Research Article
Volume 10 Issue 10 - 2021
Enteral Nutrition: Challenges of Prematurity in Neonatal Intensive Care Units
Alejandra Itzel Contreras Rivas1*, Gaston Eduardo Estudiillo Jiménez2, Patricio Guerra Ulloa3, Ignacio Arteaga Rosas4, Yeranea Emiree Enriquez López5 and Arabella Guadalupe Sánchez Garcia6
1Pediatría- Neonatologia, Estimulacion Temprana, Medico Adscrito a la Terapia Intensiva, Neonatal ISEM, Adscrito al Centro Diagnóstico Perinatal y Genético Hospital San Angel Inn, CDMX, Mexico
2Ginecología Y Obstetricia, Medicina Materno Fetal, Fellow en Cirugía Fetal, Universidad Autónoma de Querétaro, Encargado de Programa de Salud Perinatal CDMX, Coordinador de Servicio de Medicina Materno Fetal, Hospital General Dario Fernandez ISSSTE, Adscrito al Centro Diagnóstico Perinatal y genético Hospital San Angel Inn, CDMX, Mexico
3Ginecología y Obstetricia, Director de Hospital General Doctor Darío Fernández ISSSTE, Mexico
4Médico Cirujano, Director del Centro de Salud Ampliación Miguel Hidalgo, Jurisdicción Tlalpan, CDMX, Mexico
5Médico Cirujano, Directora Jurisdicción Sanitaria Tlalpan, CDMX, Mexico
6Médico Pediatra, Responsable Estatal, Programa Salud Materna, CDMX, Mexico
*Corresponding Author: Alejandra Itzel Contreras Rivas, Pediatría- Neonatologia, Estimulacion Temprana, Medico Adscrito a la Terapia Intensiva, Neonatal ISEM, Adscrito al Centro diagnóstico Perinatal y Genético Hospital San Angel Inn, CDMX, Mexico.
Received: October 12, 2020; Published: September 09, 2021




Abstract

The nutrition of very low birth weight (VLBW) infants is aimed at promoting a similar growth to that occurring in the uterus. However, in practice this is difficult to achieve and extrauterine growth restriction is frequent. The current tendency is to avoid this restriction by means of early parenteral and enteral nutrition. Nonetheless, uncertainty about many of the practices related with nutrition has resulted in a great variation in the way it is undertaken. Recommendations based on current publications are presented for postnatal preterm nutrition, depending on birth weight: less 1000 g, between 1000 and 1500 g, and above 1500 g, as well for the development periods: adaptation, stabilisation, and growth.

