Review Article
Volume 10 Issue 5 - 2021
Childhood Leukemia in Yemen: The Main Types of Childhood Leukemia, its Signs and Clinical Outcomes
Abdulrahman M Alhadi1, Monya Abdullah Yahya El-Zine2, Abdulrahman A IshaK1 and Hassan A Al-Shamahy3*
1Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Sana’a University, Sana’a, Republic of Yemen
2Department of Histopathology, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Sana’a University, Republic of Yemen
3Medical Microbiology and Clinical Immunology Department, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Sana’a University, Republic of Yemen
*Corresponding Author: Hassan A Al-Shamahy, Professor, Medical Microbiology and Clinical Immunology Department, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Sana’a University, Republic of Yemen.
Received: April 22, 2021; Published: May 27, 2021




Abstract

Background and Aims: Childhood leukemia is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in the pediatrics age group. Despite its high fatality rate, less attention has been paid to the problem in developing countries, including Yemen. For this reason, childhood leukemia is not well documented in the study setting. Therefore, we assessed the prevalence of different types of leukemia, clinical signs and its association with sex and ages in Yemen.

Patients and Methods: A descriptive observational study was conducted on children with leukemia who were treated selectively in the pediatric leukemia units of Al-Kuwait University Hospital in Sana'a. Group diagnoses and histopathological diagnoses were formed in line with the French, American and British classifications of childhood leukemia in pediatric leukemia units, over a period of 5 years from January 1, 2014 to December 31, 2018. The study variables were qualitative (types of leukemia, gender, clinical signs, outcomes) and quantitative (age).

Results: 244 leukemia patients were diagnosed, treated and followed up with mean ± SD age = 6.44 ± 3.7 years, most of the cases were in the age group 1 - 5 years (50%) and male were predominant (66.7%). Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) was the most common (78.6%), followed by acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) (15.6%), while chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) (4.5%) and Juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia (JML) (1.2%) were rare. All was predominant in the age group 1 - 5 years (50%), while CML was predominant in the age group 11 - 15 years (42%), while CML was roughly evenly distributed in all age groups. Symptoms in the different types of leukemia in children include symptoms that occurred in more than 50% as fever, rash, loss of appetite and recurrent infections (53.1%). In respect to the outcomes, the cure rate was 40.7%, the death rate was 6.2%, the relapse rate was 2%. The rest of the cases were in maintenance therapy (31.5%), induction therapy (15.4%) and consolidation (4.3%).

Conclusion: All is the most common type of leukemia in Sana'a city and males and young children are affected the most by leukemia. Symptoms in the different types of childhood leukemia in the current study are similar to those reported elsewhere and the cure rate was good and the death rate was low. Although childhood leukemia in Yemen is not receiving much attention from local policymakers, the prevalence of childhood leukemia is still prevalent in the study environment. Meanwhile, an increasing number of reported cases may occur with increased awareness, knowledge, diagnostic tools and affordability. Therefore, a large-scale, community-based study should be conducted to address these children who have not yet made the access gate.

