Review Article
Volume 10 Issue 5 - 2021
Childhood Leukemia in Yemen: The Main Types of Childhood Leukemia, its Signs and Clinical Outcomes
Abdulrahman M Alhadi1, Monya Abdullah Yahya El-Zine2, Abdulrahman A IshaK1 and Hassan A Al-Shamahy3*
1Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Sana’a University, Sana’a, Republic of Yemen
2Department of Histopathology, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Sana’a University, Republic of Yemen
3Medical Microbiology and Clinical Immunology Department, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Sana’a University, Republic of Yemen
*Corresponding Author: Hassan A Al-Shamahy, Professor, Medical Microbiology and Clinical Immunology Department, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Sana’a University, Republic of Yemen.
Received: April 22, 2021; Published: May 27, 2021


Background and Aims: Childhood leukemia is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in the pediatrics age group. Despite its high fatality rate, less attention has been paid to the problem in developing countries, including Yemen. For this reason, childhood leukemia is not well documented in the study setting. Therefore, we assessed the prevalence of different types of leukemia, clinical signs and its association with sex and ages in Yemen.

Patients and Methods: A descriptive observational study was conducted on children with leukemia who were treated selectively in the pediatric leukemia units of Al-Kuwait University Hospital in Sana'a. Group diagnoses and histopathological diagnoses were formed in line with the French, American and British classifications of childhood leukemia in pediatric leukemia units, over a period of 5 years from January 1, 2014 to December 31, 2018. The study variables were qualitative (types of leukemia, gender, clinical signs, outcomes) and quantitative (age).

Results: 244 leukemia patients were diagnosed, treated and followed up with mean ± SD age = 6.44 ± 3.7 years, most of the cases were in the age group 1 - 5 years (50%) and male were predominant (66.7%). Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) was the most common (78.6%), followed by acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) (15.6%), while chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) (4.5%) and Juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia (JML) (1.2%) were rare. All was predominant in the age group 1 - 5 years (50%), while CML was predominant in the age group 11 - 15 years (42%), while CML was roughly evenly distributed in all age groups. Symptoms in the different types of leukemia in children include symptoms that occurred in more than 50% as fever, rash, loss of appetite and recurrent infections (53.1%). In respect to the outcomes, the cure rate was 40.7%, the death rate was 6.2%, the relapse rate was 2%. The rest of the cases were in maintenance therapy (31.5%), induction therapy (15.4%) and consolidation (4.3%).

Conclusion: All is the most common type of leukemia in Sana'a city and males and young children are affected the most by leukemia. Symptoms in the different types of childhood leukemia in the current study are similar to those reported elsewhere and the cure rate was good and the death rate was low. Although childhood leukemia in Yemen is not receiving much attention from local policymakers, the prevalence of childhood leukemia is still prevalent in the study environment. Meanwhile, an increasing number of reported cases may occur with increased awareness, knowledge, diagnostic tools and affordability. Therefore, a large-scale, community-based study should be conducted to address these children who have not yet made the access gate.

Keywords: Childhood Leukemia; Clinical Outcomes; Signs; Types; Yemen


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Citation: Hassan A Al-Shamahy., et al. “Childhood Leukemia in Yemen: The Main Types of Childhood Leukemia, its Signs and Clinical Outcomes”. EC Paediatrics 10.6 (2021): 75-82.

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