Keywords: Prematurity; Breast Feeding; Newborn; Enteral Feeding; Low Weight

References

  1. Pfister K and Ramel S. “Linear growth and neurodevelopmental outcomes”. Clinical Perinatology 41 (2014): 309-321.
  2. National nutrition and health survey. “Results document. Buenos Aires: Ministry of health of the Nation” (2007).
  3. Lawrence RM. “Infections and breastfeeding”. Pronap. Module 1. Chapter 1. (2011).
  4. Sullivan S., et al. “An exclusively human milk-based diet is associated with a lower rate of necrotizing enterocolitis than a diet of human milk and bovine milk-based products”. Journal of Pediatrics 156 (2010): 562-567.
  5. Tudehope DI. “Human milk and the nutritional needs of preterm infants”. Journal of Pediatrics 162 (2013): s17-25.
  6. “Clinical practice guide, enteral feeding in preterm child less than or equal to 32 weeks of gestation”. Mexico.
  7. Meier PP., et al. “Supporting breastfeeding in the neonatal intensive care unit”. Pediatric Clinics of North America 60 (2013): 209-226.
  8. Olivia Ballard., et al. “Human Milk Composition: Nutrients and Bioactive Factors”. Pediatric Clinics of North America 1 (2013): 49-74.
  9. Colaizy T. “Donor human milk for preterm infants what it is, what it can do, and what still needs to be learned”. Clinical Perinatology 41 (2014): 437-450.
  10. Adamkin D and Radmacher P. “Fortification of human milk in very low birth weight infants (vlbw < 1500 g birth weight)”. Clinical Perinatology 41 (2014): 405-421.
  11. G Torres and L Argés. “Human milk and nutrition in the small premature”. Nutrition Hospital (2004): 236-242.
  12. Jatinder Bhatia. “Human milk and the premature newborn”. Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism 62 (2014): 8-14.
  13. Ziegler EE. “Meeting the nutritional needs of the low-birthweight infant”. Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism 58 (2011): 8-18.
  14. Beken S., et al. “The influence of fish-oil lipid emulsions on retinopathy of prematurity in very low birth weight infants: a randomized controlled trial”. Early Human Development 90 (2014): 27-31.
  15. Arslanoglu S., et al. “Adjustable fortification of human milk fed to preterm infants: does it make a difference?”. Journal of Perinatology 26 (2006): 614-621.
  16. Rochow N., et al. “Challenges in breast milk fortification for preterm infants”. Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care 18 (2015): 276-284.
  17. Leaf A., et al. “On behalf of the abnormal doppler enteral prescription trial collaborative group. Early or delayed enteral feeding for preterm growth restricted infants: a randomized trial”. Pediatrics 129 (2012): e1260-1268.
  18. Kempley S., et al. “Feeding infants below 29 weeks’ gestation with abnormal antenatal doppler: analysis from a randomised trial”. Archives of Disease in Childhood: Fetal and Neonatal 99 (2014): f6-11.
  19. Cormack BE., et al. “Audit of feeding practices in babies < 1200 g or 30 weeks gestation during the first month of life”. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health 42 (2006): 458-463.
  20. Li Y., et al. “Gastric residual evaluation in preterm neonates: a useful monitoring technique or a hindrance?” Pediatric and Neonatal 55 (2014): 335e340.
  21. , et al. “The value of routine evaluation of gastric residuals in very low birth weight infants”. Journal of Perinatology 35 (2015): 57-60.
  22. Maas C., et al. “Avoiding postnatal undernutrition of vlbw infants during neonatal intensive care: evidence and personal view in the absence of evidence”. Archives of Disease in Childhood: Fetal and Neonatal 100 (2015): f76-81.
  23. Miller M., et al. “From parenteral to enteral nutrition: a nutrition-based approach for evaluating postnatal growth failure in preterm infants”. The Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition 38 (2014): 489.
  24. Viswanathan s., et al. “A standarized slow enteral feeding protocol and the incidence of necrotizing enterocolitis in extremely low birth weight infants”. The Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition 39 (2014): pii: 0148607114552848.
  25. Salas A., et al. “A randomized trial of re-feeding gastric residuals in preterm infants”. Archives of Disease in Childhood: Fetal and Neonatal 100 (2015): f224-228.
  26. Parker La., et al. “Scientifically based strategies for enteral feeding in premature infants”. Neoreview 14 (2013): e350-359.
  27. Fanaro S. “Feeding intolerance en the preterm infant”. Early Human Development 89 (2013): s13-20.
  28. Premji S and Chessell L. “Continuous nasogastric milk feeding versus intermittent bolus milk feeding for premature infants less than 1500 grams”. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 11 (2011): cd001819.
  29. Fenton Tr., et al. “Validating the weight gain of preterm infants between the reference growth curve of the fetus and the term infant”. BMC Pediatrics 13 (2013): 92.
  30. Ellis Kj., et al. “Body-composition assessment in infancy: air-displacement plethysmography compared with a reference 4-compartment model”. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 85 (2007): 90-95.