Keywords: Childhood Leukemia; Clinical Outcomes; Signs; Types; Yemen

References

  1. Kulshrestha R and Sah SP. “Pattern of occurrence of leukemia at a teaching hospital in eastern region of Nepal-a six year study”. Journal of Nepal Medical Association 173 (2009): 35-40.
  2. Landau DA., et al. “Clonal evolution in hematological malignancies and therapeutic implications”. Leukemia1 (2014): 34-43.
  3. Atlanta: American Cancer Society. "Cancer Facts and Figures 2018" (2018).
  4. Bennett JM., et al. “Proposals for the classification of the acute leukaemias French-American-British (FAB) co-operative group”. British Journal of Haematology4 (1976): 451-458.
  5. American Cancer Society, Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML) Subtypes and Prognostic Factors, American Cancer Society Inc., Atlanta, GA, USA (2018).
  6. Bloomfield CD and Brunning RD. “The revised French-American-British classification of acute myeloid leukemia: is new better?” Annals of Internal Medicine4 (1985): 614-616.
  7. National Cancer Institute. "Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia/Other Myeloid Malignancies Treatment (PDQ)-Patient Version" (2018).
  8. Dana Farber Boston Children's Cancer and Blood Disorders Center. "Leukemia in Children". Dana Farber Boston Children's Cancer and Blood Disorders Center (2018).
  9. Atlanta: American Cancer Society "What is Childhood Leukemia?" (2016).
  10. Chang TY., et al. "Bedside to bench in juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia: insights into leukemogenesis from a rare pediatric leukemia". Blood 16 (2014): 2487-2497.
  11. Dana-Farber Boston Children's Cancer and Blood Disorders Center "Juvenile Myelomonocytic Leukemia (JMML)" (2018).
  12. Cancer patients in Yemen face the - WHO EMRO.
  13. Ba-Saddik IA. “Childhood cancer in Aden, Yemen”. Cancer Epidemiology6 (2013): 803-806.
  14. Bawazir AA. “Cancer incidence in Yemen from 1997 to 2011: a report from the Aden cancer registry”. BMC Cancer 18 (2018): 540.
  15. National Cancer Institute: "Cancer Stat Facts: Childhood Leukemia (Ages 0-19)". Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program (2018).
  16. Leukemia and Lymphoma Society. "Childhood Blood Cancer Facts and Statistics" (2015).
  17. Belson M., et al. "Risk factors for acute leukemia in children: a review". Environmental Health Perspectives1 (2007): 138-145.
  18. Puumala SE., et al. "Epidemiology of childhood acute myeloid leukemia". Pediatric Blood and Cancer5 (2013): 728-733.
  19. Hunger SP and Mullighan CG. "Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia in Children". The New England Journal of Medicine16 (2015): 1541-1552.
  20. National Cancer Institute. "Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Treatment (PDQ)-Patient Version" (2018).
  21. Hutter JJ. "Childhood leukemia". Pediatrics in Review 6 (2010): 234-241.
  22. Adalberto MF., et al. “Epidemiological patterns of leukaemia in 184 countries: a population based study”. The Lancet Haematology1 (2018): 14-24.
  23. Hodgson CS. Blood Cancer in Canada Facts and Statistics, Leukemia and Lymphoma Society of Canada, Toronto, Canada (2016).
  24. American Cancer Society. "Prognostic Factors in Childhood Leukemia (ALL or AML)" (2018).
  25. Australia Cancer Society. Leukaemia Statistics (2017).
  26. Seiter K. “Acute myeloid leukemia staging: WebMD LLC” (2018).
  27. Ireland National Cancer Registry, Cancer Trends; Leukaemia, National Cancer Registry Ireland, Dublin, Ireland (2010).
Citation: Hassan A Al-Shamahy., et al. “Childhood Leukemia in Yemen: The Main Types of Childhood Leukemia, its Signs and Clinical Outcomes”. EC Paediatrics 10.6 (2021): 75-82.

PubMed Indexed Article


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
LC-UV-MS and MS/MS Characterize Glutathione Reactivity with Different Isomers (2,2' and 2,4' vs. 4,4') of Methylene Diphenyl-Diisocyanate.

PMID: 31143884 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6536005


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Alzheimer's Pathogenesis, Metal-Mediated Redox Stress, and Potential Nanotheranostics.

PMID: 31565701 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6764777


EC Neurology
Differences in Rate of Cognitive Decline and Caregiver Burden between Alzheimer's Disease and Vascular Dementia: a Retrospective Study.

PMID: 27747317 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5065347


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Will Blockchain Technology Transform Healthcare and Biomedical Sciences?

PMID: 31460519 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6711478


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Is it a Prime Time for AI-powered Virtual Drug Screening?

PMID: 30215059 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133253


EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Analysis of Evidence for the Combination of Pro-dopamine Regulator (KB220PAM) and Naltrexone to Prevent Opioid Use Disorder Relapse.

PMID: 30417173 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6226033


EC Anaesthesia
Arrest Under Anesthesia - What was the Culprit? A Case Report.

PMID: 30264037 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6155992


EC Orthopaedics
Distraction Implantation. A New Technique in Total Joint Arthroplasty and Direct Skeletal Attachment.

PMID: 30198026 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6124505


EC Pulmonology and Respiratory Medicine
Prevalence and factors associated with self-reported chronic obstructive pulmonary disease among adults aged 40-79: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2012.

PMID: 30294723 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6169793


EC Dental Science
Important Dental Fiber-Reinforced Composite Molding Compound Breakthroughs

PMID: 29285526 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5743211


EC Microbiology
Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites Among HIV Infected and HIV Uninfected Patients Treated at the 1o De Maio Health Centre in Maputo, Mozambique

PMID: 29911204 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5999047


EC Microbiology
Macrophages and the Viral Dissemination Super Highway

PMID: 26949751 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4774560


EC Microbiology
The Microbiome, Antibiotics, and Health of the Pediatric Population.

