SP. “Medidas preventivas utilizadas por padres de preescolares de la Ciudad de Valdivia respecto de la exposición de humo de tabaco ambiental [tesis]”. Valdivia - Chile: Universidad Austral De Chile (2015). 
  25. Schvartsman C., et al. “Parental smoking patterns and their association with wheezing in children”. Clinics 68.7 (2013): 934-939. 
  26. MacIntyre EA., et al. “Air pollution and respiratory infections during early childhood: An analysis of 10 European birth cohorts within the ESCAPE Project”. Environmental Health Perspectives 122 (2014): 107-113. 
  27. Wang Z., et al. “Effects of secondhand smoke exposure on asthma morbidity and health care utilization in children: a systematic review and meta-analysis”. Annals of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology 115.5 (2015): 396-401. 
  28. Shargorodsky J., et al. “Allergic sensitization, rhinitis, and tobacco smoke exposure in U.S. children and adolescents”. International Forum of Allergy and Rhinology 5.6 (2015): 471-476. 
  29. Thacher JD., et al. “Parental smoking and development of allergic sensitization from birth to adolescence”. Allergy 71.2 (2016): 239-248. 
  30. Fernandes SSC., et al. “Prevalence of tobacco experimentation in adolescents with asthma and allergic rhinitis”. The Brazilian Journal of Pulmonology 42.2 (2016): 84-87. 
  31. SSC Fernandes. “Prevalence of self-reported smoking experimentation in adolescents with asthma or allergic rhinitis”. The Brazilian Journal of Pulmonology 42.2 (2016): 84-87. 
  32. Tanaka K., et al. “Association of prenatal exposure to maternal smoking and postnatal exposure to household smoking with dental caries in 3-year-old Japanese children”. Environmental Research 143 (2015): 148-153. 
  33. Sanabria JS., et al. “Tabaquismo materno como un factor posiblemente implicado en el desarrollo de la obesidad infantil. Revista Chilena de Obstetricia y Ginecoloía (2016).
Citation: Carlos Coronel Carvajal. “Characterization of Children Under 15 Years Old Passive Smokers”. EC Paediatrics 9.2 (2020): 01-09.

PubMed Indexed Article


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
LC-UV-MS and MS/MS Characterize Glutathione Reactivity with Different Isomers (2,2' and 2,4' vs. 4,4') of Methylene Diphenyl-Diisocyanate.

PMID: 31143884 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6536005


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Alzheimer's Pathogenesis, Metal-Mediated Redox Stress, and Potential Nanotheranostics.

PMID: 31565701 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6764777


EC Neurology
Differences in Rate of Cognitive Decline and Caregiver Burden between Alzheimer's Disease and Vascular Dementia: a Retrospective Study.

PMID: 27747317 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5065347


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Will Blockchain Technology Transform Healthcare and Biomedical Sciences?

PMID: 31460519 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6711478


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Is it a Prime Time for AI-powered Virtual Drug Screening?

PMID: 30215059 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133253


EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Analysis of Evidence for the Combination of Pro-dopamine Regulator (KB220PAM) and Naltrexone to Prevent Opioid Use Disorder Relapse.

PMID: 30417173 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6226033


EC Anaesthesia
Arrest Under Anesthesia - What was the Culprit? A Case Report.

PMID: 30264037 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6155992


EC Orthopaedics
Distraction Implantation. A New Technique in Total Joint Arthroplasty and Direct Skeletal Attachment.

PMID: 30198026 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6124505


EC Pulmonology and Respiratory Medicine
Prevalence and factors associated with self-reported chronic obstructive pulmonary disease among adults aged 40-79: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2012.

PMID: 30294723 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6169793


EC Dental Science
Important Dental Fiber-Reinforced Composite Molding Compound Breakthroughs

PMID: 29285526 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5743211


EC Microbiology
Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites Among HIV Infected and HIV Uninfected Patients Treated at the 1o De Maio Health Centre in Maputo, Mozambique

PMID: 29911204 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5999047


EC Microbiology
Macrophages and the Viral Dissemination Super Highway

PMID: 26949751 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4774560


EC Microbiology
The Microbiome, Antibiotics, and Health of the Pediatric Population.