  31. Olsen I., et al. “Bmi curves for preterm infants”. Pediatrics 135 (2015): e572-583.
  32. José Manuel Moreno Villares and Carolina Gutiérrez Junquera. “Parenteral nutrition”. Diagnostic-therapeutic protocols of pediatric gastroenterology, hepatology and nutrition seghnp-aep.
  33. Puntis jwl. “Parenteral nutrition in infants”. En: preedy v, grimble g, watson r (eds.). Nutrition in the infant. Problems and practical procedures. London: greenwich medical media (2001): 79-91.
  34. Fenton T. “Clinical actual age percentile and z score calculator” (2015).
  35. Clark RH., et al. “Assessment of neonatal growth in prematurely born infants”. Clinical Perinatology 41 (2014): 295-307.
  36. Tyson Je and Kennedy Ka. “Trophic feedings for parenterally fed infants”. Cochrane Neonatal 3 (2005).
  37. Patole S. “Strategies for prevention of feed intolerance in preterm neonates : a systematic review”. Journal of Maternal-Fetal and Neonatal Medicine1 (2005): 67-76.
  38. Aynsley-green A., et al. “Feeding and the development of enteroinsular hormone secretion in the preterm infant: effects of continuous gastric infusions of human”. Acta Paediatrica Scandinavica 3 (1982): 379-383.
  39. Martin CR., et al. “Nutritional practices and growth velocity in the first month of life”. Pediatrics 124 (2009): 649-657.
  40. Funkquist El., et al. “Preterm appropriate for gestational age infants: size at birth explains subsequent growth”. Acta Paediatrics 99 (2010): 1828-1833.
  41. Dinerstein Na., et al. “Early and aggressive nutritional strategy in the very low birth weight premature infants: preventing extrauterine growth restriction”. Handbook of growth and growth monitoring in health and disease (2011).
  42. Tudehope D., et al. “Nutritional needs of the micropreterm infant”. Journal of Pediatrics 162 (2013): s72-80.
  43. Aynsley-green A. “New insights into the nutritional management of newborn infants derived from studies of metabolic and endocrine interrelations during the adaptation of postnatal life”. The Proceed of the Nutrition Society 48 (1989): 283-292.
  44. Krishnan V and Satish M. “Continuous (c) vs. Intermittent (i) nasogastric (n/g) feeding in very low birth weight (vlbw) infants”. Pediatric Research 15 (1981): 537.
  45. Premji S and Chessell L. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews Reprint 2 (2007): cd001819.
  46. Third clinical consensus iberoamerican society of neonatolgy: nutrition of the Newborn sick.
  47. Stocks J. “Effect of nasogastric tubes on nasal resistance during infancy”. Archives of Disease in Childhood 55 (1980): 17-21.
  48. Greenspan JS., et al. “Neonatal gastric intubation: differential respiratory effects between nasogastric and orogastric tubes”. Pediatric pulmonology 8 (1990): 254-258.
  49. Ellett ML., et al. “Prevalence of feeding tube placement errors and associated risk factors in children”. The American Journal of Maternal Child Nursing 23 (1998): 234-239.
  50. Symington a., et al. Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic, and Neonatal Nursing 4 (1995): 321-326.
  51. Frank W., et al. “Nursing care in parenteral and enteral nutrition of the newborn, national medical science information center”. Revista Cubana de Enfermería 4 (2006).
  52. Chan GM. “GROWTH and bone mineral status of discharged very low birth weight infants fed different fórmulas or human milk”. Journal of Pediatrics 123 (1993): 439-443.
  53. Premji SS and Chessell L. “Continuous nasogastric milk feeding versus intermittent bolus milk feeding for premature infants less than 1,500 grams”. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 11 (2011): cd001819.
  54. Watson J and Mcguire W. “Nasal versus oral route for placing feeding tubes in preterm or low birth weight infants”. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews k2 (2013): cd003952.
  55. Lapillonne A. “Feeding the preterm infant after discharge”. En b koletzko, b poindexter, r uauy (editors): nutritional care of preterm infants. Scientific basis and practical guidelines. Basel: karger, Páginas (2014): 264-77.
  56. Jadcherla sr., et al. “Impact of prematurity and co-morbidities on feeding milestones in neonates: a retrospective study”. Journal of Perinatology 30 (2010): 201-218.
  57. Leaf A lansdowne. “Vitamins - conventional uses and new insights”. En: en b koletzko, b poindexter, r uauy (editores): nutritional care of preterm infants. Scientific basis and practical guidelines.
  58. WHO/PAHO. “Guiding principles for complementary feeding of the breastfed child”. Washington. Pan American health organization (2003).
  59. Domellof M. “Nutritional care of premature infants: microminerals”. En b koletzko, b poindexter, r uauy (editores): nutritional care of preterm infants. Scientific basis and practical guidelines. Basel: karger (2014): 121-39.
  60. Benitez A. “Some questions about post-high feeding in premature infants”. Hospital Materno Infantil Ramón Sardá 2 (2010): 58-60.
Citation: Alejandra Itzel Contreras Rivas., et al. “Enteral Nutrition: Challenges of Prematurity in Neonatal Intensive Care Units”. EC Paediatrics 10.10 (2021): 13-26.