PMID: 27390782 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4933318


EC Microbiology
Reactive Oxygen Species in HIV Infection

PMID: 28580453 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5450819


EC Microbiology
A Review of the CD4 T Cell Contribution to Lung Infection, Inflammation and Repair with a Focus on Wheeze and Asthma in the Pediatric Population

PMID: 26280024 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4533840


EC Neurology
Identifying Key Symptoms Differentiating Myalgic Encephalomyelitis and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome from Multiple Sclerosis

PMID: 28066845 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5214344


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Paradigm Shift is the Normal State of Pharmacology

PMID: 28936490 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5604476


EC Neurology
Examining those Meeting IOM Criteria Versus IOM Plus Fibromyalgia

PMID: 28713879 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5510658


EC Neurology
Unilateral Frontosphenoid Craniosynostosis: Case Report and a Review of the Literature

PMID: 28133641 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5267489


EC Ophthalmology
OCT-Angiography for Non-Invasive Monitoring of Neuronal and Vascular Structure in Mouse Retina: Implication for Characterization of Retinal Neurovascular Coupling

PMID: 29333536 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5766278


EC Neurology
Longer Duration of Downslope Treadmill Walking Induces Depression of H-Reflexes Measured during Standing and Walking.

PMID: 31032493 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6483108


EC Microbiology
Onchocerciasis in Mozambique: An Unknown Condition for Health Professionals.

PMID: 30957099 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6448571


EC Nutrition
Food Insecurity among Households with and without Podoconiosis in East and West Gojjam, Ethiopia.

PMID: 30101228 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6086333


EC Ophthalmology
REVIEW. +2 to +3 D. Reading Glasses to Prevent Myopia.

PMID: 31080964 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6508883


EC Gynaecology
Biomechanical Mapping of the Female Pelvic Floor: Uterine Prolapse Versus Normal Conditions.

PMID: 31093608 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6513001


EC Dental Science
Fiber-Reinforced Composites: A Breakthrough in Practical Clinical Applications with Advanced Wear Resistance for Dental Materials.

PMID: 31552397 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6758937


EC Microbiology
Neurocysticercosis in Child Bearing Women: An Overlooked Condition in Mozambique and a Potentially Missed Diagnosis in Women Presenting with Eclampsia.

PMID: 31681909 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824723


EC Microbiology
Molecular Detection of Leptospira spp. in Rodents Trapped in the Mozambique Island City, Nampula Province, Mozambique.

PMID: 31681910 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824726


EC Neurology
Endoplasmic Reticulum-Mitochondrial Cross-Talk in Neurodegenerative and Eye Diseases.

PMID: 31528859 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6746603


EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Can Chronic Consumption of Caffeine by Increasing D2/D3 Receptors Offer Benefit to Carriers of the DRD2 A1 Allele in Cocaine Abuse?

PMID: 31276119 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6604646


EC Anaesthesia
Real Time Locating Systems and sustainability of Perioperative Efficiency of Anesthesiologists.

PMID: 31406965 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6690616


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
A Pilot STEM Curriculum Designed to Teach High School Students Concepts in Biochemical Engineering and Pharmacology.

PMID: 31517314 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6741290


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Toxic Mechanisms Underlying Motor Activity Changes Induced by a Mixture of Lead, Arsenic and Manganese.

PMID: 31633124 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6800226


EC Neurology
Research Volunteers' Attitudes Toward Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and Myalgic Encephalomyelitis.

PMID: 29662969 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5898812


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy for Alzheimer's Disease.

PMID: 30215058 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133268


News and Events


November Issue Release

We always feel pleasure to share our updates with you all. Here, notifying you that we have successfully released the November issue of respective journals and the latest articles can be viewed on the current issue pages.

Submission Deadline for Upcoming Issue

ECronicon delightfully welcomes all the authors around the globe for effective collaboration with an article submission for the upcoming issue of respective journals. Submissions are accepted on/before December 15, 2022.

Certificate of Publication

ECronicon honors with a "Publication Certificate" to the corresponding author by including the names of co-authors as a token of appreciation for publishing the work with our respective journals.

Best Article of the Issue

Editors of respective journals will always be very much interested in electing one Best Article after each issue release. The authors of the selected article will be honored with a "Best Article of the Issue" certificate.

Certifying for Review

ECronicon certifies the Editors for their first review done towards the assigned article of the respective journals.

Latest Articles

The latest articles will be updated immediately on the articles in press page of the respective journals.