PMID: 27390782 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4933318


EC Microbiology
Reactive Oxygen Species in HIV Infection

PMID: 28580453 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5450819


EC Microbiology
A Review of the CD4 T Cell Contribution to Lung Infection, Inflammation and Repair with a Focus on Wheeze and Asthma in the Pediatric Population

PMID: 26280024 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4533840


EC Neurology
Identifying Key Symptoms Differentiating Myalgic Encephalomyelitis and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome from Multiple Sclerosis

PMID: 28066845 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5214344


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Paradigm Shift is the Normal State of Pharmacology

PMID: 28936490 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5604476


EC Neurology
Examining those Meeting IOM Criteria Versus IOM Plus Fibromyalgia

PMID: 28713879 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5510658


EC Neurology
Unilateral Frontosphenoid Craniosynostosis: Case Report and a Review of the Literature

PMID: 28133641 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5267489


EC Ophthalmology
OCT-Angiography for Non-Invasive Monitoring of Neuronal and Vascular Structure in Mouse Retina: Implication for Characterization of Retinal Neurovascular Coupling

PMID: 29333536 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5766278


EC Neurology
Longer Duration of Downslope Treadmill Walking Induces Depression of H-Reflexes Measured during Standing and Walking.

PMID: 31032493 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6483108


EC Microbiology
Onchocerciasis in Mozambique: An Unknown Condition for Health Professionals.

PMID: 30957099 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6448571


EC Nutrition
Food Insecurity among Households with and without Podoconiosis in East and West Gojjam, Ethiopia.

PMID: 30101228 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6086333


EC Ophthalmology
REVIEW. +2 to +3 D. Reading Glasses to Prevent Myopia.

PMID: 31080964 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6508883


EC Gynaecology
Biomechanical Mapping of the Female Pelvic Floor: Uterine Prolapse Versus Normal Conditions.

PMID: 31093608 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6513001


EC Dental Science
Fiber-Reinforced Composites: A Breakthrough in Practical Clinical Applications with Advanced Wear Resistance for Dental Materials.

PMID: 31552397 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6758937


EC Microbiology
Neurocysticercosis in Child Bearing Women: An Overlooked Condition in Mozambique and a Potentially Missed Diagnosis in Women Presenting with Eclampsia.

PMID: 31681909 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824723


EC Microbiology
Molecular Detection of Leptospira spp. in Rodents Trapped in the Mozambique Island City, Nampula Province, Mozambique.

PMID: 31681910 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824726


EC Neurology
Endoplasmic Reticulum-Mitochondrial Cross-Talk in Neurodegenerative and Eye Diseases.

PMID: 31528859 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6746603


EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Can Chronic Consumption of Caffeine by Increasing D2/D3 Receptors Offer Benefit to Carriers of the DRD2 A1 Allele in Cocaine Abuse?

PMID: 31276119 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6604646


EC Anaesthesia
Real Time Locating Systems and sustainability of Perioperative Efficiency of Anesthesiologists.

PMID: 31406965 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6690616


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
A Pilot STEM Curriculum Designed to Teach High School Students Concepts in Biochemical Engineering and Pharmacology.

PMID: 31517314 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6741290


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Toxic Mechanisms Underlying Motor Activity Changes Induced by a Mixture of Lead, Arsenic and Manganese.

PMID: 31633124 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6800226


EC Neurology
Research Volunteers' Attitudes Toward Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and Myalgic Encephalomyelitis.

PMID: 29662969 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5898812


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy for Alzheimer's Disease.

PMID: 30215058 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133268


News and Events


December Issue Release

We always feel pleasure to share our updates with you all. Here, notifying you that we have successfully released the November issue of respective journals and the latest articles can be viewed on the current issue pages.

Submission Deadline for Upcoming Issue

ECronicon delightfully welcomes all the authors around the globe for effective collaboration with an article submission for the upcoming issue of respective journals. Submissions are accepted on/before December 23, 2022.

Certificate of Publication

ECronicon honors with a "Publication Certificate" to the corresponding author by including the names of co-authors as a token of appreciation for publishing the work with our respective journals.

Best Article of the Issue

Editors of respective journals will always be very much interested in electing one Best Article after each issue release. The authors of the selected article will be honored with a "Best Article of the Issue" certificate.

Certifying for Review

ECronicon certifies the Editors for their first review done towards the assigned article of the respective journals.

Latest Articles

The latest articles will be updated immediately on the articles in press page of the respective journals.