PubMed Indexed Article


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
LC-UV-MS and MS/MS Characterize Glutathione Reactivity with Different Isomers (2,2' and 2,4' vs. 4,4') of Methylene Diphenyl-Diisocyanate.

PMID: 31143884 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6536005


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Alzheimer's Pathogenesis, Metal-Mediated Redox Stress, and Potential Nanotheranostics.

PMID: 31565701 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6764777


EC Neurology
Differences in Rate of Cognitive Decline and Caregiver Burden between Alzheimer's Disease and Vascular Dementia: a Retrospective Study.

PMID: 27747317 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5065347


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Will Blockchain Technology Transform Healthcare and Biomedical Sciences?

PMID: 31460519 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6711478


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Is it a Prime Time for AI-powered Virtual Drug Screening?

PMID: 30215059 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133253


EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Analysis of Evidence for the Combination of Pro-dopamine Regulator (KB220PAM) and Naltrexone to Prevent Opioid Use Disorder Relapse.

PMID: 30417173 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6226033


EC Anaesthesia
Arrest Under Anesthesia - What was the Culprit? A Case Report.

PMID: 30264037 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6155992


EC Orthopaedics
Distraction Implantation. A New Technique in Total Joint Arthroplasty and Direct Skeletal Attachment.

PMID: 30198026 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6124505


EC Pulmonology and Respiratory Medicine
Prevalence and factors associated with self-reported chronic obstructive pulmonary disease among adults aged 40-79: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2012.

PMID: 30294723 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6169793


EC Dental Science
Important Dental Fiber-Reinforced Composite Molding Compound Breakthroughs

PMID: 29285526 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5743211


EC Microbiology
Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites Among HIV Infected and HIV Uninfected Patients Treated at the 1o De Maio Health Centre in Maputo, Mozambique

PMID: 29911204 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5999047


EC Microbiology
Macrophages and the Viral Dissemination Super Highway

PMID: 26949751 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4774560


EC Microbiology
The Microbiome, Antibiotics, and Health of the Pediatric Population.

PMID: 27390782 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4933318


EC Microbiology
Reactive Oxygen Species in HIV Infection

PMID: 28580453 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5450819


EC Microbiology
A Review of the CD4 T Cell Contribution to Lung Infection, Inflammation and Repair with a Focus on Wheeze and Asthma in the Pediatric Population

PMID: 26280024 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4533840


EC Neurology
Identifying Key Symptoms Differentiating Myalgic Encephalomyelitis and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome from Multiple Sclerosis

PMID: 28066845 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5214344


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Paradigm Shift is the Normal State of Pharmacology

PMID: 28936490 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5604476


EC Neurology
Examining those Meeting IOM Criteria Versus IOM Plus Fibromyalgia

PMID: 28713879 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5510658


EC Neurology
Unilateral Frontosphenoid Craniosynostosis: Case Report and a Review of the Literature

PMID: 28133641 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5267489


EC Ophthalmology
OCT-Angiography for Non-Invasive Monitoring of Neuronal and Vascular Structure in Mouse Retina: Implication for Characterization of Retinal Neurovascular Coupling

PMID: 29333536 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5766278


EC Neurology
Longer Duration of Downslope Treadmill Walking Induces Depression of H-Reflexes Measured during Standing and Walking.

PMID: 31032493 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6483108


EC Microbiology
Onchocerciasis in Mozambique: An Unknown Condition for Health Professionals.

PMID: 30957099 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6448571


EC Nutrition
Food Insecurity among Households with and without Podoconiosis in East and West Gojjam, Ethiopia.

PMID: 30101228 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6086333


EC Ophthalmology
REVIEW. +2 to +3 D. Reading Glasses to Prevent Myopia.

PMID: 31080964 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6508883


EC Gynaecology
Biomechanical Mapping of the Female Pelvic Floor: Uterine Prolapse Versus Normal Conditions.

PMID: 31093608 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6513001


EC Dental Science
Fiber-Reinforced Composites: A Breakthrough in Practical Clinical Applications with Advanced Wear Resistance for Dental Materials.

PMID: 31552397 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6758937


EC Microbiology
Neurocysticercosis in Child Bearing Women: An Overlooked Condition in Mozambique and a Potentially Missed Diagnosis in Women Presenting with Eclampsia.

PMID: 31681909 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824723


EC Microbiology
Molecular Detection of Leptospira spp. in Rodents Trapped in the Mozambique Island City, Nampula Province, Mozambique.

PMID: 31681910 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824726


EC Neurology
Endoplasmic Reticulum-Mitochondrial Cross-Talk in Neurodegenerative and Eye Diseases.

PMID: 31528859 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6746603


EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Can Chronic Consumption of Caffeine by Increasing D2/D3 Receptors Offer Benefit to Carriers of the DRD2 A1 Allele in Cocaine Abuse?

PMID: 31276119 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6604646


EC Anaesthesia
Real Time Locating Systems and sustainability of Perioperative Efficiency of Anesthesiologists.

PMID: 31406965 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6690616


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
A Pilot STEM Curriculum Designed to Teach High School Students Concepts in Biochemical Engineering and Pharmacology.

PMID: 31517314 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6741290


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Toxic Mechanisms Underlying Motor Activity Changes Induced by a Mixture of Lead, Arsenic and Manganese.

PMID: 31633124 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6800226


EC Neurology
Research Volunteers' Attitudes Toward Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and Myalgic Encephalomyelitis.

PMID: 29662969 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5898812


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy for Alzheimer's Disease.

PMID: 30215058 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133268


News and Events


September Issue Release

We always feel pleasure to share our updates with you all. Here, notifying you that we have successfully released the September issue of respective journals and the latest articles can be viewed on the current issue pages.

Submission Deadline for upcoming Issue

Ecronicon delightfully welcomes all the authors around the globe for effective collaboration with an article submission for the upcoming issue of respective journals. Submissions are accepted on/before September 28, 2021.

Certificate of Publication

Ecronicon honors with a "Publication Certificate" to the corresponding author by including the names of co-authors as a token of appreciation for publishing the work with our respective journals.

Best Article of the Issue

Editors of respective journals will always be very much interested in electing one Best Article after each issue release. The authors of the selected article will be honored with a "Best Article of the Issue" certificate.

Certifying for Review

Ecronicon certifies the Editors for their first review done towards the assigned article of the respective journals.

Latest Articles

The latest articles will be updated immediately on the articles in press page of the respective journals.

Immediate Assistance

The prime motto of this team is to clarify all the queries without any delay or hesitation to avoid the inconvenience. For immediate assistance on your queries please don't hesitate to drop an email to editor@ecronicon.uk